AP European History Part Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Philosophes
French philosophers
rembrandt
Dutch painter.
1928
Stalin takes over
CAvour
unites norther italian states.
Chartist Movement
universal male sufferage
1861
Italy unified; Russian serfs emancipated
Adam Smith
The Wealth of Nations.
Mir
Russian ancient peasant village assembly
Peasant land was collective property of Mir
Grand Monarque
nickname of louis XIV
Shakespeare
-playwright-one of the greatest english writers
thomas hobbes
English philosopher and author.
Age of Enlightenment
Eighteenth-century period of scientific and philosophical innovation in which people investigated human nature and sought to explain reality through rational, logical thinking. This period formed the basis of modern science.
1938
Munish Conference - height of appeasement
Christopher Marlowe
His tragedies influenced Shakespeare to a great extent. This man set the model for character, poetry, and style that only Shakespeare managed to surpass.
Versailles
the palace court of Louis XIV
Herbert Spencer
(1820-1903) English philosopher who argued that in the difficult economic struggle for existence, only the "fittest" would survive.
politiques
rulers who put political necessities about personal beleifs
Surrealism
artistic movement that arose between WWI and II portrayed recognizable objects in unrecognizable relationships
Bloody Sunday
food shortages and peasant/laborer oppression led to a massive procession of workers presenting a petition to the tsar, but troops opened fire on the peaceful demonstration, leading to the Revolution of 1905
id
the amoral, irrational instincts for self-gratification. (in Freud's model of the internal organization of the human mind)
Dissenters
people who disagree with official religious or political opinions
Hernando Cortez
(1519-1521) conqueror of the Aztecs
Bastille
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Repressive legislature passed in response to the revolutionary stirrings in 19c Europe that banned demonstrations, suspended the writ of habeas corpus and restricted the press.
Six Acts
parliament
the legislature of Great Britain, historically the assembly of the three estates, now composed of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal, forming together the House of Lords, and representatives of the counties, cities, boroughs, and universities, forming the
Albrecht Dürer
German artist who lived from 1471-1528. Famous for his woodcuts and copper engravings. Influenced by Venetian artists, he was versed in classical teachings and humanism. He was also the first to create printed illustrations in books.
Andreas Vesalius
Flemish scientist who pioneered the study of anatomy and provided detailed overviews of the human body and its systems.
Pope Clement XIV
Born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio GanganeIli, was __ from 1769 to 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals.
Jacobins
The major group within the Legislative Assembly . They were Enlightenment radicals and wanted a republic with a representative government rather than a constitutional monarchy.
Charles X's chief minister Polignac issued the _, dissolving the newly elected assembly, taking away the right to vote from the upper bourgeoisie, & imposed rigid censorship
July Ordinance
Predestination
- doctrine espoused by John Calvin that God has known since beginning of time who will be saved/damned
Three Emperor's League
Linked monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia in alliance.
Daniel O'Connell
(1775-1847) Irish advocate for the Penal Laws against Catholics. Tried to repeal the Act of Union of 1800, which linked Britain and Ireland legislatively. He was elected to Parliament for the passage of the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act which declared Catholics were eligible for public office.
Bougeoisie
Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper class.
Walter Gropius
German architect who broke form previous design with light, airy, bright buildings of glass and iron
Valois Dynasty
French Catholic nobility; had their king in power; wanted to get rid of Huguenots because they were competition
Trench War
Characterized by barbed wire that stretched from the North Sea to Switzerland, this type of combat can be attributed to the long stalemate. Machine guns were strategically placed, making any advance difficult and dangerous. This kind of warfare took the life Christy Mathewson, the chivalrous, educated, and soft-spoken idol of BLBrown46.
Johann Tetzel
hawked indulgences in Germany after Pope Leo X issued them to finance the construction of St. Peter's Basilica
naturalism
the attempt to portray nature and human life without sentimentality
mandates
terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants
social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Allies
the alliances against Germany and it's partners in WWI and WWII
Secularism
A basic concern with the material world instead of the eternal world of spirit
"General Will"
Betterment of the community. Founded by Rousseau, he felt that this determines a country's course in economics and politics.
Ems Telegram
The carefully edited dispatch by Bismark to the French ambassador Bendetti that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor
This authoritarian dictator became known as "Caudillo" when he came to power in 1939.
General Francisco Franco
Second Reform Bill
1867, Conservatives and Liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's Conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Philosophe who published the "Social Contract". He posited that people are born good but are corrupted by education, laws, and society. Rousseau advocated a government based on popular sovereignty and was distrustful of other philosophes' suffocating conformity to "reason".
Bloody Mary
Oldest daughter of Henry VIII. Queen of England from 1553-1558. Known for her ruthless, deadly suppression of the Anglicanism in attempting to re-Catholicize England. She married Spain's Philip II.
Reformation Parliament
Nickname for the Parliament that was called for a 7 year session that began in 1529. During this period, it passed legislation that harassed and placed royal reins on the clergy. This meant that whenever fundamental changes were made in religion, the monarch had to consult with and work through Parliament.
Popish Plot
hysteria over the belief that Charles II's wife was plotting to kill him and put his brother, James, an open Catholic, on the throne
Concordat
Napoleon and Poe Pius VII reached this agreement which made Catholicism the official religion of Napoleon's empire. In return, the church gave up its claims on confiscated property.
slaves
what the sultan of the Ottoman Empire filled the top ranks of his bureaucracy with
Italian Unification
During 1848, Italy was separated into many states. Cavour worked to unify the North then helped Giuseppe Garibaldi unify the South staring with Sicily. Garibaldi eventually stepped aside and handed over all of Southern Italy to Victor Emmanuel II (King of Sardinia) rule all of the now unified Italy
Three Emperors' League
The 1873 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Russia.
scientific method
the use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature. these patterns or natural laws can be described with mathematical formulas
Douglas Haig
was a British soldier and senior commander (field marshal) during World War I. He commanded the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) from 1915 to the end of the War. Most notably he was commander during the Battle of the Somme, the 3rd Battle of Ypres and the series of victories leading to the German surrender in 1918.
Charles Darwin
created the theory of evolution; his work led to Social Darwinism
John Maynard Keynes
The author of "The Economic Consequences of the Peace," this brilliant economist attacked reparations agreements and other economic aspects of the Treaty of Versailles.
Social Democratic Party
German political party that was committed to a Marxist critique of capitalism and organized itself as a mass political party competing for elections in the Reichstag, won seats and considerable power; Bismarck eventually outlawed the party but socialist power continued to grow
creoles
Persons of Spanish descent born in the Spanish colonies
Lloyd George
the prime minister of Great Britain; platform was to make the Germans pay for WWI (at the Paris Peace Conference)
Chartism
the principles of a body of 19th century English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people
Jacob Burckhardt
a Swiss historian who wrote "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy." Argued that the revival of ancient learning gave birth to new secular and scientific vales. Thought the Middle Ages was bad, Renaissance was super awesome
Bill of Rights
(1689) A Document that declared parliament in power
Michalangelo Buonarroti

Renaissance
(1475-1564) Worked in Rome. Painted the Sistine Chapel. Sculpted the statue of David.
European kingdom that took the lead in overseas exploration was:
Portugal
bullionism is:
the accumulation of precious metals by the government to obtain a favorable balance of trade.
Edmund Cartwright
The inventor of the power loom for machine weaving.
Decline of Spain
The rise in population coupled with inflation led to a weakening of Spanish industry and emigration. The expulsion of Jews and Moors in 1492 also contributed to the decline, as they were productive members of the economy.
Maximilien Robespierre
Became the most powerful leader of the Committee of Public Safety. Ran the Reign of Terror and even betrayed his allies. He was eventually arrested and executed.
This group, Pascal was in it, was a Catholic faction that believed the total sinfulness of manking & the need for salvation to be achieved through faith b/c we're predestined
Jansenists
Sphere of Influence
A region dominated by, but not directly ruled by, a foreign nation.
Law of Universal Gravitation
discovered by Isaac Newton by synthesizing the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. It said that everybody in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship. It was included in Newton's famous book, the Principia. It is significant because it is the frame of the entire universe because planets move with this law.
Peace of Westphalia
(1648) The treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany. It allowed each prince - whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist - to choose the established creed of his territory.
Dowager Empress Tzu Hsi
Chinese leader who used conservative forces to maintain her power
Otto von Bismarck
Policies served to prevent growth of more democratic institutions
distrusted catholic loyalty to new Germany
Abandoned attack on Catholicism by making shift in policy
Persecuted socialists
-Thought they were dangerous to gov.
-1878-passed anti social act which outlawed part and limited social meetings and publications
attempted to woo workers away from social by enactin social welfare legislation
failed to stop socialism.
transubstantiation
the belief that the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper literally changes into body and blood of Christ; denied by Luther
Spanish popular front
in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organizations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election.
Jena and Auerstadt
battles at which Napoleon defeated the Prussian army shortly after they entered the war
Joseph Joffre
French general led the Franch at the Battle of the Marne
Sir Richard Arkwright
Invented water frame at almost the same time as the spinning jenny was invented.
I wanted to make France the strongest country in Europe and realized that to do this I needed to decrease power of the Huguenots and nobles.
Cardinal Richelieu
Duke of Alva
Military leader sent by Philip to pacify the Low Countries(Netherlands)
Nicholas I
He became the Czar of Russia in 1825 and was immediately faced with the Decembrist Revolt, which he crushed. He was a firm follower of autocracy and stressed conservative policies that forced many of Russia's liberal intellectuals to flee. He died in 1855.
French Revolution (1830)
A vital period of the history of France and Europe as a whole. During this time, democracy replaced the absolute monarchy in France, and the country's Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo a radical restructuring.
Treaty of Fountainebleau
Signed by Marie de Medicis. A mutual defense pact with Spain. Arranged for the marriage of Louis XIII to the Spanish Infanta.
Conservative Ministry of Lord Salisbury
Lord Salisbury attempted to bargain with the Irish through public works and administrative reform. He was defeated in the next election.
Ignatius of Loyola
This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world
Book of Common Prayer
church service during the reign of Edward VI; restored by Elizabeth
University Act
an 1870 law that eliminated the use of religious tests that provided a quota of seats in universities for members of the Anglican church
Ivan the Terrible
), grand duke of Moscow (1533-47) and czar of Russia (1547-84), one of the creators of the Russian state.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella

Exploration
Monarchs who united Spain; responsible for the reconquista.
The French nobility who had been given titles because of their services as good judges or competent civil administrators.
nobless de robe
War of Three Henrys
French Civil War because the the Holy Leauge vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the throne. Supported by the Holy Leauge and Spain's Phillip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre
Second Rebellion In Italy
Garibaldi and Mazzini go to Rome to ignite a second uprising.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Pragmatic Sanction

Eastern Absolutism
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne
Prince Clemens von Metternich (1773-1859)
Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna
Thermidorian Reaction and The Directory
This was the reaction to the despotism after the Second Revolution which led to the establishment of the five-man executive that supported the French military which was not popular with the French people
The Schmalkaldic War (1546-1547) was begun by?:
Charles V to restore Catholicism to the Holy Roman Empire.
In order to try to get religious unity as a means of enhancing royal absolutism, Louis...
Revoked the Edict of Nantes
The Paris Accord of 1990 was a Europe-wide agreement to?:
affirm existing borders and reduce arms.
Great Britain exported opium to China in order to?:
find a means of paying for imports from China.
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Term:
Definition:
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