AP European History 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cardinal Richelieu
Seven Years War
noble landowners of Prussia
Berlin to Baghdad railway
Nineteenth-century school of thought which began in France and held that the scientific method could solve social ills.Leading thinkers were Count Saint-Simon and Auguste Comte.
Count Metternich
The reactionary Austrian representative at the Congress of Vienna. He hoped to restore monarchies across Europe.
is a radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single-party state with a government led by a dictator who seeks national unity and development by requiring individuals to subordinate self-interest to the collective interest of the nation or race.
the advocacy among nineteenth-century German socialists of achieving a humane socialist society through the evolution of democratic institutions not revolution
George Stephenson
built "the Rocket" train
Elizabeth I
Protestant ruler-England- helped stablize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations.
Diplomatic Revolution
Major reversal of diplomatic alliances. Great Britain reversed its alliance with Austria and forged a relationship with Prussia, causing France to join with Austria and Russia to check Prussian power.
The "father of humanism." He celebrated ancient Rome in his "Letters to the Ancient Dead." Also wrote a Latin epic poem named "Africa" and a set of biographies of famous Roman men called "Lives of Illustrious Men."
Renaissance art had these attributes
-Linear Perspective
-Not all religious
-Subjects have more emotion
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
renaissance painter, famous works are "La Primavera" and "The Birth of Venus" (firs full frontal female nude since ancient ties, roman goddess, idea of the perfect woman), work is completely secular
Leo X
Pope, exemplified renaissance ideas, humanist ideas, and was educated.
giant of Realism movement in literature, articulated the key themes. Depicted life as it was, everyday life, rejected romantic search for exotic and sublime. wrote about typical and commonplace, focused on middle class and then working class. Zola a determinist, human actjion were casued by unalterable natural laws, heredity and environment determined human behavior.
David Hume
Scottish philosopher whose skeptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
a mechanism that can move automatically
Abstract Expressionism
twentieth century painting style infusing nonrepresentational art with strong personal feelings
literary movement which stressed that literature should depict life exactly as it was.
The favorite classical author of Renaissance scholars was?:
Schuman Plan
called for special international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steal production.
"French Classicism"
Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis 14th
Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer commissioned by Queen Isabella of Spain to find a shorter route to Asia by sailing westward. In 1492, Columbus sailed on the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria going west across the Atlantic. He landed on what he called the Indies but were actually islands in the Caribbean.
Tadeusz Kosciuszko
Polish and Lithuanian national hero, general and a leader of 1794 uprising (which bears his name) against the Russian Empire. He fought in the American Revolutionary War as a colonel in the Continental Army on the side of Washington.
Zimmerman Telegram
German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico city telling him to promis the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.
The ___________ Plan was put into place to support Germany during WWI.
Biographia Literaria
Written by Coleridge, this presents his theories of poetry.
The belief in material things instead of religious things.
idea that people can only understand specifics, not big ideas
Leon Trotsky
(1879-1940) Lenins ally who organized and led the Bolshevik military takeover of the provisional government headed by Kerensky, in November 1917.
Charles Fourier
Created phalanxes where people could work different jobs and not be repressed
German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.
Liberia and Ethiopia
Only free areas of Africa
Ethioppia-defeated the Italians in 1896
Liberia-founded by emancipated free American slaves
rejects the modern Western belief in an objective truth and focuses on the relative nature of reality and knowledge
old master of the Venetian school (1490-1576)
Hubertine Auclert
French suffragette who wrote "Arab Women in Algeria". she pushed for total equality between men and women, even after French women's wages were raised.
Carlsbad Decrees
Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas. (censorship) Also established permanent comittee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.
A member of Protestantism movement in Western Christianity whose adherents reject the notion that divine authority is channeled through one particular human institution or person such as the Roman Catholic pope. Protestants look elsewhere for the authority of their faith. Most of them stress the BIBLE--the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament--as the source and the norm of their teaching. Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians also stress the authority of the Bible, but they also look to tradition, and, in the case of Catholics, to the pope as a source of authority.
Thomas Hobbes
(1588-1679) A political theorist who believed that without a strong centralized government people would fall into chaos
Adam Smith
Wrote The Wealth of Nations*About supply-and-demand
"Natural History"
- Written by Buffon, discussed scientific matters.
He believed that the sun revolved around the earth.
Italian period of history from 1815 to1850.
The Restoration
When Parliament invited, in 1660, the Stuart son of Charles I, Charles II, to return to England to rule, thereby ending the Cromwellian republic.
Henry IV
First Bourbon king of France, ruled 1589-1610, and converted to Catholicism for Calvinism to bring peace after the French Civil War. He passed the Edict of Nantes and was also assassinated of 1610.
The Jesuits
This was the most important religious order of Catholic Europe in the 16th century. They helped establish an excellent system of secondary education through their colleges.
The old nobility of Russia. Peter the Great hoped to bring them under tighter control.
Henry VI
The Lancastrian monarchy of this man was consistently challenged by the duke of York.
Schlieffen Plan
the German strategy in WWI that planned to attack on the eastern front (Russia) and the western front (France). The plan was supposed to succeed due to the enemies delay in mobilization; however French counterattacks and Russia's speedy mobilization caused it to fail.
Jules Mazarin
became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government
was the third element of reform in Gorbachev's campaign, it led to first free elections in the soviet union in 1917, ignited greater demands for greater autonomy and even for national independence by non-russian minorities esp in Baltic region and in the Caucasus.
Liberal Party
Formerly the Whig Party, headed by Gladstone in the nineteenth century.
Act of Supremacy
Completed the break with Rome, established English monarch as the head of the Church of England. Important to remember that not all English people were happy with the Protestant reformation.
Robert Castlereagh
This British foreign minister was a supporter of Metternich
Charles Talleyrand
This was the French supporter of Metternich's balance of power idea
New Economic policy
Lenins policy to re-establish limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry
Monoroe Doctrine
an 1823 attempt by American President James Monroe to guarantee the independence of the new Latin American nations and a warning against further European intervention in the New World, less successful than the British naval power in protecting Latin America from European influence.
Michel de Montaigne
Developed the essay form. Skepticism, doubt that rue knowledge could be obtained.
Emperor Hirohito
emperor of Japan during WWII. his people viewed him as a god
Domestic system
Early industrial labor system in which workers produced goods at home
Spinning Jenny
An early form of spinning machine having several spindles.
Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty
secret treaty. Germany will give Russia money, money, engineers. if Russia invades A-H then Germany will side with A-H and crush Russia. if A-H invades Russia then Germany will stay neutral

Eastern Absolutism
Established by Peter the Great, they received land and control of the peasants.
Peter the Great's "Europeanization" of Russia consisted primarily of?:
importing Western technocrats and technology to his country.
jean baptiste colbert
French statesman and finance minister under Louis XIV.
Became King of France in 1814; the conservative Congress of Vienna restored him and ruled as a constitutional monarch until his death in 1824.
Helvetic Republic
A state lasting for five years, from 1798 to-1803.During-the French Revolutionary Wars, the revolutionary .armies boiled eastward, enveloping Switzerland in their battles against Austria.
Mary I
This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
Johann Gottfried Herder
A German romantic writer. He resented the French cultural preponderance in Germany and published an essay entitled "On the Knowing and Feelings of the Human Soul."
title for the heir to the throne of France
Dayton Peace Agreement
Orchestrated in November 1995 by the US Government, Bosnia was to remain a single state that included a Bosnian-Croatian federation and a Serb Republic.
Napoleonic Wars
a series of wars fought between France (led by Napoleon Bonaparte) and alliances involving England and Prussia and Russia and Austria at different times.
Alexander I
This czar of Russia wanted to restore the kingdom of Poland, which he wanted to bestow the benefits of his rule
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Hitler and Stalin agreed to split Poland to have a buffer zone between them
Napoleon III
nephew of Emperor Napoleon I who won the elections in 1848, becoming French president, used his influence with the people to become emperor of second French empire, lead a period of economic growth: rebuilt Paris, expanded French territory & extended French power, but had some losses through his foolish involvement in Mexican affairs
Babylonian Captivity
The nickname for the transport of the church to Avignon in reference to the deportation of the Jews in the Old Testament
Transatlantic slave trade
The brutal system of trading African Slaves from Africa to the Americas. It changed the economy, politics, and environment. It affected Africa, Europe, and America. It implies that slaves were used for cash crops and created a whole new economy.
Henry VII
first Tudor king of England from 1485 to 1509.head of the house of Lancaster in the War of the Roses; defeated Richard III at Bosworth Field and was proclaimed king; married the daughter of Edward IV and so united the houses of York and Lancaster
Dominant countries in 20th century
Germany until 1940s then USSR
bishops casually enforced regulations regarding education of priests, leading to (3 things)
A.standards for ordination shockingly low
B.Many barely literate priests
C.Priests throughout Europe not as educated as educated laity
Poland was the first country to become a dictatorship, after World War I, with this man as its leader.
Joseph Pilsudski
Martin Luther
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion
North German Confederation
Made up of Hanover, Hesse, Nassau, and the city of Frankfurt, this group was annexed by Prussia. All Germany north of the Maine river formed a federation under Prussian leadership called this. Each state retained its own local government, but all military forces were under federal control.
Abbe Sieyes
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people. The royal council responded by doubling the size of the Third Estate's representative body in the Estates General.
Divine Right of Kings
- idea that rulers receive their authority from God & are answerable ONLY to God
Slobodan Milosevic
I was the leader of the Serb Communist Party who turned the Communist Party and state apparatus into instruments serving Serb nationalist interest, preparing to establish a "Greater Serbia" if Yugoslavia broke up.
Peace of Augsburg
This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made Charles V recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following
Gold Coast
region on the hump of West Africa with a lot of gold, discovered by the Portuguese in 1471
Polish-Saxon question
Between Sept of 1814 and 1815, the C of V met and dealt with this question, amongst many others. This was, however, a major issue. Alexander wanted reconstitution of the Polish Kingdom with himself as king but this meant Austria and Prussia would have to surrender their parts(from 3 partitions of Poland in late 1700s). Prussia was willing if it got Saxony in return. Metternich opposed because didn't want Prussia in Saxony - long border with Austria and feared increased Russian influence in eastern Europe. Metternich supported by Castlereagh who had similar concerns. Wanted more secure BoP. Talleyrand shrewdly arbitrated. Suggested in Jan of 1815 that there be a pact between GB, Fr. and Aust that they would go to war against Russia and Prussia if necessary. News of this was "leaked" and that was sufficient to force Alexander to compromise. He then agreed upon a Kingdom of Poland reduced in size. Prussia would only get part of Saxony and rest remained with Saxon king(who had been the last to abandon Napoleon).
King John II of Portugal
Under this king, the Portugese established trading posts on the Guinea coast and went all the way to Timbuktu. By 1500, Portugal controlled the flow of African gold to Europe.
In this book, _______ ____ described a perfect society in which people lived in harmony. He wrote it because of the unjust punishments for crimes and the religious persecutions of the time. He therefore realized his dream of a better society in this book.
Thomas More; Utopia
Invention of Paper in China
Paper was invented by the Chinese (Some believe as early as the 2nd c. B.C.E.) and brought to Europe by Arab traders.
Catherine of Aragon
First wife and queen of Henry VIII who could not produce a male heir
Treaty of Rome
pact, created in 1957, that set up the european economic community (also known as the common market).
Dutch Revolt 1566-1609
revolt of the 17 provinces of the low countries (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) against the Spanish (Habsburg) empire. North mainly Germanic and Dutch speaking culture, while South tied to France. Because at commercial crossroads had many religious influences. No real political bond holding together except for Philip II. He tried strengthen contol but forgot about traditional privileges of separate provinces, gained strong opposition. Opposition only grew when residents of Neths found out taxes used for Spanish interest. Religion helped w/ rebellion since Philip try crush Calvinism. 1566 violence erupt destroy catholic churhes. Philip send duke Alva crush rebellion but failed. Council of Troubles established only made things worse. William of Orange help organize revolt in North w "sea beggar" Orange wanted all provinces under him, respect religious differences, demand spanish troops withdraw. Differences too strong, duke of Parma next Spanish leader used religious difference split front in two. Union of Arra, southern catholic union, accept spanish control. Union of Utrecht, northern protestant union under William, oppose spanish rule. Divide along religious, political, and geographical lines two hostile camps. 1609 12 yr truce ends war, recognize independence northern provinces became DUTCH republic.
In De humani corporis fabrica, Andrea Vesalius?:
created a modern anatomy text.
the dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII
the Reformation in England was primarily the result of
The result of the Peace of Augsburg
Charles accepted the religious status quo in Germany. 1555
Which of the following northern Christian humanist writers and their works are paired INCORRECTLY?:
1 - Sir Thomas More - Utopia.
2 - Miguel de Cervantes - Don Quixote.
3 - Francois Rabaleis - The Handbook of the Courtier.
4 - Desiderius Erasmus - In Prai
This is paired incorrectly =
3 - Francois Rabaleis - The Handbook of the Courtier.
William of Orange (William of Nassau, William the Silent):
Leader of the Dutch Revolt against Philip's Spain. Went from Catholic, to Lutheran, before becoming a Calvinist. United both Catholics and Protestants against Catholic Philip.
What were causes of the Frenc Rev?
causes of the French rev - American REvolution, class conflict, unfair taxing, loss of money, enlightenment (new ideas)
French Calvinists
Discovery, Expansion, Reconissance
Soren Kieregaard
Christian existentialist
antispetic principle (*think listerine*)
1870s.. Monet, Manet, Degas
Rise of Prussia
1650 - 1763
Mein Kampf
Hitler's autobiography, which presented his plan for Nazi Germany. It also mentioned the inferiority of non-fascist ideologies and people especially the Jews and the Communist Russians.
organized massacres against jews
In eastern Europe
A vote of the people.
louis xiv
king of France 1643–1715 (son of Louis XIII).
Self-proclaimed Russian holy man who became confidante to Czarina Alexandria, wife of Nicholas II. He reputedly was able to help the heir, Alexis, who suffered from hemophilia. His unsavory reputation and drunken behavior led to rumors that his relationship with the Czarina was inappropriate. Murdered 1916.
Constantly focused on class struggle and revolution.
Baruch Spinoza
Perhaps the most controversial thinking of the 17the century as he was generally accused of being an athiest. He wrote "Ethics."
disbanded Parliament and ruled England as Lord Protector
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
philosophical and artistic movement in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Europe that represented a reaction against the Neoclassical emphasis upon reason. stressed emotion and the contemplation of nature
American general in Allied Powers; landed 5 assault divisions in Normandy; later became president
Adam Smith
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"
British socialists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who sought to achieve socialism through gradual, peaceful, and democratic means
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
The angst that Germany needed lebensraum or living space because it was surrounded on most fronts
Mir -
Peasant village assembly responsible to the government
The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions
a person or thing that levels.
Immanuel Kant
The German philosopher who postulated that experience dictates human knowledge. He also said morality rests on the "categorical imperative".
Ho Chi Minh
Leader of Vietnamese national opposition to French, Japanese, and American forces. He was the Communist leader of North Vietnam until his death in 1969.
Treaty of Versailles ends World War I
Most horrific example of colonial exploitation
Belgian Congo
- belief that nation consists of people who share similar traditions, history, and language
- argued that every nation should be sovereign and include all members of a community
- a person's greatest loyalty should be to nation-state
Ivan III
named__________ the Great, was the prince of Russia in 1462-1505 until he claimed himself tsar after he stopped paying tribute to the khan. He increased the size of Russia all the way to the Baltic Sea and claimed Moscow the 3rd Rome. He creates the service nobility that is loyal only to the tsar. He is significant because he develops Russia as a major power and he is the father of absolutism in Russia.
(1588) Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England.
Continental System
(1806-1812) French economic plan to cripple Britian. Russia's refusal to conform led to the Russian campaign.
Factory System
system for efficient production of goods with assembly line and other technologies
Triple Alliance
Italy felt left-out without any allies, so they joined the Dual Alliance to form this.
Louis Sullivan
United States architect of the functionalism movement known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function'
the everyday language spoken by the people as opposed to Latin
15 sovereign courts in the french judicial system that checked the king's ability to tax and legislate arbitrarily
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
British and French policy in the 1930's that tried to maintain peace in Europe by making concessions
A small, light, three-masted ship. It was slower than the galley, but held much more cargo. When fitted with cannons, it could dominate larger vessels.
European Economic Community
caused by the Marshall Plan.
the practice of lending money for interest
This conservative thinker believed in ordered change and criticized misgovernment and corruption through his literary works.
Edmund Burke
Combination Acts
1799 and 1800-made trade unionism illegal.
Balfour Declaration
Declaration issued in 1917 by the British Foreign Secretary, Sir A. Balfour, saying the British government would support a Jewish homeland.
Battle on June 18, 1815. The allied powers under the direction of the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon, who then abdicated to the Bourbon monarch and was again exiled, this time to St. Helena, where he died in 1821.
Old Believers
A group who fought against the state-run church and protested the integration of Russian worship with Byzantine tradition.
Wilson's Fourteen Points
President Wilson's Peace proposal in 1918 stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."
Marshall Plan
US Secretary of State George C. Marshall urged Americans to offer economic aid-- this was the Marshall Plan. Refused by Stalin
Archduchess Marie Louise
Napoleon married this woman, the daughter of the Austrian emperor, when his wife, Josephine, did not give birth to any children.
Heart of Darkness
Joseph Conrad, 1902. The story reflects the physical and psychological shock Conrad himself experienced in 1890, when he worked briefly in the Belgin Congo.
Leonardo da Vinci
called the first renaissance man, inventor, painted the "Mona Lisa", "The Last Supper", and "Madonna on the Rocks"
Social Darwinism
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Henri Bergson
A French philosophy professor who said that personal experiences and intuition were more important than rational thought and thinking
Frederick William I
further developed Prussian army and bureaucracy; established General Directory; had highly efficient civil service workers
The strait between the Aegean and the Sea of Marmara that separates European Turkey from Asian Turkey
Ottoman Empire
the imperial Turkish state centered in Constantinople that ruled large parts of the Balkans, North Africa, and the Middle East until 1918
the act of a Hindu widow willingly cremating herself on the funeral pyre of her dead husband
Third Republic
French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napolean III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world.a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries
Council of Trent
(1545-1563) a council of roman catholics to address the problems within the church
Tennis Court Oaths
Taken by the National Assembly-stated that they would not disband until they had made a new constitution. Met here because they were unable to go to their meeting place.
An extremely unpopular tax on ports, which the crown with dubious logic extended to inland towns as well, and generated resistance during the hard times of the 1590s.
ship money
the theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects and the state governed according to laws
"Sun King"
Louis 14th had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development.
Catherine the Great
Romanov ruler of Russia from 1763-1796 who supported enlightened additions to Russian culture and expanded Russia's borders to include control of the northern shores of the Black Sea, the Crimea, Polish land, and Alaska
Jacobin Club
This was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution. One of its most prominent members was Maximilian Robespierre; journalist Jean-Paul Marat is also associated with the club, though never a member.
Jaques Necker
A hired financial expert. He wanted to reform government and the economy by abolishing tariffs and reduce court spending. Also wanted to remove the patronage on the nobility that was such a drain on the national coffers.
Use reason & probe for answers. "Dare to Know"
Immanuel Kant
Sphere of Influence
- region dominated by, but not directly ruled by, foreign nation
Ivan IV
named Ivan the Terrible, was the 1st to call himself tsar. He ruled in 2 periods: good years when married to Anastasia of Romanov and bad years after she died. He reduces the distinction between boyars and service nobility, makes commoners servants of the tsar, has the 1st connections to the west, and creates a standing army known as the streltsy that he uses continuously in his reign. He is significant because he makes Russia an absolutist state.
Victor Emmanuel III
(1900-1946) King of Italy who asked Mussolini to form a cabinet in 1922, thus allowing Mussolini to take power legally.
Battle of the Somme
Failed allied offensive that resulted in a lot of loss of life
Nationalistic Spirit
Musicians began to look for ways to express national identities
Both literary and musical circles.
Edict of Fontainebleau
revoked the Edict of Nantes, provided for the destruction of Huguenot churches and closing of Protestant schools, mass exodus of Huguenots weakened the French economy and strengthened its rivals - major mistake of Louis XIV
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union. Because the Russians held the line, the Germans were pushed back, and never recovered. Had they taken Stalingrad, they could have gone to Moscow, and would never have been defeated. Arguably one of the most important battles of WWII.
Joseph Lister
English surgeon who was the first to use antiseptics (1827-1912);promoting idea of steralizing medical equipment
Henry VIII (Tudor)

~ From England
~ Wrote In Defense of the Seven Sacraments
~ Of the Reformation Era
~ A ruler; originally a strong supporter of Catholicism until Pope Clement VII denied his annulment to Catherine of Aragon. Enraged
~ Henry started his own faith - Church of England (Anglican) that had a Catholic look & theology but placed the monarch at the head instead of the pope.
~ Was a patron of the arts and was a strong king.
Leonardo Da Vinci

(1452-1519) Artist who made religious paintings and sculptures like the Last Supper.
Frederick II (the Great)
Son of Prussian King Frederick William I and ruler of Prussia from 1740-86. He seized Silesia from Austria, starting the War of Austrian Succession and then Diplomatic Revolution.
Bourbon Family
Next in line to inherit the crown from the Valois family and had the support of the Protestants.
George I of Hanover
A German prince from Hanover who became King of England thanks to the Act of Settlement.
Gladstone's Great Ministry
This was a period of classic British liberalism. Competitive examinations for civil service replaced patronage, the purchase of officers' commissions was abolished, and Anglican requirements for Oxford and Cambridge were removed.
Robert Nievelle
He took command of one of the main French armies engaged in the Battle of Verdun, leading it during its successful counter-strokes against the Germans, but was accused of wasting French lives during some of his attacks. He became Commander-in-Chief of the French armies on the Western Front in December 1916, and was criticised in that capacity for not exploiting good opportunities to attack the Germans. He was responsible for the Nivelle Offensive, which faced a very large degree of opposition during its planning stage. When the offensive failed to achieve a breakthrough on the Western Front, Nivelle was replaced as Commander-in-Chief in May 1917.
Oliver Cromwell
took over for Charles I; Eng became a commonwealth; used brutality against Irish-Catholic Uprising and was hated for it; his gov only lasted until he died
ad valorem tariff
a tax on imports evaluated as a percentage of the value of the import.
Retreat from Moscow
There he waited in vain for Emperor ALEXANDER I's surrender, while Russian arsonists set the city on fire. With reinforced Russian armies attacking his outlying positions and signs of winter's approach, Napoleon ordered a retreat in October. Despite the deprivations suffered by his troops, the miserable weather, and the pursuing Russian army, Napoleon held the nucleus of his army together and managed to escape Russian encirclement.
The Social Contract

Scientific Revolution
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.
The Star Chamber
dealt w/ noble threats to royal power in England, made by Henry VII Tudor
Treaty of Dover
In 1670, Charles II and Louis XIV had a secret meeting and allied against the Dutch, as long as Charles promised to convert England to Catholicism when conditions permitted.
Sale of Indulgences
This was the way that many people were granted salvation. This was a common method of the church to gain power and money
Frederick the Great
king of Prussia from 1740 to 1786; won the War of Austrian Succession
Treaty of Tordesillas

Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Recent challenges to the traditional explanation of the origins of the French Revolution have centered on the fact that the?:
nobility and upper bourgeoisie were not necessarily pitted against each other.
Frederick Elector of Saxony
This was the man who supported and hid Luther after the Diet of Worms
The Spanish empire in America was characterized by?:
the introduction of a manorial-like system, the encomienda.
Only wealthy people could afford this of women.
Status of children?
Staying at home; women could determine who should receive dowry upon death, but during life husbands would manage it
Child labor was accepted
Generally, the revolutions of 1848 resulted in?:
the end of the age of romantic revolution.
Which of the following was not part of Count Witte’s policy of industrialization?:

A) banking reform to encourage domestic savings and investment.
B) promotion of foreign investment in Russian industry.
C) construction of the trans-Siberian railroad
E) nationalization of key industries such as coal and steel.

(Count Sergei Yulyevitch Witte (Russian: Сергей Юльевич Витте, Sergej Jul'evič Vitte) (June 29, 1849 – March 13, 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. He was also the author of the October Manifesto of 1905, a precursor to Russia's first constitution, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) of the Russian Empire. Witte served as Russian Director of Railway Affairs within the Finance Ministry from 1889 – 1891, Transportation Minister (1892), where he pursued an ambitious program of railway construction and oversaw the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway.)
John Howard
Edict of Nantes
Newton publishes Principia Mathematica
Enclosure and Crop Rotation
England's first permanent settlement (1607) in North America, it was located in what is today Virginia.
Charles I executed in England
Attacked capitalism and the state
(1694-1778) wrote satires which attacked various aspects of society; Candide
(1564-1642) Italian scientist who proved Copernican ideas and invented the telescope
These political parties were characterized by racism and xenophobia and had their origins in the anti-republican nationalism of the late 19th century.
immediate experience with oneness with God
Who became king of Italy?
Victor Emmanuel
Shipping system of Spain. Commercial vessels in fleets would go from port to port, but they would have to be screened at each transaction by escort ships in the fleet to prevent a violation of the monopolies.
Florentine bankers, patrons of secular art, symbol is a lion, at one point completely controlled Florence
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Italia Irredenta
"Unredeemed Italy." A nationalist belief following unification which encouraged "Italianization." A reason for Italy's opposition of Austria-Hungary in WWI. The Allies promised the South Tyrol, Trieste, and some of the Dalmatian Islands plus new colonies in Africa and a shre of the Turkish Empire satisfied this.
Early Renaissance Artists
Giotto, Masaccio, Donatello, Boccaccio, and Petrarch
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
Anthony Eden
Opposed Chamberlain's policy of appeasement towards Hitler. Became prime minister in 1955, resigned in 1957
2nd Battle of the Marne
Allies win.
The Mediterranean carrying trade in the 14c and 15c was in the hands of?:
A secret society; designated to overthrow Bonapartist rulers; they were liberal patriots.
The nobles reckoned their wealth by the number of these or, male serfs, owned rather than by the acreage the landlord possessed.
Lists of grievances sent by provinces to the meeting of the Estates General called by Louis XVI in 1788, which he needed to obtain approval for new taxes to combat France's ruinous economy.
Marsilo Ficino
Headed the Platonic Academy in Florence. Cosimo de Medici was his patron.
Entente Cordial
Britain gained control of Egypt. France gained control of Morocco. But not a written alliance only and agreement. Basically against Germany.
Nikita Khrushchev
Russian premier after stalin. Led de-Stalinization of Russia. A reformer who argued for major innovations.
Blaise Pascal
A French mathematician and physical scientist. He wrote Pensees. He also allied himself with the Jansenists. To him, religion and science were of no avail in matters of religion.
Spanish 'conquerer' or soldier in the new World.
Sir Thomas More
christian humanist, social critic, wrote "Utopia"
Petrograd Soviet
The St. Petersburg, or Petrograd, council of workers, soldiers, and intellectuals who shared power with the provisional government.
Cabinet System
political system where heads of governmental administrative departments serve as a group to advise the head of state (Prime Minister). All these ministers are drawn from the majority party in the legislature (in Britain the House of Commons) and are responsible to it.
This was the philosophical belief that for every thesis ever, there is an opposing antithesis that creates a synthesis
Margaret Thatcher
leader of conservatives in great britain who came to power. pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. formed thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the british economic situation. she dominated british politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. her popularity fell, and resigned.
James II
open Catholic (took throne after Charles II), the threat of a Catholic hereditary monarchy led to Parliament taking action with the Glorious Revolution
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
simony •
The buying or selling of ecclesiastical pardons, offices, or emoluments.
Aristotelian-Ptolemaic Cosmology
(1300-1600)the geocentric veiw of the church that was headed by the church
a branch of physics built on Newton’s laws of mechanics that investigated the relationship between heat and mechanical energy.
Casare Beccaria
On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology.
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
Crimean War
Fought from 1853-56. This war pitted the Ottoman Empire (backed by Britain, France, and Piedmont-Sardinia) against Russia. Russia wanted to extend into Ottoman-held territory, and Britain and France objected. Russia was defeated and all parties suffered significant casualties.
Boris Yeltsin
First leader of the Russian Republic. His pro-democracy reaction when Gorbachev's push for reform was held off by the Communist establishment was a rallying point for Russian democratic supporters.
Rich upper or middle class people who would give money and support to artists and intellectuals.
Statue of Laborers
moverment by the English Parliment which attempted to limit wages to preplague levels and forbid the mobility of peasants
Amerigo Vespucci
The namesake of North and South America for first exploring the areas.
Divine Right
belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from god.
A person of mixed European and Native American ancestry.
Committee of Public Safety
Leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period from 1792-1795.
Leon Blum
Leader of the French socialist party Popular Front, made first and real attempt to deal with the economic and social problems
Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian and Hungarian thrones...was assassinated with his wife by Serbian nationalist Princip, during a state visit to the Bosnia capital of Sarajevo. Sig- sparks WWI
D-Day Invasion
Allied invasion at Normandy, France on June 6th 1944, which was carried out by transporting tanks and soldiers from England across the English channel, eventually led to Axis defeat
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women (daughter Mary Shelly, author of Frankenstein)
USS Missouri
On September 2, 1945, the Japanese emperor formally surrendered on this ship in Tokyo Bay.
Lorenzo Valla
The linguistic studies of the Italian humanist Lorenzo Valla (1407-57) paved the way for future scholarship and greatly influenced Renaissance thought and literary style.
Classic Liberalism
A bourgeois doctrine with goals of self government, laissez-faire, natural rights, limited suffrage, and natural rights
Spirit of Locarno
Switzerland. peace meeting between Germany and France

Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
Defenestration of Prague
The hurling, by Protesants, of Catholic officails from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War
I led Communists in China, supported by the U.S.S.R., to defeat the corrupt regime of Chiang Kaishek's Nationalists.
Mao Zedong
Factory Act 1833
Created factory worday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9-factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.
Treaty of Nanjing
1842 agreement ending the Opium War between China and England and giving England control of Hong Kong and regional ports, as well as awarding British citizens extraterritoriality rights.
Cesare Borgia
"Served as the model for a ruthless ruler in Machiavelli's ""The Prince"". Son of Pope Alexander VI, a pope who had many mistresses and questionable moral fiber."
Pope Julius II
This strong opponent of the Borgia family succeeded Alexander VI as Pope. He suppressed the Borgias and placed their newly conquered lands in Romagna under papal jurisdiction.
Short Parliament
Convened to raise money to fight the Scots when they rebelled. It was dissolved when Pym demanded Charles redress political and religious grievances
John Milton
An English poet best known for his works "On the Tenure of Kings and Magistrates" and "Paradise Lost," and "Paradise Regained."
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
Berlin Wall
This symbol of the Cold War was created by the East Germans in 1961, prompted by the prosperity of West Germany, which attracted many to migrate, causing much political embarrassment.
Camillo de Cavour
Italian who believed in a diplomatic process for bringing Italy together.
The Fronde
occurred when Louis XIV was king but Mazarin had power; first was lead by nobles of the robe, broke out in Paris and ended in compromise; in the second the nobles of the sword's rebellion was stamped out as they began fighting amongst themselves
Home Rule Act 1914
established home rule, meaning Ireland was self-governed but not completely independent: it had its own parliament but not independence
Pragmatic Sanction
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.
Hugo Grotius
Wrote Law of War and Peace, pioneering treatise on international law. HG fled to France at time of Arminian Heresy and Synod.
Spanish Inquisition
A tribunal held in the Roman Catholic Church and directed at the suppression of heresy.
Louis XV
King of France from 1715 to 1774, whose ineffectual rule contributed to the decline of royal authority that led to the outbreak of The Revolution in 1789.
council summoned by Pope Julius II to reform the church
Lateran Council
The Compromise of 1867 transformed the Habsburg Empire into?:
a Dual Monarchy.
Iron Curtain Speech
March 1946 Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri; said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent.
Count Camillo di Cavour
Prime Minister to Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont. Although he considered himself liberal, he was willing to use deception to promote national goals.
Berlin Conference, 1885
Laid down the rules for the conquest of Africa: 1) European countries holding a coast inland. 2) Occupation must be with real troops. 3) Must give notice of which countries were occupied. 4) Started the scramble for Africa.
The Genius of Christianity
Written by Viscount Francois Rene de Chateaubriand, this book became known as the "Bible of romanticism." In this, Chateaubraind argued that the essence of religion was "passion."
Marsilio Ficino
a member of a new, later group of humanists called the Neoplatonists, who believed in studying the grand ideas in the work of Plato and other philosophers as opposed to leading the "active life" the civic humanists lead. Ficino believed that Plato's ideas showed the dignity and immortality of the human soul
Swallows / Repatriation
These were people who migrated to new lands, but then came back to either farm, or to stay
Union of Utrecht
union of the seven northern states of the Netherlands formed by William of Orange; a Protestant Union that opposed Spanish rule and eventually became the independent Dutch Republic
English Factory act of 1833
forbade the employment of children under age nine, limited the workday of children aged nine to thirteen to nine hours, and required that these children be given two hours of education a day, paid for by the factory owner. The effect was further divide work/home life
The Munich Conference was:
criticized by Winston Churchill as a tragic outcome of appeasement.
Stalin's policy in postwar Russia is best characterized as?:
rapid industrialization and agricultural collectivism.
"Suleiman I ""the Magnificent"""
The Turkish sultan who lead the siege of Vienna.
being the first to circumnavigate the globe
what Magellan was known for
Bourbon Ferdinand VII
He was returned to the throne of Spain by the Congress of Vienna and tried to stop the push for independence that the Creoles (many of whom were army officers and well versed in the teachings of Enlightenment writers) had begun when Spain was conquered by Napoleon. He was overthrown by a military coup d'etat .
French & Indian Wars
The French and Indian Wars were a series of armed conflicts between England's colonies in North America on the one side and rival European colonies on the other during the period 1689-1763. Each conflict was part of a larger war in Europe and on the high seas.
Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584)
earned his nickname for hs great acts of cruelty directed towards all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first rler to assume the titile Czar of all Russia
Essay on the Principle of Population
Thomas Malthus/based on 2 claims: (1) people need food to survive (2) people have a natural desire ro teproduce.
Hitler's Final Solution to hte Jewish problem called for
the extermination of all European Jews.
Encomiendas in the Spanish New World were?:
grants permitting owners to take income or labor from land and its inhabitants.
"On the Orgiign of Species by the Means of Natural Selection"
Darwin 1859
All plants and animals evolved over long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life-organic evolution.
Struggle for existent due to more species born that can survive
Those who succeeded in struggle adapted better to environ
Naturally selected survived, unfit became extinct.
Fit passed on variations that enabled them to survive until new species emerged
Long Term causes of the Reformation
- The growth in the power of the secular king and the decrease in the power of the Pope.
- The popular discontent with the seemingly empty rituals of the Church.
- The movement towards more personal ways of communicating with God, called lay piety.
- The fiscal crisis in the Church that led to corruption and abuses of power (indulgences, simony
This next one is important to know :p.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), also known as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, author, and statesman. During his lifetime he earned a reputation as a leading humanist scholar and occupied many public offices, including that of Lord Chancellor from 1529 to 1532. More coined the word "utopia", a name he gave to an ideal, imaginary island nation whose political system he described in a book published in 1516. He is chiefly remembered for his principled refusal to accept King Henry VIII's claim to be supreme head of the Church of England, a decision which ended his political career and led to his execution as a traitor.
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