AP European History 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
General Directory
Praise of Folly
Age of National Unifiation
English mathematician and physicist
Groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th- century Italy. Their goals were patriotic anti-liberal and they-played an important role in the Risorgimento and the early years of Italian nationalism.
- Prussia's landowning nobility
- supported monarchy & served in army in exchange for absolute power over serfs
radical sufferagette, founded Women's social and Political Movement, violent acts (hunger stikes, egging)
Time of Troubles
1588 in Russia
Led the Mountains with Robespierre-also executed with Robespierre.
The British passenger ship torpedoed by the Germans in 1915, who claimed munitions were on board. Over 1,000 died, including Americans, and this event helped turn American opinion against Germany.
territory which the French dominated in China, the Thai peoples there looked to the British for support, but the British did not help them
Cooperative community; a Utopian Socialist
Charles Fourier
A Scottish philosopher, he argued against the existence of miracles and, by implication, against the belief in Christianity. Authored "Inquiry into Human Nature."
John Hus
lived from 1369-1415, followed Wycliffe, burned at stake at the Council of Constance for heracy
Clergy members ignoring their duties, many times because of multiple positions.
Final Act
The German confederation promulgated this, which limited the subjects that might be discussed in the constitutional chambers of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden. The measure also asserted the right of the monarchs to resist demands of constitutionalists.
Hermann Goring
legitimized Nazi terror by establishing a police force full of Nazis; Hitler's second-in-command; died during the Nuremberg trials
Prince Henry the Navigator
Financed Portugal's explorers
English scientist and Franciscan monk who stressed the importance of experimentation
One who dominates the political, social and economic life of another
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia-great tactician-Enlighted Monarch-called himself "First Servant of the state"
The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) granted Portugal the eastern trade route to the Indies as well as Brazil; lands to the west of Brazil were given to?:
A former principality in west-central Russia.Centered on Moscow, it was founded c.1280, existed separately until the 1500’s, when it was united with another principality to form the start of the early Russian empire.The name was used to expanded territory
Thomas Hobbes
Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos. Claimed life was, "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
People who favored ending the slave trade and slavery.
"Means rebirth in French. Used to label the period of time during the 15th century where a renewed interest in classical art and philosophy coupled with Hhumanist philosophy brought about a cultural ""rebirth"". Centered in Italy."
battle in which the Italians were defeated by the Ethiopians
____________ and ______________ led the germ theory of disease.
Pasteur and Koch
A social movement of British textile artisans in the early nineteenth century who protested against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution. The Luddites believed that the new industrial machinery would eliminate their jobs. The Luddites responded by attempting to destroy the mechanized looms and other new machines.
Memebers of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
revival of Plato's idea that people know what perfection is
Test Act
(1673) Law prohibiting Catholics and dissenters to hold political office.
Hitler's Rise
Gained power through feeding off others, and promoting racist nationalist ideals. Gained control of the German Worker's Party, built his way up from there
Carlsbad Decrees
Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas. (censorship) Also established permanent comittee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.
Charles Darwin
H.M.S. beagle expedition to study animals and plants in south American and south pacific
Belieed animals evolved over time in response to their environment.
"On the Origin of Species."
Weimar Republic
the democratic government which ruled Germany; the country's first democracy and it failed miserably - had severe economic difficulties; one important leader was Hindenburg; overthrown by Hitler & the Nazi Party
free groups and outlaw armies of peasants who fled the tzar and service nobility
Henry Bessemer
English engineer and inventor. Best known for his new way to manufacture steel.
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
• 1. Conversion of one substance into another. 2. Theology. The doctrine holding that the bread and wine of the Eucharist are transformed into the body and blood of Jesus, although their appearances remain the same.
Constitutional Democrats
Liberal Bourgeoisie party in Russia known also as the cadets

Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
his ideas attracted many preachers who became Protestant leaders
The artists of this movement painted what they saw at first glance and they attempted to capture visual sensations such as the way sunlight falls on inanimate objects.
Little German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Little Germans".
United Nations
During World War II, Allied leaders decided to establish an international organization devoted to promoting peace. It was formally established in 1945.
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).
The Directory
Held executive power in France from November 2, 1795 until November 10, 1799: following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. Five Directors shared power.
Liberum veto
A practice in the Polish Diet (legislative body). A single member could require the body to disband.
Seven of these made up the Reichstag along with the non-electoral princes and the 65 imperial free cities in the Holy Roman Empire.
Prague Spring
1968; name for Dubchek effort to create "socialism with a human face" in Czechoslovakia
"Sun King"
nickname for L14 that captures the magnificence of his court and of the Palace of Versailles; L14 adopted the sun as his emblem; sun was imp. and prominent, and thats how he perceived himself
Teheran Conference
the big 3 met and reaffirmed determination to crush germany
Hungarian Revolt
(1956) Attempt by students and workers to liberalize the Communist regime and break off military alliance with the Soviet Union.
Cold War
1945- 1991- A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Austrian "anti-nationalism"
The Austrians tried to stop the nationalism of different people in their country from tearing them apart, but it did not work
Oedipus complex (Electra)
Freud's thought that a child gravitates toward the parent of the opposite sex
Louis Michel
One of the leaders of Paris Commune
School teacher and female
Tireless in forming commities for defense of commune.
a 20th century movement of artists and writers (developing out of Dadaism) who used fantastic images and weird juxtapositions in order to represent unconscious thoughts and dreams
Catholic Reformation
Attempt to reform abuses in the Catholic Church in the 1500's
Emmeline Pankhurst
was an English political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement, which helped women win the right to vote. She was extremely miltant, and violent in her protests.
Sumptuary Laws
these regulated the dress of different classes forbidding people from wearing clothes of their social superiors
Christian humanism
Erasmus of Rotleroam- Sir Thomas More- group of people who worked for spiritual and religion in a human point of view.
dialectical materialism
Karl Marx's idea that history is driven by social struggles
Zimmerman Note
telegram sent by Germany asking Mexico to invade USA

One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
Crimean War (1853-1856)
War waged to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, in actuality to gain a foothold in the Black Sea on the part of Russia. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris(1856) forfeited Russia's right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia
witch hunt
an intensive effort to discover and expose disloyalty, subversion, dishonesty, or the like, usually based on slight, doubtful, or irrelevant evidence.
Great Hunger/Great Famine
Beginning in 1845, a sever blight struck the European potato crop. In Ireland, the results were devastating and millions died, with even more immigrating to Canada and the United States. The event is also called the Potato Famine.
Elizabeth I
Came into power after the death of Mary Tudor and became queen of England. She brought Protestantism back to England even after Philips request to maintain the Catholic faith.
Battle of Verdun
1916 German assult on the French fortress- turned into a battle of attrition, France won.
James II
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government, This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
William Pitt "the Younger"
This British prime minister organized the Third Coalition against Napoleon.
Martin Luther
95 Thesis led to religious reform in Germany, Denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
David Hume
dead end of end of empiricism. He stated that there can't be any absolute knowledge if everything is based on the senses. So, people can know things through common sense, but not through philosophy (which he says is a joke) and he hates dogma
Von Hutten
wrote Letters of Obscure Men - most important because they were fighting over the right of educational/intellectual freedom, in this case to study Hebrew
Social Darwinism
The twisted social idea that used the theory of evolution and applied to people
Peasants War
this group was upset by their high taxes, harsh life, and the abuses they suffered; they turned to Luther for help, but after Thomas Muntzer incited them to revolt, Luther prompted the German princes to stomp out the rebellion
Slobodan Milosevic
This man of the Serbian republic sped up preparations for a "greater Serbia" intending to grab territory from Yugoslavia's other republics and combined all Serbs in a single state. His threats strengthened the cause of separatism, and in June 1991 Slovenia and Croatia declared their independence. He also practiced genocide, especially on Muslims
Concert of Europe
term applied to the European great powers acting together to resolve international disputes between 1815 and the 1850s
The Regency
led Frence after Louis XIV's death and tried to give nobles more of a say in pilitical affairs
Cosimo d' Medici
1434: Took control of Florence's small merchant oligarchy & maintained a Republic appearance. He used patronage & political ally courting to dominate the culture center city
Giuseppe Garibaldi
led "red shirts" in war to unify southern and northern spain. lets Victor Emmanuel be king
North half of Europe mostly __; South mostly __
Lutheran; Catholic
I was the British Foreign Minister at the Congress of Vienna. I despised people like Robespierre and Napoleon who disrupted the balance of power in Europe.
Lord Castlereigh
War of Austrian Succession
(1740-48)Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him
Georges-Jacques Danton
(October 26, 1759 - April, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution.
1415 - 1417
Council of Constance burns Hus and ens Great Schism
Petition of Rights
(1628) Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b)could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.
Parliament Act of 1911
Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters. (Realistically curtails the power of the House of Lords).
National Workshops
This was the group that gave work to the unemployed
Emilie du Chatelet
An aristocrat who received a VERY good education in science and helped to translate Newton's work
Rerum Novarum
1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.
Act of Supremacy
makes Henry VIII head of Church of England
A treaty signed by twelve members of the European Community and most of the seven nations of the European Free Trade Association which anticipated the creation of a European Economic Area, providing for the elimination of national barriers to the movement
Treaty of Maastricht
Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)
Protestant Bourbon who Came into power in France after the death of Henry III. Be said "Paris is worth a mass" and tried to blend the two religious ideals.
What form of government did the Bolsheiks desire for Russia?
New Bolshevik government immediately nationalized the banks, church property, and land and turned much of it over to the peasants and gave factories to workers. Also made women equal to men legally.
King Louis XIV
Ruled for 72 years. He was known as the sun king. He believed in Absolutism and the Divine right of kings. He builds a palace in Versailles to trap his nobility.
The League of Augsburg, 1686
formed to counteract the French and restore the balance of power. Consisted of:The Empire, Holland, Spain, Weden, the Palatinate, Saxony, Bavaria, and Savoy.
Lorenzo Valla gained fame for?:
proving the Donation of Constantine a fraud.
to prevent Charles V from increasing his power
why France supported the Protestant princes of Germany
Economics of the Black Death
The Black Death brought on a general European inflation. High mortality produced a fall in production, shortages of labor and workers’ demands for higher wages put guild masters on the defense. They retaliated with measures such as the Statute of Laborers (1351) (unsuccessful). The price of what in most of Europe increased, as did the costs of meat, sausage, and cheese. This inflation continued to the end of the 14th century. Wages in the towns rose fasters increase in per capita wealth. The greater demand for labor meant greater mobility for peasants in rural areas, and the broad mass of people enjoyed a higher standard of living. Population decline meant a sharp and for industrial workers in the towns and cities.
Which statement expressed a defense used by some Nazi war criminals at their trials in an attempt to justify their actions during World War II?:
one's behavior is not accountable when one is following orders.
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the main priority for the US was
defeating Germany first, and then turning its great naval war machine against Japan.
Terms of the Peace of Westphalia 1648
- Written in French (not Latin) and without the Pope's consultation (thus signifying that State and Church affairs were separate)
- Added Calvinism to the Peace of Augsburg (legal recognition)
- granted independence to the Swiss Confederacy from the H.R.E.
- recognized Dutch independence from Spain
IMPACT: France is the new international power. Spain is done.
Within the Holy Roman Empire: this treaty perpetuated the political weakness of the HRE.
2 German states would be international powers and rivals within Germany: Austria and Prussia
upstart Brandenburg - Prussia becomes the most powerful German state in the northeast.
Brussels Conference
Wollstonecraft begins feminist movement with Vindication of Rights of Women
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Nineteenth-century school of thought which began in France and held that the scientific method could solve social ills. Leading thinkers were Count Saint-Simon and Auguste Comte.
denied Parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
Invented the experimental method, formulated the law of inertia, provided evidence for the Copernican theory
fifth republic
(1985) A French Government
A Protestant Evangelical revivalist movement of the mid-19c which deplored the stress on natural law.
Part of the National Assembly's reforms, these were eighty-three districts wherein local officials would be elected.
Thomas Muntzer
"An early Reformation-era German pastor who was a rebel leader during the Peasants' War. Radical Reformation, Protestant reformers."
__________used ideas of racial superiority and the Holocaust.
Social Darwinism
Putting-Out System
- preindustrial manufacturing system in which entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their homes
- ex: watch manufacturers in Swiss town employed villagers to make parts for their product. system enabled entrepreneurs to avoid restrictive guild regulations
Edmund Burke
conservative, didn't believe in revolution, wanted gradual change, everything has to be based on countries traditions, criticized French Revolution
William Gladstone
(1809-1898) English Prime Minister (Liberal) known as the "Grand Old Man". Instituted liberal reforms which were designed to remove long standing abuses without destorying existing institutions. He believed in Home Rule for Ireland. In 1870 he passed the Education Act of 1870 and the Order in Council which replaced patronage as a means of entering civil service with competitive examinations. In 1871 he removed the Anglician religion qualification for faculty positions at Oxford and Cambridge universities and introduced The Ballot Act of 1872 which provided for a secret ballot.
Henrí Matisse
An extreme abstract expressionist, leader of "the beasts," focused on arrangement of color, line and form
Michael Bankunin
Russian anarchist
Believed small group of well trained, fanatical revolutionaries could perpetrate so much violence that stat would disinergrate.
Co-father of the Italian Renaissance. Wrote the Decameron (on the Black Plague, influences the Canterbury tales) in Italian vernacular
a British volunteer cavalry force organized in 1761 for home defense later incorporated into the Territorial Army
Hanseatic League
a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas. formed in the 13th century and most powerful in the 14th century
Holy Alliance
Prussia, Austria, Russia. Goal: repress liberal ideas.controlled German confederation
Lorenzo Valla
Hummanist who used historical criticism to discredit 8th-cent. document giving papacy jurisdiction over Western lands.
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
The "twentieth" tax. This resembled an income tax, but French nobles rarely had to pay it in full.
Hanoverian Succession
None of Queen Anne's (1701-1714) seventeen children survived her, leading to her granddaughter's son, George I, of the Germanic Hanoverian family, becoming king of England.
Rump Parliament
A parliament without Presbyterians, it tried Charles I and killed him. It then abolished the monarchy and House of Lords, and set up a Puritan state with Cromwell at its head.
The ecclesiastical crime of paying for holy offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church.
Toleration Act
allowed non Catholics places of worship and public rights throughout all of England.
Empirical Method
Francis Bacon's theory which stressed the acquisition of knowledge through experience. Evidence is necessary to prove a hypothesis.
held judicial and military power in Portuguese Brazil
A restructuring of the Soviet system in order to make it more efficient and responsive to the needs of soviet citizens.
Gustavus Adolphus
(1594-1632) Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles.
colombian exchange
the interchange of plants, animals, diseases and human populations between the Old World and the New World
Revolutions of 1848
These revolutions occurred in 1)France, because of the depression and rising unemployment rates caused starvation in France in which they then overthrew the bourgeois monarchy 2)Austria, because the Hungarians rebelled against the Austrian Empire and were joined by the urban poor looking for employment, and 3) Prussia, because the artisans and factory workers joined with the middle-class liberals to rebel against the monarchy and eventually, Prussia became a constitutional monarchy
Liberal party
British political party which lost prominence after WW1 since it was not as modern and in to "total war"
demonstrated that the heart, not the liver, was the beginning of circulation, that there was the same blood in veins and in arteries, and that blood makes a complete circuit
Poland, "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres"
a heliocentric view of the world
these were Fascists in Spain; they lost the 1936 elections; as a result, Francisco Franco led an army against the republic; this coup d'etat was successful and Franco became the dictator of Spain
Fees that peasants were obligated to pay landlords for the use of the village mill, bakeshop and winepress
Peninsular War
In November and December, Napoleon's armies seized Portugal to halt British commerce. The Peninsular War ended when Wellington invaded France in late 1813.
a backlash against the emergence of individualism and fragmentation of society it was a move towards cooperation and a sense of community, the key ideas were panning, greater economic equality and state regulation of property.
Robert Owen
Scottish spoke out about hiring children. Created mills in New Harmony.
The first European country to enter into direct trade with the Far East and establish colonies there was?:
Miguel De Cervantes
Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote
Jules Mazarin
Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government
Jonas Salk
American doctor who invented the polio vaccine in 1953. Polio crippled and killed millions worldwide, and the successful vaccine virtually eliminated the scourge.
Jean Bodin
(1530-1596) was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement (not to be confused with the English Parliament) of Paris and professor of Law in Toulouse. He is considered by many to be the father of political science.
Henry Knighton
chronicler who observed life after the Black Death
Francisco de Cisneros
Spanish leader of the Protestant Reformation wrote the "Complutensian Polygot Bible."
Weber Thesis
the Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
- Belief that God created universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature
- natural laws could be discovered by use of human reason
Isaac Newton
a 17th century English scientist who invented calculus. He wrote the Principia in 1687. He came up with a synthesized the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo into the law of universal gravitation. He is significant because he is considered the heart of the Enlightenment, meaning his ideas changed the way people thought about the universe, leading to the Enlightenment.
influence was far lesser than that of Aristotle and Ptolemy, Galen's medical and anatomical theories dominated the scientific world for years even though they were proved wrong by dissections
Council of Constance
Issued the decrees of Sacrosancta, Frequens, and Exerabilis. These were all religious decrees of the Catholic Church which reaffirmed the values of the church.
Quadruple Alliance
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
Potsdam Conference
the final wartime meeting of the leaders of the united states, britain, and the soviet union was held at potsdamn, outside berlin, in july, 1945. truman, churchill, and stalin discussed the future of europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the cold war.
a nation governed by another nation on behalf of the League of Nations, usually Middle Eastern nations
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West. A bit of a rabid dog.
Anglican church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs)
Cardinal Richelieu
Chief French minister (and de facto ruler of France) to Louis XIII. He led Catholic France against Catholic Germany in the 30 years war. War became (catholic) Bourbon vs (catholic) Hapsburg
Palace of Versailles
Louis's royal courte outside Paris. Gardens beautiful blah blah blah.
30 Years War
Peace of Westphalia, between France and HRE, catholics vs. protestants, decentralization of HRE

The practice of lending money for interest
Sergei Witte (1849-1915
Finance minister under whom Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization, founder ot the Tran Siberian Railroad
The French legal system enacted in 1804 containing the details for French civil , commercial, and criminal war.
Napoleonic Code
The Social Contract
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.
Girondins versus Jacobins
Both were political groups in the National Convention. Girondins were republicans from the Gironde department who feared Parisian domination of France. The Jacobins favored Parisian control.
Alsace and Lorraine
From the peace settlement with France, Germany received these two territories for their victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Diet of Worms
Luther presented his views before this of the Holy Roman Empire, over which Emperor Charles V preceded.
Duke of Buckingham
James I's secret lover. His closeness to James I made many of the members of his court upset. He encouraged James to enforce impositions
Paradise Lost
Written by John Milton, this is a study of the destructive qualities of pride and the redeeming possibilities of humility.
When a person is kicked out of the Catholic church.
This group of artist were the first to rebel against the absurdity war by rejecting all artistic convention.
Pierre Auguste Renoir
a French painter who used a impressionism called "super-realism," capture overall impression of the thing they were painting
Battle of the Bulge
last Nazi offensive; centered around Bastogne; super tough fight
Manhattan Project
code name given to the development of the US atomic bomb during World War II, work on the bomb was carried out in great secrecy by a team led by J. Robert Oppenheimer
Tennis Court Oath
the national assembly swore to never separate and to constantly meet until they wrote a fair constitution. it came about because the third estate claimed they were the National Assembly, so they invited people from the other estates to help them write their constitution
a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times
Corn Laws
In British history, the Corn Laws were regulations restricting the import and export of grain, especially wheat. The general purpose of such laws, which dated from the 12th century, was to ensure a stable supply of domestic grain and, later, to protect the British producers who, as large landowners, dominated Parliament.
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia from 1762-1796. She expanded Russia's borders to the Black Sea and into Central Europe. Promoted westernization, modernization, education, and the Enlightenment among the nobles.
One of the two halves of the divided National Convention
The old nobility in France during the 17c, they were also referred to as the noblesse d'épeé.
Ancien Riche
Count Camillo Cavour
Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.
Frederick William I
Son of Prussian King Frederick I who ruled from 1713-1740. He channeled royal funds toward militarizing Prussia, creating an efficient tax system, and establishing compulsory education.
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
The chief minister of King Henry VIII and Sir Thomas More. Guided royal opposition to incipient English Protestantism. Placed in charge of sucuring the royal annulment of Henry VIII.
The Hammer of the Witches
Originally published under the title "Malleus Maleficarum," this book was written by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger. It is a treatise on witches.
Treaty of Maastricht
A treaty signed by twelve members of the European Community and most of the seven nations of the European Free Trade Association which anticipated the creation of a European Economic Area, providing for the elimination of national barriers to the movement of capital, goods and services, and people between member states, and planned the future use of a common currency.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
This treaty ended the Seven Years' War
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2 - leader of troops in Africa and commander in D-Day invasion
Nicholas I
czar of Russia from 1825 to 1855 who led Russia into the Crimean War (1796-1855)
Pico della Mirandola
On the Dignity of Man
Man has no limits.  He was made in the image and likeness of God.
Between beast and angel.
From the European perspective, the principal outcome of the Seven Years' War was the?:
subsequent struggle between Prussia and Austria for hegemony in Central Europe.
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
"Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man which has been called the ""Manifesto of the Renaissance."""
before the Diet of Worms
where Charles V ordered Luther to appear
Favorable balance of trade
This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials
Peter the Great
Peter I, known as Peter the Great, b. June 9 (N.S.), 1672, d. Feb. 8 (N.S.), 1725, tsar of Russia (1682-1725) and the first Russian emperor (from 1721), was an unusually powerful and prepossessing ruler; his military achievements and westernizing reforms of the Russian government, army, and society laid the foundation of the modern Russian state.
The Frankfurt Assembly failed because?:
it did not resolve the contradictions between liberalism and nationalism in the building of a German state.
Luther's writing saying made a patriotic appeal to Germans to reject the foreign Pope's authority.
An Address to the Christian Nobility of the German
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs
By Copernicus. Suggested the Earth move in circle around the sun
Jethro Tull's discoveries were part of a general movement to?:
apply the principles of scientific experiment to agricultural practices.

(Before Tull's seed drill was introduced, seeds were sown simply by being cast upon the ground, to germinate (or fail to germinate) where they landed. The seed drill significantly improved this process, by creating a hole of specific depth, dropping in a seed, and covering it over, three rows at a time. The result was an increased rate of germination, and a much-improved crop yield.)
Louis Napoleon's rise & ideas on gov't
He thought that the Government should be powerful and that there should be strong nationalism, but mainly guided by the people's interests
How did Bismarck get the German states to agree to unite?
Had prestige from the victory over France
What was the US' position on WWI until 1917?
The US didnt feel the need for entering the war because none of it was affecting their home. It was a distant happening, one they didnt want to be a part of.
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