AP European History 14 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Huguenots
French Calvinists
First Estate
Clergy.
Beethoven
"5th symphony" romanticism
1914
Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated - Spark of WWI.
Denis Diderot
Wrote the encyclopedia
Kipling
poet who charecterized the responsibilities of the advanced west as "the white man's burden"
MEtternich
conservative austrian leader, who belived the proper state rested on a judicious blend of monarchy, beauracracy, aristocracy, and repectful commoners.
Maria Merian
Entomologist; illustrated reproductive and developmental cycles of insects in Suriname
Bolsheviks
The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
Protectionism
High tarrifs. tied to nationalism
Charles Fourier
French social theorist-criticized capitalism-wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements.
Friedrich Nietzsche
German philosopher who rejected traditional rational philosophy. he claimed God was dead and that there were "supermen" who would come to govern and run societies over ordinary men. he died in 1889.
1975
Helsinki Accords - height of détente
Wilhelm II
This kaiser dismissed Chancellor Bismarck in 1890 and supported Austria in WWI.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society. Executed for not compromising his religious beliefs.
Michael Bakunin
(1814-1876) Radical Russian, advocated revolutionary violence. Believed that revolutionary movements should be lead by secret societies who would seize power, destroy the state and create a new social order.
duma
the Russian parliament created afther the revolution of 1905
Joseph II
Abolished serfdom; passed some religious toleration
Cosimo d'Medici
influential Florentine banker who controlled the city of Florence behing the scenes while it was the center of the cultural Renaissance; gained power through patronage & in the process stimulated artistic & literary growth
Convention
French radical legislative body from 1792 to 1794
Austerlitz
a decisive battle during the Napoleonic campaigns (1805)
El Greco
Mannerism. Elongated and contorted figures, portrayed in unusual shades of yellow and green against an eerie background of turbulent grays, reflect the artist's desire to create a world of intense emotion. Laocoon
Sovereignty

Absolutism
Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice.
Classical liberalism
Middle class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosphes, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its political goals were self government(concept of general will); a written constitution; natural rights (speech, religion, press, property, mobility); limited suffrage; its economic goals were laissez-faire(free trade-no government interference in the workings of the economy
Laissez-faire capitalism
Minimal governmental interference in the economic affairs. Adam Smith and Francois Quesnay.
Baldassare Castiglione
Italian diplomat who lived from 1478-1529. Published the most famous Renaissance book, "The Book of the Courtier". This became the archetype for the "Renaissance man," who was versed in liberal arts and social graces, as contrasted to the more unrefined Middle Ages knight.
Thomas Hobbes
English philosopher and author of Leviathan, in which he explained that a state of chaos and war existed prior to a social contract forming a government, which should be led by a sovereign invested with absolute power in exchange for protection of group safety and social order.
Girondins
A political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French-Revolution. They were a group of individuals holding certain opinions and principles in common rather than an organized political party.
Girondists
A group of Jacobins within the Legislative Assembly that was determined to oppose a counterrevolution. Additionally, they wanted war on Austria to preserve the revolution.
Ferdinand & Isabella sought religious uniformity through the _.
Spanish Inquisition
General Will
- Concept in political philosophy referring to desire or interest of a people as a WHOLE
- Ex: Rousseau
- identical to rule of law (no person is above the law)
Garibaldi's Campaign
Garibaldi captured most of southern Italy and hoped to set up a republic. However he ceded his gains to Cavour in order to create a united Italy - although not in the way he wanted it. Rome and Venetia were still not part of Italy.
Anabaptists
believed people should choose to be baptised (when they are adults)
Intendants
Created by Napoleon- kept watch over their own area of France- allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems.
Max Planck
German physicist who proved that subatomic energy was emitted from particles, he called them "quanta"
Karl Marx
helped write Communist Manifesto; part of revolutions that failed; was ideas for Marxism
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches. Started in the HRE and it changed Christianity forever.
war communism
Russia: government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
civic humanism
education designed to promote humanist leadership of political and cultural life
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Borodino
Napoleon defeated the Russians in a pitched battle at Borodino in 1812, but irreparably weakened his army
Containment
Attempt to contain communism in areas already occupied  by the Red Army as indicated in the Truman Doctrine
Humanism
THe rediscovery of classical ideas in art in literature that highlight humans
Zimmerman Telegram
German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.
by Archbishop Albert to sell indulgences, he mounted an advertising blitz. He told people they could buy indulgences for deceased loved ones, and drew up a specific chart for the costs of forgiveness for particular sins.
John Tetzel
This astronomer theorized that the moon and sun orbited the Earth and the remaining planets orbited the sun.
Tycho Brahe
Deductive Reasoning
Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Elizabeth I
Tudor Queen of England. Succeeded Mary I in 1558 and ruled until 1603. In addition to leading the defeat of the Spanish Armada and developing England into a world power, she strengthened Protestantism. Daughter of Henry VIII.
Middle Passage
Second Leg of the three-part trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas in which African slaves traveled across the Atlantic. The slaves were sold for products produced on the large farms, or plantations. This passage was cruel and fatal for many.
General Maximum
Created on September 9, 1793, extended the Law of Suspects to most other areas of the revolutionary French economy.
Leonardo Bruni
This Florentine first gave the name "humanitas" or "humanity," to the learning that resulted from the scholarly pursuits of the Renaissance. A pupil of Manuel Chrysoloras.
Battle of Marston Moor
A major Scottish/Parliamentary victory against the Royalists in 1644.
Principia Mathematica
Perhaps the greatest work of Issac Newton's. Thanks to the work of Galileo, Newton was able to hypothesize many important theories.
society itself
what Utopia placed the blame for society's flaws on
Compromise of 1867
The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph's attempt, in 1866, to deal with the demands for greater autonomy from the ethnic minorItles within the Hapsburg Empire. The compromise set up a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, where Franz Joseph served as the ruler of both Austria and Hungary, each of which had its own parliament.
Encirclement
Before both world wars, the policy of other European countries that, Germany claimed, prevented German expansion, denying it the right to aqcuire "living room" (Lebensraum).
Simone de Beauvoir
French feminist and existentialist and novelist (1908-1986)
October Manifesto
This granted full civil rights to people and opened up the Duma
Alexander I
The conservative tsar of Russia, he work tirelessly to preserve autocracy.
Colonies
These were to be placed under the "tutelage" of one of the great powers of the League of Nations under supervision of the league. These territories were encouraged to advance toward independence.
Austro-Prussian War
after ensuring that the Austrians were isolated diplomatically, Bismarck goaded them into attacking Prussia; using modern weaponry and railroads, Prussia routed Austria, who no longer was allowed to play a role in German affairs; created the North German Confederation headed by Prussia
Absolutism
The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally.
Extraterritorial rights
An exemption of foreign residents from the laws of a country.
Suez Canal
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
"Glorious Revolution"
The Glorious Revolution is the name given to the overthrow in 1688 of the Roman Catholic JAMES II of England and the accession to the throne of his daughter MARY II and her Dutch Protestant husband, WILLIAM III. Invited to invade England by seven English noblemen, William hoped to bring England into the imminent War of the GRAND ALLIANCE against France. He feared that James would ally himself with the French king LOUIS XIV or that James's favoritism toward his Catholic subjects would so provoke the Protestant majority as to cause another civil war, thus making England impotent in Europe.
Burschenschaften
(1815) a Student group that pushed for the unification of a democratic Germany
Mercantilist Theory said
Government should intervene to secure the largest share of limited resources.
said you could choose to accept or reject faith
Ananbaptists
In his book, Essays on Crimes and Punishment, he formulated new laws of justice based on deterrence.
Beccaria
Corn Laws
Regulation of corn trade in the Great Britain, kept traders rich, rich became richer, poor went hungry, caused riots, revised in 1815
Hundred Years' War
War between England and France which lasted from 1337-1453. King Edward III (England) claimed the French throne despite France's appointment of Philip VI of Flanders as King. France officially won the war and expelled the English from all French lands except Calais.
Simon Bolivar
Born in July 24, 1783 in Caracas, Venezuela; died December 17, 1830, in Santa Marta, Colombia. A leader of several independence movements throughout South America.
Tennis Court Oath
National Assembly got locked out of their meeting spot. (most historically relevant janitorial blunder EVER!) The Nat'l Assembly meets in a tennis court , where they take an oath to not break up until they have a constitution.
German states 1848
Czechs & Hungarians, led by Kossuth, wanted a constitution for more autonomy. Frankfurt Parliament: Kleindeutsch (no Austria)
Levée en Masse
The French policy of conscripting all males into the army. This created a new type of military force based upon mass participation and a fully mobilized economy.
Service Nobility
created by Ivan III, tsar of Russia. They were only loyal to the tsar because they could only have land if they worked for the tsar. They are significant because it symbolized Russian absolutism.
New Economic Policy
(NEP) Plan introduced by Lenin after the Russian civil war. Essentially it was a tactical retreat from war communism, allowing some private ownership among the peasants to stimulat agrarian production.
Russo-Japanese War
A war between Russia and Japan for Port Arthur, and for more influence in CHina
Labour Party
Formed in 1900 by trade unions and Fabian socialists
1906-managed to elect 29 members to HOC
European Union
formed from the EC by the Maastricht Treaty to integrate the economies of Western European countries, created a common currency, successful in economy but not as successful in politics/foreign policy
Count of Artois
the leader of the French Ultra Royalists. Became King Charles X in 1824
India Office
The british office in India that ran the trade
Battle of Verdun
1916 German assualt on the French fortress - turned into battle of attrition France won
Cardinal Richelieu

Absolutism
Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French crown.
Rotten boroughs
AP EURO EXAM Mmorize this list (more information - contact author) Flashcard 85 of 239 (Answer)
depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament
Proto-Industrialization refers to?:
the employment of laborers who worked at home but in a capitalist system dependent on urban merchants.
Charter of the Nobility
With this, Catherine the Great legally defined noble rights and privleges in exchange for the assurance that the nobility would serve the state voluntarily.
The Fronde (1648-1653)
A series of revolts against Louis XIV which posed an unprecedented threat to the French crown.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the Estates of the Empire, called by Holy Roman Emporer Charles V
Revival of antiquity
The awakening from the dark ages and the focusing on the Roman's.
Spanish Civil War
civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government
Congress of Laibach
congress in which decision was made on whether to allow Austria to intervene in Italy. Shortly after Austrian troops marched into naples and restored the king of the two sicilies to a nonconstitutional government
Women in the Renaissance
were often well read and educated, though this was discouraged by most men
Book of the Courtier
Under the veneer of magnificent works of art and the refined court life described in BALDASSAIC CASTIGLIONE's Book of the Courtier, the Renaissance had a darker side Many intellectuals felt a profound pessimism about the evils and corruptions of society as seen in the often savage humanist critiques of Giovanni Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459) and Desiderius Erasmus.
Battle of the Marne
A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.
He was one of Ferdinand II's generals who drove the Protestant forces to Hungry in 1625.
Albrecht von Wallenstein
What caused the Revolution in France?
Distaste with the king, Louis Phillipe, who was serving the interests of the upper classes all the while ignoring the demands of the middle and lower classes.
The Handbook of the Christian Knight
Written by Erasmus, thought that Christianity should be practiced everyday, not only in church. He wanted to spread his knowledge of Christ and believed in an enlightened education.
Bohemian Phase of the 30 Years War
Defenestration of Prague
HRE Ferdinand vs. Frederick Protestant
Charles I of England did not try to obtain revenues by
grants from parliment
This English philosopher was a forceful proponent in the fight for government intervention in social reform.
John Stuart Mill

(John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), was a British philosopher, political economist and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. He was an advocate of utilitarianism, the ethical theory that was systemized by his godfather, Jeremy Bentham, but adapted to German romanticism.)
Reasons for and against German unity
Upper class and Conservatives did not want unification because they would have less power, but the rest of the people wanted it because of nationalism and German identity
Many German peasants were attracted to Luther's ideas chiefly because they?:
believed he supported their freedom from serfdom.
During Early Modern Europe, this class emerged
The gentry, a wealthy class, but socially below the aristocracy
Abbe Sieyes's answer to the question "What is the Third Estate?" was
the most useful component of French society.
During the era of the French Revolution, the Thermidorean Reaction?:
terminated the Reign of Terror and led to the execution of Robespierre.
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