AP European History 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Quattrocento
The 1400's.
Feminism
1790s - 1980s
Lord Bryon
romanticism poet
Francis BAcon
modern scientific method
Friedrich List
promoted German Power.Zollverien.
1740
War of Austrian Succession begins
Nicholas Copernicus
proposed the heliocentric theory
Zemstov
local assemblies by Alexander II
Provided moderate degree of self gov.
Elected from noble landowners, townspple, peasants
Property based system of voting gave advantage to upper class
Given limited power to provide public services
Levy taxes to pay for public services.
Not very powerful.
predestination
(theology) being determined in advance
Euratom
European Atomic Energy Community established by the treaty of Rome to regulate and research nuclear energy merged with the EEC.
Destalinization
Social process of neutralizing the influence of joseph stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor - History books rewritten
Intendants
Officials of the French absolute rulers who were dispensed as regional representatives into French provinces to consolidate the Crown's control.
Ultra Royalist
Extreme Conservatism, the Ultra Royalists believed in the traditional Absolute Monarch principal of "One king, one law, and one faith." A good example was Charles X.
Rousseau
Romantic writers especially drew from this Enlightenment philosophe who disagreed with many principles of the Enlightenment. He believed society and material prosperity had corrupted human nature.
parlements
local regional governing bodies to which Louis XIV gave considerable power
Jacobins
Dominant group in the National Convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondist. It was headed by Robespierre.
more
wrote Utopia describing an imaginary society that fearture religious toleration, a humanist education for both men and women, and communal owership or property
Johannes Kepler
Confirmed Copernicus's view; said orbits were elliptical; demonstrated speed of planets change in relation to their distance from the sun
Golden Bull
document standardizing elections in the Holy Roman Empire, issued by Emperor Charles IV - 7 nobles served as electors with legal power to choose the emperor
Eastern Europe was in bad condition
17th
skepticism
doubt about the truth of something
Albert Camus
(1913-1960)French Philosopher who said that people can make sense of their own existence by making rational personal decisions
Joseph Stalin
Communist statesman; leader of Bolshevik Party; became ruler of USSR after Lenin; assumed full military and political leadership.
He was the "Father of Utilitarianism" which emphasized "the greatest good for the greatest number."
Bentham
oliver cromwell
English general, Puritan statesman, and Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1653–58.
Huguenots
Converts or adherents to Calvinism in France, including many from the French nobility wishing to challenge the authority of the Catholic monarch. Also known as French Protestants.
Three Estates
Before the 1789 Revolution, "Old Regime: France was divided into three estates: First Estate: Roman Catholic clergy (approximately 1% population) Second Estate: nobility (approximately 2% population) Third Estate: all the rest, including bourgeoisie, city workers, rural peasants, and artisans (97% population)
Juan Luis Vives
Famous Spanish scholar and humanist.
1985
Gorbachev comes to power in Soviet Union
Hernan Cortez
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico
Politiques
- rulers who put political necessities above personal beliefs
- Ex: Henry IV of France & Elizabeth I of England
--both subordinated theological controversies in order to achieve political unity
David Hume
a Scottish philosopher from Edinburgh who had a great influence on the Scottish Enlightenment. He asked many questions about religion making him a religious skeptic. However, he never published his ideas. He is significant because his rationalistic inquiry ended up undermining the Enlightenment's faith in the power of reason.
Fronde
The last aristocratic revolt against a French monarch.
Italian Renaissance Art
Artistic movement involving the imitation of nature, light, geometry, individuality, and perspective.
Otto von Bismarck
German Political mastermind who spearheaded Prussian expansion
Dadaism
artist who were revolted by the senseless slaughter of WWI and used their anti-art to express their contempt
Triple Entente
The alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia. became the Allies during World War I.
Mussolini
prime minister and dictator of Italy, established a repressive fascist regime that valued nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda; his regime = first fascist state
Intolerable Acts
measures passed by the British Parliament in 1774 to punish the colony of Massachusetts and strengthen Britain's authority in the colonies. The laws provoked colonial opposition, which led immediately to the American Revolution
Cathrine de' Medici
Daughter of the Medici Family
Henry Bessemer
British engineer who invented a process to produce steel
Congress of Berlin
Assembly of reprecentatives of Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy and the Ottoman Empire
Malacca
A commercial entrepot, where good were shipped for temporary storing during non-sailing seasons. Located on the south China Sea
Munich Conference
1938; Chamberlain, France and other countries (not the USSR); they agreed that Sudentenland should be ceded to Germany; Chamberlain secured peace with Germany.
Bundesrat
The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature)
academic pursuits of the clergy were criticized in the 16th century, true or false?
false
Robert Owen
Scottish spoke out about hiring children. Created mills in New Harmony.
Charles V
Hapsburg ruler of Spain from 1516-56. Elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519. He defended the Hapsburg lands from the Ottomans and decided to split the Hapsburg Spanish and Holy Roman lands between his son, Philip II, and his brother, Ferdinand I.
George Stephenson
In 1815 he successfully invented a locomotive engine, which revolutionized rail transportation.
Marco Polo
1324, A Venetian trader and explorer, one of the first westerners to travel the Silk Road in China, visited the Great Khan of Mongol, and met Kublai Khan.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Germany. Dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck's treaty with Russia and "forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.
Cabinet system
leading ministers who were members of House of Commons and had support of majority of members, made common policy and conducted the business of the country, system of managing government where the leading ministers, who must have seats in and the support of a majority of the house of commons, formulate common policy and conduct the business of the nation.
Treaty of Pressburg
Following the Battle at Austerlitz, this won major concessiosn from Austria. Austria withdrew from Italy and left Napoleon in control of everything north of Rome. He was recognized as king of Italy.
Sphere of Influence
in international politics, the claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote "The Prince" which was a political handbook which stated a government should do everything it can to maintain power, and that it is better to be feared than loved
Black Hand
Serbian secret society alleged to be responsible for assassinating Archduke Francis Ferdinand. (Princeps)
absolutism
a system of goverment in which the ruler claims sole and uncontestable power
Second International
A group of socialist national parties that met and discussed Marx, and planned action
U-boats
The backbone of the German navy. These caused more than a few headaches for Alllies and even brought the United States into the war.
Ems Telegram
a telegram sent to Bismarck from William describing the French demands that Prussia issue a formal apology over Leopold's candidacy for the Spanish throne, Bismarck revised the telegram to make it seem like William had insulted the French, who took the bait and started the Franco-Prussian War
Table of Ranks
an official hierarchy established by Peter the Great in imperial Russia that equated a person's social position and privileges with his rank in the state bureaucracy or army
Indian National Conference
India's first political party which was mostly hIndus (1900)
Democratic Revolution
change in political power by the voting of the people
Baldassare Castiglione
An Italian diplomat; In 1528 he published what was probably the most famous book of the Renaissance-"The Book of the Courtier"
Christopher Columbus
(1446-1506) First European to sail to the west indies
Thomas Hobbes

Absolutism
Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos. Claimed life was, "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
Robert Owen (1771-1858
Utopian socialist who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities the most notable was New Harmony (1826) which failed
A bloodless revolution led by writers, actors, and students in Czechoslovakia which swept away communism.
Velvet Revolution
New Monarchs
Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries. The people loved the idea of being the monarch and removed all competition. They were very Machiavellian. Included Henry VII and Henry VIII of England
Berlin Airlift
After World War II, Berlin was divided into eastern and western sectors, with the USSR controlling the east and Britain, France, and the United States controlling the west. From 1948-1949, the Soviets used a blockade against West Berlin. However, Western nations used airplanes to supply West Berlin, and the USSR eventually ceased the blockade.
Ivan the Terrible
Ruthlessly fought to make Muscovy the centre of the Russian Orthodox Church.
1713 - 1715
Peace of Utrecht; death of Louis XIV
Part of the Counter Reformation that tried to keep people in the church was this famous concil
Council of Trent
Stenka Razin
was a Cossack, peasants who had fled and created democratic communities, and leader of a rebellion on the Volga River in 1670-1671 in order to proclaim freedom from oppression. This rebellion was defeated. He is significant because he brings a little hope to the peasants.
Reichstag
The lower house of the German Diet, or legislature.
Boers / Afrikaners
These were Dutch settlers in south Africa
The Hundred Years' War
1337-1453. Lasted 116 years. The French and the English were tied together by links of Feudalism and the war was about severing these ties.
Edict of Worms
made Martin Luther an outlaw in Charles V's Holy Roman Empire
Kurt von Schuschnigg
Austrian Chancellor who refused to be intimidated by Hitler and decided to announce a plebiscite on March 13th in which Austrian people themselves could decide whether to unite with Germany
Eiffel Tower
a wrought iron tower 300 meters high that was constructed in Paris in 1889; symbolize of the newly redesigned Paris and of French industrial strength
Martin Luther
(1517)

Hints:
~ From the German State
~ Wrote 95 Theses; New Testament(German); On Christian Liberty
~ Of the Reformation Era
~ Preacher who founded the entire Protestant Reformation. He first questioned the selling of indulgences; later challenged relics, infallibility of the pope, hierarchy of believers, pluralism, transubstantiation, 5 of the sacraments and more.
~ Was excommunicated at the Diet of Worms. Translated New Testament to German so many more could read.
~ Followers founded Lutheran Church based on his reforms and beliefs that the Bible is the only authority and that salvation comes only from faith (not works).
~ Allowed clergy to marry.
Ludwig Erhard
Minister of the economy, bet on the free economy while maintaining the extensive social welfare network inherited from the Hitler era.
To England he was known as the "Defender of the Faith", soon after he found the Anglican Church.
Henry VIII
Treaty of Versailles
One of the treaties of Paris (1919) that ended World War I. It incensed Germans because of its harsh terms for reparations, territory, and control.
National Assembly (1789)
Declared June 17, 1789 by the Third Estate. Some clergy and nobility joined them June 19th.
Duke of Sully
The finance minister of Henry IV. The two established government monopolies, which provided for a mercantilist system.
Kerensky/Lenin thoughts on Russian government after revolt
Kerensky led moderste socialists in reforming the Russian government while Lenin believed in complete destruction and rebuilding of government.
Fashoda Crisis of 1898
This event occurred when both Britain and France wanted the town of Fashoda; in the end, the British gained control of the town, because the French gave up
Napoleon III
after he was elected one he tried to convince the National Assembly to let him run again but had to use the Army to take over; later tried to control Mexico
Croix de feu
French for "Cross of Fire", it was composed of army veterans, they were a French fascist group with 600,000 members. It was banned in 1936
Joseph II
Joseph II, b. Mar. 13, 1741, d. Feb. 20, 1790, became emperor and coregent of the Habsburg monarchy with his mother, MARIA THERESA, after the death of his father, FRANCIS I, in 1765. When his mother died in 1780, he inherited the crowns of Bohemia and Hungary. Ruling by himself from then on, Joseph pursued a policy of centralization and reform designed to enhance the power of his state and the welfare of his subjects
A People’s Charter
Draft of reform Bill which called for universal suffrage payment of members of Parliament and annual elections-6 main points.
Trotsky and Stalin's interpretations of Marxism differed most significantly in which of the following ways?:
Trotsky wanted to foster world revolution while Stalin wanted "to build Socialism in one country.
Nine Years' War
A war between France and the League of Augsburg.
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
Leon Battista Alberti
"Men can do all things if they will." idea of the universal man.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Written by the National Convention -declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.
Under Clement Atlee's administration, the government?:

A) undertook a major housing program.
B) strongly supported British trade unions.
C) assumed ownership of certain major industries.
D) instituted a major program of welfare legislation.
E) all o
E) all of these choices are correct.
Mussolini's Rise - role of Black Shirts
These were Mussolini's bullies who pushed socialist out of Northern Italy
Elizabeth I's major goal in foreign policy was to?:
avoid open warfare whenever possible and keep England strong and at peace.
Why did Philip launch the Spanish Armada
To conquer England, which, under Queen Elizabaeth's rule, was aiding dutch rebels. They lost & the northern provinces got independence
Which of the following statements about the reunification of Germany is TRUE?:

A) West Germany suffered a dramatic economic depression.
B) East Germans staunchly opposed political and social reforms.
C) economic problems were minimal.
D) The Soviet U
E) East Germans suffered a loss of welfare benefits.
Why was the Atlantic Charter of 1941 critical to colonial peoples?:
it promoted the concept that all people had the right to choose the form of government under which they live.
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