AP European History 26 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
social darwinism
siege of vienna--1683
London's principal architect.
self-government, political control, independence.

(1377-1446) Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence.
Commercial Revolution
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
glorification of humanity, philosophy life is worth living for it's own sake, make humans center of attention, or admiration and emulation of Greco-roman culture (in the renaissance)
traveling physician who rejected Aristotle, Galen, universities: chemical philosophy based on observation
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
- Persecution of minorities, especially the Jews in Russia.
Gorbachev's plan for restructuring the economy, RESTRUCTURING
Benjamin Disraeli
a British Prime Minister, parliamentarian, Conservative statesman and literary figure. Battled intensely with William Gladstone
John Huss
Bohemian Religious reformer whose efforts to reform the Church eventually fueled the Protestantism reformation
French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin.
Greek and classic culture, Latin themes
John Locke
(1632-1704) Political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution with the argument that all people are born with certain natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
Advocated managment of wealth by experts
Black Hand
nationalist Serbin society whose members assassinated Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the austrian and hngarian thrones, and wife sofie, starting the "Third balkan war"
Mussolini's extreme group of Italian Fascists known for their black shirts and their brutality towards anyone whom they perceived as a threat to Fascism
German word meaning "cleansed of Jews". It was Hitler's ultimate goal behind the Holocaust.
Huguenots, name given to the Protestants of France from about 1560 to 1629.
Serious conflict in Asia contributing ot the outbreak of WWII in the Pacific began with Japan's 1037 attack on:
Petty laborers and laboring poor-wore pants not knee breeches-became a major political group in revolutionary France.
State secondary schools, intended to give it's students technical training and to produce loyal military officers and government officials from the graduates.
George Stephenson
Built the first effective locomotive, 1830 called "Rocket".
"Night of broken glass," occurring in November 1938. This marked the beginning of overtly violent Nazi attacks against the Jewish population in Germany.
Land and Freedom
populist group that was Marxist.
Francis Xavier
A pioneering Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order).
This melancholy genius is known for masterpieces such as David and frescoes for the Sistine Chapel.
The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War
Lord Cornwallis
The British general whom Washington defeated at the Battle of Yorktown to end the American Revolution.
wat was one strategy of imperialism?
gunboat diplomacy
Kellogg-Briand Pact
(1928) Document, signed by fifteen countries, that "condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy".
policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
Enabling Act
Gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for 4 years
Giussepe Garibaldi
had Redshirts; redical leader of Italian unification; recolted against king of 2 Sicilies
Danish War
when Denmark seized two duchies, Prussia (Bismarck) convinced Austria to go to war: they defeated Denmark throughly, and it was forced to give up the two duchies: Prussia would administer Schleswig and Austria would administer Holstein; set the stage for the later Austro-Prussian War
the doctrine that God had foreordained all souls to salvation or damnation. It was especially associated with Calvinism
the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th C
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
Thomas More
Good friends with Erasmus fellow humanist. Wrote UTOPIA idealistic life and institutions of the community utopia, island near New World. Concerns with economic, social, and political problems. Cooperation and reason placed over power and fame, communal ownership. He served Henry VIII but strongly believed in Catholic church and its union. But conscience convince him support Henry break from church.
Russo-Japanese War
Russia wanted Korea. Japan crushes Russia
Idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries.
Directory (1795-1799)
The 5-men executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's exceution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power
The Protocol of Troppau?:
permitted stable governments' intervention into countries experiencing revolution for the purpose of restoring order.
2nd French Empire
In 1851 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte dismissed the assembly, seized control and crushed opposition with army. December 2, restored universal male suffrage and was voted in as president for 10 years, in 1952 he was elected hereditary emperor of France Napoleon III
English Bill of Rights
1689 document declaring Parliament would choose who ruled England, that the ruler could not tax without Parliamentary consent, that the ruler could not suspend Parliament, that the ruler was subject to all laws, that Parliament was to meet frequently, that MPs were guaranteed freedom of speech, and that cruel and unusual punishment was illegal.
Guiseppe Mazzini
The most important leader of romantic republican nationalism. He encouraged support for Italian unity.
Refers to a group of people whose social and political opinions are determined primarily by concern for property values and personal appearance of wealth. Ranked below the nobility, their status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth.
ppl who believe in Kipling, willing to fight in Africa because the are better than africans
_____________ and _____________ were the two main leaders of the Manhattan Project.
General Groves and Oppenheimer
A direct tax on the French peasantry. The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.
Lorenzo de Medici
r(1469-1492) The Medici's were a banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scenes.
Marshall Plan
Program that advanced more than $11 Billion for European recovery to sixteen Western nations from 1947 to 1953. The final cost to the United States was $20 Billion.
David Ricardo
Iron law of wages: don't increase wages
Georges Sorel
A French socialist who thought there socialism would come from a general strike of all workers that would cripple the capitalist system. Thought that socialism was an improbable religion rather than accepted truth. Thought that the new socialist governments would not be democratic, rather controlled by a small revolutionary elite. He did not like democracy.
Ivan IV
first tsar in Russia; expanded Russia to the East
Bosnian Crisis
This occurred when Austria, who had made a previous agreement with Russia to support opening up the Straits for warships if Russia supported Austria
mass society
refers to a distinctive process or pattern or social organization that occurs when industrialization, urbanization, and modernization increasingly modifies the social order by moving from individual to collective mindsets, with it comes a shift in power from small groups of elites to the masses
the movement to create a Jewish state in Palestine
a district or province governed by a viceroy
French Empire
very large put unstable. only five years- consisted of muc of Europe
father of humanism. play major role in revival of classics. his sonnets primary contribution to italian vernacular. sonnets inspire by love for married woman named laura. Less concerned to sing lady's praise than to immortalize own thoughts. interest in own personality reveal strong sense individuality.
Alfonso de Albuquerque
The Portugese governor of India (appointed by the Portuguese crown) from 1509 - 1515.
- (1814-24) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties
Rene Descarte (1596-1650)
deductive thinker whose famous saying cogito, ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures
Count Cavour (1810-1861)
Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve unification of Italy
Tennis Court Oaths
Taken by the National Assembly-stated that they would not disband until they had made a new constitution. Met here because they were unable to go to their meeting place.
Act of Settlement
1701 law by Parliament stating that should William III die heirless, Mary's Protestant sister, Anne, would take the throne, thereby protecting Protestant rule of England.
Truman Doctrine
The policy, begun in 1947, that the United States would not challenge existing Communist nations' right to exist, but would actively and militarily oppose any further expansion of communism. This policy of containment was followed for decades.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 - 5 May 1821) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, Emperor of the French Empire.
Ciompi Revolt
A great successful revolt of the poor in 1378. Resulted in a 4 year reign of power by the lower Florentine classes.
Social Contract
agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights. John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two European political philosophers who wrote about this concept.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvanists) in Paris on St. Bartholomew's Day, 1572. Organized by Catherine de Medici.
frech aboslutism
3 kings Henry IV (Duke of Sully, finance minister rebuilt economics) Louis XIII (Richelieu, strengthened monarchy by weakening the nobility) Louis XIV (Colbert, created mercantilism)
Brethren of the Common Life
Pious laypeople in sixteenth-century Holland who initiated a religious revival in their model of Christian living.
This was the man who first said that the Americas were completely separate from Asia, thus the continent was named after him
President Woodrow Wilson
Speaking on behalf of the United States, he presented the Fourteen Points.
Florence Nightingale
nurse in the Crimean War who saved countless British lives by insisting on strict sanitary conditions, furthermore, she made nursing a profession dominated by middle-class, trained women
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924). Also known as Lenin.
Battle of Lutzen
Battle in which Gustav Adolphus was killed, thus ending any real hope the protestants had against Emperor Ferdinand.
One of many German states after the 30 yrs war who became autonomous within HRE. Established by Hohenzollern dynasty, consisted of western, central, and eastern Germany. Foundation created by Frederick William the Great Elector.
Louis Pontchartrain

- French controller of finance who imposed the capitation of an annual poll tax.
By breaking ties with Rome in the 1530s and establishing my own church, I greatly extended my power and possessions.
Henry VIII
Simone de Beauvoir
French author of "The Second Sex". She argued for women's rights and was also a prominent figure in the existentialist movement. She died in 1986.
Auto da fe
"A public confession which was one of the punishments if found guilty of practicing one's old religion and not Christianity, other punishments were anything from monetary fines to burning at the stake."
Provided for a balance of power among the major Italian city-states. This kept outside powers out
Treaty of Lodi
War of the Austrian Succession
1740-1748 between Prussia and Austria. Then it became a world war where France became an ally of Prussia and England became the ally of Austria. The war ends with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle with Prussia obtaining Silesia, doubling its population. This is significant because Prussia towered above all the other German states and stood as a European Great Power.
Diet of Worms
This was the conference that Charles V called to bring Martin Luther to speak
Public Health Act 1848
Formed the local boards of public health in England. The aim of this act was to improve sanitary conditions of towns and populous places in england and Wales by placing the supply of water, sewerage, drainage, cleansing and paving under a single local body
Johann Sebastian Bach
~ From the German States
~ Wrote  Fugues & Symphonies
~ Of the Baroque Era
~ A composer who led the baroque movement with dynamic, soaring lines of symphonic music. Greatest writer of organ music ever.
~ Embodied baroque spirit of invention, tension, and emotion.
Napoleonic Code -
Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablihing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.
The conservative government that came to power after the Thermidorean Reaction?:
restored social stability without sacrificing the ideals of 1789.
Early modern Europe, this was a problem in rural areas
Low population density also led the formerly free peasantry to be enserfed
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished
Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life
Group in Netherlands, developed outside of Church, practice Modern Devotion (men and women live separately, not monks or nuns), emphasized humility/tolerance/reverence/love of neighbor/duty)
first even to damage church's prestige
papal conflict with German emperor Frederick II in 13th century
Women's March on Versailles
On October 5, 1789 an angry mob of Parisian women stormed through Versailles demanding Louis XVI end the nationwide food shortage and that the royal family return to Paris with them.
Jose de San Martin
The general of the Rio de la Plata forces. He led his forces over the Andes Mountains and occupied Santiago. He also helped drive royalist forces from Lima and became the Protector of Peru.
The technological innovations in maritime technology by the 1500s were important because?:
they made it possible for Europeans to sail anywhere.
The Public Health Act of 1875
Reaffirmed the duty of the state to interfere to protect public health and well-being.
For England, the primary result of the 16c wars with Spain was that it?:
assured her national independence and promoted an intense national spirit.
Crimean War - impact in Britain & Russia
This war showed that the Russian were way behind the rest of the world, and needed reform.
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