AP European History 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Huguenots
French Calvinists
bourgeoisie
middle class
proletariat 
lowest working class
Reconquista
- centuries-long Christian "reconquest" of Spain from the Muslims
- ended in 1492 with conquest of last Muslim stronghold (Granada)
Concordant of 1801
religious freedom
Whigs
supported Geroge I, religious tolerance, commercial interests, but said that Parliament should have the final say
Mazzini
Romantic Italian nationalist involved in the Roman Republic of 1849
Transformism
theory that societies evolve gradually
Michael Romanov came to power
17th
Romanticism
revolt against classicism. emotions, feelings, nature, imagination. "sturm and drang". nature=beauty. industry=brutal.
Magyars
Land owning aristocracy in Hungary.
Fronde
A series of rebellions against monarchial rule in France, lasting from 1649-1652.
1815
Abdication of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna
1527
Sack of Rome by Charles V
Bartholomew Diaz
(1487-1488) Portuguese, first European to reach the southern tip of Africa.
Sergei Witte
(1849-1915) Finance minister under whom Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization, founder of the Transiberian Railroad.
liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes. (713)
Chartism
first important political movement of working men organized during the nineteenth century; aim for political dem.
Francis Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria whose assassination in Sarajevo intensified Austro-Serbian conflict and set in motion the events that started World War I
grossdeutsch
meaning great German. the argument that the German-speaking poertions of the Habsburg Empire should be included in a united Germany
Bobbies
British police force whose primary goal was the prevention of crime. Named after Sir Robert Peel, who introduced the legislation that created the force.
James II
Brought about new constitutional conflict after accession after Charles II. Devout Catholic who furthered Catholic interest to the dismay of subjects. Name Catholics to high positions leaving behind Test Act, issued new Declaration of Indulgence. Birth of son, which meant definitely going to be Catholic heir, brought about Glorious Revolution to prevent him from coming to throne.
Carbonari
A secret society; designated to overthrow Bonapartist rulers; they were liberal patriots.
This Finance Minister who was repeatedly dismissed by King Louis XVI.
Necker
"Natural History"
Written by Buffon, discussed scientific matters.
Excommunication
Refusal of the Catholic Church to administer the sacraments to a person.
Immanuel Kant
The German philosopher who postulated that experience dictates human knowledge. He also said morality rests on the "categorical imperative."
George Stephenson
George Stephenson was an English mechanical engineer who designed the famous and historically important steam locomotive named Rocket and is known as the "Father of Railways."
Leipzig Debate
Martin Luther vs. John Eck (representative for the Catholic Church). Debated papal authority.
These attacks were used on Russian Jews to redirect ange that might have been directed toward the throne
pogromsT
Agricultural Revolution
The innovations in farm production that began in eighteenth-century Holland and spread to England. These advances replaced the open-field agriculture system with a more scientific and mechanized system of agriculture.
transubstantiation
Roman Catholic doctrine that bread and wine = body and blood of Christ
Habsburgs
powerful royal family in Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain fought in a lot of wars, catholic, and owned huge territory
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
July Decrees
These decrees limited the voting rights of the wealthy and censored the press
Leon Batista Alberti
Florentine architect; humanist; wrote On the Family in which he remarks how many names have died out and been forgotten
Martin Luther
1483-1546. Germon Monk who says justification by faith, or faith alone saves.
J.M. Keynes
condemned traditional view of letting depressions work themselves out, instead arguing that unemployment stemmed from a decline in demand which could be increased by public works financed by deficit spending
cahiers de dolèances
meaning "lists of grievances." Petitions for reforms submitted to the French crown when the Estates General met in 1789
Leopold II
Belgian king who ruthlessly exploited the natives on his African land for personal gain.
Dechristianization
Movement started by the Herbertists - throught traditional religion was counterrevolutionary so devised program to substitute with new cult. Included a new Revolutionary Calendar. Introduced "Cult of Reason"(1793) and climaxed with ceremony in Notre Dame with "Reason" being impersonated by an actress. Robespierre frowned on Cult of Reason and preferred Cult of Supreme Being.
Jacquerie
Popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years' War. The revolt centered in the Oise valley north of Paris. This rebellion became known because the nobles derided peasants as "Jaques Bonhomme"
J. G. Fichte
(1762-1814)A German writer to advocated that Germans were the primer race
Absolutism

Absolutism
When sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler.
wanted to become Lutheran to get social freedom because Luther taught that Christians were freest of all men
peasants
I was nicknamed the "Iron Lady" and was the first woman to become the British Prime Minister who committed herself to ending completely the government's control over major industries and to slashing government expenses.
Margaret Thatcher
Predestination
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Sea Dogs
Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and Sir Walter Raleigh were among this group of adventurous English sea captains who challenged Portuguese and Spanish sea trade supremacy and robbed foreign vessels of their valuables.
Trench Warfare
From 1914-1918, both the Allied and Central Powers quickly became entrenched, especially in the West. Due to massive artillery strikes and attrition, both sides relied on warfare in the trenches. The trench network stretched from Belgium to southern France.
Louis XIV
Convinced his people he ruled by divine right and even possessed magical qualities. As a result he gained huge sums of money to entertain him and his court.
Schmalkaldik League
A group of Lutheran nations. Defeated by Catholics.
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Miguel de Cervantes
Generally regarded as the greatest Spanish author of all-time, he wrote "Don Quixote." This man's work focused on the strengths and weaknesses of religious idealism.
Bohemian phase
first phase of the Thirty Years' War
Gorbachev
believed in communism but knew it was failing. perestoika, gilasnost. restructuring the economy and open communication. Democratization - free elections. but Yeltsin is elected.
National Socialists
(NAZIS) The political party of Adolf Hitler.
Rousseau
Wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, The Social Contract, & Emile. He identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted when man claimed that they owned land. Said the government must rule at the general will of the people so that the most people are benefited. Hated Parlaiment because the delegates made laws not the people.
Guelph
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope
Congress of Troppau
Metternich was horrified because of the revolution rising once again. Calling this in Austria under the provisions of the Quadruple Alliance Metternich and Alexander I proclaimed the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever they were threatened.
Oliver Cromwell
Led the Roundheads in the English Civil War. They defeated the King's army in 1645.
Pope John Paul II
reasserted some traditional Catholic doctrines but also traveled, strengthening the Catholic Church throughout the non-Western world; strong believer in social justice
Hapsburg-Valois War
A dynastic struggle between France and Germany that advanced the cause of Protestantism and political fragmentation of the German Empire
open door
the policy of granting equal trade opportunities to all countries
Open-Field method
When Rich landowners allowed the poor to work on their land if they gave them some of the profit, the method of producing a steady food supply that does not grow.
Frederick William I
King of Prussia (1713-1740) who strengthened the army and diversified the economy of his dominion.
Corn Laws
(1815-1846) A British law that imposed high tariffs on imported grain
evolution
the idea, applied by thinkers in many fields, that stresses gradual change and continuous adjustment.
He dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. He set to work reforming the church, determined the structure the Scottish church after the model of Calvin’s Geneva.
John Knox
In Lenin's, "April Thesis," this Bolshevik slogan summed up the promise to take Russia out of World War I, to organize the seizure of peasant land, and to control industrial production by the workers.
"Peace, land, and bread"
J.G. Herder (1774-1803)
Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist.
Marshall Plan
An US economic aid program for the reconstruction of Europe, sent money to Western Europe and Germany to aid reconstruction
Gulags
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin in eastern Russia. Dissidents were sent to the camps, where conditions were generally brutal. Millions died.
The Sun King
Louis called himself ____ after the Greek God Apollo, to increase his prestige.
Peace of Augsburg
Ends the Schmalkaldic War. "Whose the region, his the religion." It was revolutionary but weak becuase it only addressed Lutheranism and not Calvinism.
Acknowledged the King of England as the head of the Church of England
Act of Supremacy
Holy Alliance
A league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna
What territory was in part for the Franco-Prussian war, WWI, and WWII?
Alsace Lorraine
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany.
Russian (March) Revolution/ Provisional Government
The revolution of the unplanned overthrowing of the Tsarist government, and the government that followed the revolution.
enabling act
enabled hitler to get rid of the reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament and gave him power for four years
Gustavus Adolphus
military genius who made Sweden into a great Baltic power, as a Lutheran, felt compelled to bring his army into the Thirty Years' War, defeated Wallenstein using new techniques like salvos complemented by coordination, training, and discipline for his troops
politique
ruler or person in a position of power who puts the success and well-being of his or her state above all else
Saint-Simon
This man was one of the early and influential socialist thinkers who proclaimed the tremendous possibilities of industrial development
council of constance
summoned to end great schism. mark high point of conciliar mvmnt to reform church.
John Bunyan
-lived most of his life in jail-Wrote Pilgrim's Progress*book on Puritan piety
The popular lay movements that most directly assailed the late medieval Church were the?:
Lollards and Hussites.
The United States and the Soviet Union signed this treaty in July 1991 which called for a reduction in the number of long-range nuclear warheads and bombs held by each country by about one-third over a period of seven years.
Start I
jacobite
a partisan or adherent of James II of England after his overthrow (1688), or of the Stuarts.
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
"A treaty signed between Charles V, and the Schmalkaldic. It officially put a stop to the Schmalkaldic wars. It allowed the princes to choose to be either Lutheran or Catholic."
War of the Roses
A conflict between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. The Tudors emerged as victors and rulers of England.
Pico Della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angles. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Louis VI
Known as the Spider King. He was king following Charles VII, he kept the taille and expanded the territory of France.
De Rerum Novarum
document issued by pope leo XIII in 1891 condemning socialism and the exploitation of workers and calling for cooperation between classes
Abbe Sieyes
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo, fought 19 km (12 mi) from Brussels on June 18, 1815, marked the end of the NAPOLEONIC WARS (1803-15).
Peter Abelard
wrote Sic et Non (yes and no)
had an affair with student and had manhood chopped off.
said sometimes faith and reason go together but not always and we should always challenge everything especially the church. all the church says is not the gospel
 
Spinoza differed with all other philosophers of his day about the?:
divinity of the material universe.(Spinoza argued that God and Nature were two names for the same reality, namely the single substance (meaning "to stand beneath" rather than "matter") that underlies the universe and of which all lesser "entities" are actually modes or modifications, that all things are determined by Nature to exist and cause effects, and that the complex chain of cause and effect are only understood in part.)
What happened after Ferdinand I left?
The government he left behind abolished the robot, calming the lower class but not the middle class.
Law of the maximum
The fixing of prices on bread and other essentials under Robespierre's rule.
Commonwealth of Independent States
formed after the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union by the independent republics of the USSR, voluntary association with private governments and economies
Prince Henry the Navigator (of Portugal)
The royal financer of Portugal's voyages, and the cause of its success in the spice trade.
Hitler's primary motivation for the invasion of the Soviet Union was?:
to destroy Bolshevism and acquire lebensraum for German colonization.
"Two Tactics for Social Democracy"
The 1905 essay in which Lenin argued that the agrarian and industrial revolutions could be telescoped. It was unnecessary for Russia to become an industrialized nation before the Marxist revolution.
Which of the following northern Christian humanist writers and their works are paired INCORRECTLY?:
1 - Sir Thomas More - Utopia.
2 - Miguel de Cervantes - Don Quixote.
3 - Francois Rabaleis - The Handbook of the Courtier.
4 - Desiderius Erasmus - In Prai
This is paired incorrectly =
3 - Francois Rabaleis - The Handbook of the Courtier.
Why was Poland a challenge to the Conservative order?
They revolted and encouraged the liberation of slaves in Italy and Germany.
the economy benefitted from Henry VIII's confiscation of monasteries and dissolve of Catholicism because
he had the church's land and the nobles' money
During the 100 Year War, English kings were supported by some French barons because
The wanted to stop the French Monarchy’s centralizing efforts
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