AP European History Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Copernicus
heliocentric theory
1519
Cortez conquers Aztecs
Communism
government controls buisness
Anarchism
individualist, radical, violent tactics, want no state, state of nature
Dual Alliance
Germany and Austria-Hungary
1776
Americna Revolution; Adam Smith publishes Wealth of Nations
Michel de Montaigne
well known skeptic
Psychoanalysis
Study of the unconcious
Accomplished through dialogue with patients in which therapist probed deeply into memory to retrace chain of repression all the way back to childhood origins
Patients psychic conflict resolved.
Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Charles Fourier
French social theorist-criticized capitalism-wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements.
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
Roger Bacon
Franciscan monk, English philosopher, and scientist in the 1200s who advocated for a system of scientific experimentation in seeking truth rather than accepting without question traditional Church and ancient beliefs. This led to the development of the scientific method.
England
The first country to industrialize, and the first industry to industrialize was the textile industry.
Elba Island
Following his abdication, Napoleon went into exile here. It is off the coast of northern Italy.
inquisition
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626) Inductive thinker who stressed experimentation in arriving at the truth.
Mercantilism
prevailing economic theory of European nations in 16 th and 17 th centuries. It rested on the premise that a nations power and wealth were determined by its supply of precious metal which were to be acquired by increasing exports (paid for with gold) and reducing imports to achieve domestic self-sufficiency; mercantilism remained the dominant theory until the Industrial Revelation and articulation of theory of laissez faire.
Samuel Slater
British immigrant established the first textile factory with water-powered spinning machines
Afrikaners
South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century, also called Boers, conflict with the new British settlers in the Boer War
H.G. Wells
British author (1866-1946), wrote mainly science fiction including "The War of the Worlds","The Time Machine", and "The Invisible Man"
Cubism
an artistic movement in France beginning in 1907 that featured surfaces of geometrical planes
Feudalism
A decentralized government where the lords use vassals in exchange for protection
Constitutionalism

Absolutism
Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism.
The legislators of the French Revolution enacted a law granting the right to vote to women who owned a sufficient amount of property. True or False?
False
isaac newton
English philosopher and mathematician: formulator of the law of gravitation.
Vulgate
Latin translation of the Bible by JErome (348-420 C.E.) ad adopted as the standard version by the Catholic Church.
William Harvey
English physician who used lab experiments to study the circulation of blood and its flow through arteries and veins as well as the heart.
Vendee Revolt
During the French Revolution, the 1793- 1796 uprising in the Vendee, variously known as the Uprising, Insurrection, Revolt, Vendean Rebellion, or Wars in the Vendee, was the largest internal counter-revolution to the new Republic.
1534
Act of Supremacy in england creates Anglican Church
Condotierre
a leader of mercenary soldiers in Renaissance Italy
Enclosure Movement
- process where British landlords consolidated or fenced common lands to increase production of cash crops
- Acts led to increase in size of farms held by large landowners
Nikon
a patriarch of Russia who was determined to bring "corrupted" Russian practices of worship in line with the Greek Orthodox model. For example, the issue of how many fingers you crossed yourself with or how many hallelujahs you say after prayer. This is significant because Nikon took salvation away from peasants, their only hope, which led to peasants burning themselves alive.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need.
Ninety-Five Thesis
Luther's response to the Indulgence Controversy. Pope Leo X did not take his work seriously, but it was reprinted and spread all over Germany.
Kepler
This astronomer stated that the orbits of planets around the sun were elliptical, the planets do not orbit at a constant speed, and that an orbit is related to its distance from the sun
Nicolaus Copernicus
Developed heliocentric view of the solar system
Allies
Also called the Triple Entente, the nations of Great Britain, France, and Russia made up one camp of World War I. The United States later joined.
Winston Churchill
British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many Allied campaigns, ended the British policy of appeasement
Glorious Revolution
the largely peaceful replacement of James II by William and Mary as English monarchs in 1688. It marked the beginning of constitutional monarchy in Britain
Magellan
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
Education Act of 1870
established the government's responsibility to run the elementary schools in Britain
Zimmerman Telegram
German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the US. The telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the America public
Hanoverians
A Germanic royal dynasty which has ruled
Anglicanism

Reformation
Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.
This medieval school of thought began losing its popularity during the Renaissance. For example, the clergy used to have intellectual discussions on subjects like how many saints could occupy the head of a pin.
Scholasticism
This saw the economic system as "aimless and unjust." Looked to Robert Owen's model factory with hope.
Socialism
ivan the terrible
first czar of Russia 1547–84.
Utopian Socialism
This movement, a reaction to the incredible poverty seen in the industrial era, postulated that workers would live together in a clean, safe environment and work cooperatively. Frenchman Charles Fourier (1768-1837) was the author of this ideal.
Issac Newton
English scientist and author of works explaining the law of universal gravitation and means of measuring motion. His works inspired the notion of natural and universal laws ordering and arranging life.
Nationalism
An ideology that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles. Nationalism typically-makes certain political claims.
Archduke Franze Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started WWI
Ivan IV
set up secret police, the most powerful of the early czars. Learned, religious, and cruel. Saw treason everywhere and arrested, exiled, or excecuted many advisors, reduced boyars power, increased Russia's trade with western Europe and worked to expand borders, conquered Mongul lands to the east and south of Moscow
categorial imperative
Kant thought that all human beings possessed an innate sense of moral duty or an awareness of what he called this.
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officails from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Year's War.
Edward Tudor
Henry VIII's only son, very weak, becomes king and dies shortly after
Zimmermann telegram
A secret German message to Mexico supporting the Mexican governement in regaining Arizona and Texas if the Mexicans declared war on the United States, a factor propelling the United States into World War I in April 1917.
erasmus
known as the "prince of the humanist" during the Northern Renaissance
Lawrence of Arabia
British military officer who incited the Arabs in Arabia to revolt against their Turkish lords
Papal States
Central Italy; mostly under control of Popes
Battle of Verdun
Capitalizing on Erich von Falkenhayn's miscalculation of French military strength, the French overcame superior firepower and repelled the German forces at this battle.
Cardinal Fleury
Louis XV's second minister who pulled back from foreign interests, expanded commerce and trade, promoted a growth of industry, and balanced the budget
Thermidorian Reaction
the reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution that began in July 1794. Associated with the end of terror and establishment of the Directory
Suez Canal
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
Quadruple Alliance
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
Marshall Plan
U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall urged Americans to offer economic aide- this was the Marshall Plan. Refused by Stalin
The naval battle in the Pacific that is considered the turning point of teh war and established US naval supremacy in the area was:
Midway.
Humanism

Renaissance
- Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
I believed in iconoclasm and later died in the Battle of Kapel carrying a sword and a Bible.
Ulrich Zwingli
A British philosopher, whose ideas on natural law was adopted to create the Declaration of Independence.
John Locke
Botticelli
One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
The Consulate
First five years of Napoleon's rule as dictator after his 1799 coup d'etat in which he had sole power to propose new laws that the legislature could only approve or reject.
Josiah Wedgwood
An English maker of pottery and china, he developed the pyrometer (measures temperature in kilns) and was able to produce inexpensive chine. He is also noted for introducing mechanization to the porcelain industry.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Subordinated the Roman Catholic Church-to the French government. Law confiscated the Church's French land holdings and banned monastic vows.
What was the Charter?
Created the Chamber of Deputes, allowed freedom of the press, allowed freedom of religion, and advocated that landowners were to be returned their land.
Diet of Worms
held by Charles V against Martin Luther's preachings, decreed no one could read Luther's works
Levée En Masse
- French policy of conscripting all males into the army
- created new type of military force based on mass participation and fully mobilized economy
"German question"
the sudden death of communism in east germany in 1989 reopened this:
European Free Trade Association
An association of Western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members were Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Heaven --i.e., outside the Common Market. Formed in 1959.
Pan-Slavism
A movement to create a nation state of Slavic people
Saint-Simon
This man was one of the early and influential socialist thinkers who proclaimed the tremendous possibilities of industrial development
The Black Death
Because of the three field crop rotation, food supply rose and population increased. 1315 and 1317 crop failures left population vunerable to disease.
Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji
this treaty was passed under Catherine the Great after Russia defeated the Turks: Russians gained land, privileges of protecting Greek Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, and the right to sail in Turkish waters
General Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Revolution of 1905
Nicholas II failed to fix the politcal, economic and social problems in Russia
Pope Paul III
His pontification proved to be TURNING point of reform papacy. Appoint reform commission to study state of church, reported church's problems from corrupt policies of popes and cardinals. Recognized Jesuits and summoned Council of Trent.
Charles De Gaulle
Leader of Free French General that resigned in 1946 after re-establishing the free, democratic Fourth Republic.
Diggers and Levellers
Radical groups in England in the 1650's who called for the abolition of private ownership and extension of the franchise
Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847)
Irish advocate for the Penal Laws against Catholics. Tried to have repealed the Act of Union of 1800, which linked Britain and Ireland legislatively. His election to Parliament was the path for the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act which declared Catholics were eligible for Public Office.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Became the leader of the USSR in 1985. He proposed major reforms and adopted policies of greater openness (glasnost and perestroika) and allowed Soviet-bloc states greater independence. In 1991, there was an unsuccessful attempted overthrow of his government. The USSR dissolved in 1991 with Gorbachev's resignation.
Eugene Delacroix
(April 26, 1798 - August 13, 1863) was the most important of the French Romantic painters. Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of color profoundly shaped the work of the Impress.
time of Troubles
The death of Ivan the Terrible in 1584-ushered in an era of confusion and violent struggle for power. Events were particularly chaotic after Ivan's son, Theodore, died in 1598 without an heir. The years of 1598 to 1613 were aptly called the "Time of Troubles." The close relatives of the tsar intrigued against and murdered each other, alternately fighting and welcoming the invading Swedes and Poles, who even occupied Moscow. Cossack bands, led by Ivan Bolotnikov, marched northward, rallying peasants and slaughtering nobles and officials. (580)
What did Germany build up prior to WWI to challenge Britain?
Its navy.
Martin Luther
This was the most famous and one of the first concrete reformer who began to reject some of the more obscure and selfish laws of the Catholic Church
Concert of Europe
plan for the four major powers to interfere if any European country tried to overthrow their monarchy
Battle of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Henry III
son of King John and king of England from 1216 to 1272.his incompetence aroused baronial opposition led by Simon de Montfort (1207-1272)
"Renaissance Man"

Renaissance
A man that is multitalented and is well educated.
I issued the Edict of Nantes and tried to restore stability back in France.
Henry IV
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V, was a major European conflict over the succession to Spanish throne. In 1701, Charles II died and had bequeathed all of his possessions to Philip, duc d'Anjou — a grandson of the French King Louis XIV — who thereby became Philip V of Spain. The war began slowly, as the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I of Habsburg fought to protect his own dynasty's claim to the Spanish inheritance. As Louis XIV began to expand his territories more aggressively, however, other European nations (chiefly England, Portugal and the Dutch Republic) entered on the Holy Roman Empire's side to check French expansion.[6] Other states joined the coalition opposing France and Spain in an attempt to acquire new territories, or to protect existing dominions. The war was fought not only in Europe, but also in North America, where the conflict became known to the English colonists as Queen Anne's War, and by corsairs and privateers along the Spanish Main. Over the course of the fighting, some 400,000 people were killed.
Committee of Public Safety
This was the group that carried out the Reign of Terror
Four Year Plan
The Four Year Plan was a series of economic reforms created by the Nazi Party. The Four Year Plan sought to reduce unemployment; increase synthetic fibre production; undertake public works projects under the direction of Fritz Todt; increased automobile production; initiate numerous building and architectural projects; and further develop the Autobahn system. The plan also emphasized building up the nation's military defenses, in direct violation of the terms set by the Allies of World War I at the Treaty of Versailles
Pico Della Mirandola

Renaissance
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Council of Trent
(1645 thru 63) Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
World Markets / European foreign investment
Europe mainly invested most of its money back into Europe, and then into the US
After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era, France?:
was divided into departments rather than provinces.
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
The major work of Nicolas Copernicus. Refuted the theory of a geocentric universe in favor of a heliocentric one.
Which of the following was not a factor in the collapse of the communist governments of eastern Europe in 1989?:

A) the leadership of Yugoslavia in opposing the Soviet Union.
B) the defeat of the communist regimes in democratic elections.
C) Gorbachev
C) Gorbachev’s announcement that the Soviet Union was withdrawing its financial and military support.
Problems of the Treaty of Versailles
- the us did not sign the treaty
- many parts of the treaty left a bitterness and hatred with the germans
- japan and italy were upset because they gained less territory than they hoped
- the league of nations was in no position to take action on any complaints
proletariat
industrial working class
Badin-Powell
founder of Boy Scouts
Burke
advocated revolutionary conservatism that claimed every generation had its duty to preserve the state partnership
zenith
the highest or culminating point
Henry de Saint-Simon
Father of socialism.
Michelangelo
"David" uses contrapposto (relaxed left leg, stiff right leg in poses)
Nude as he fights Goliath
Duma
Russia's lower house of politics
prevailing
prove more powerful than opposing forcoes
Behaim and Schoner
developed accurate maps (Italian/Northern Renaissance, 1450-1550)
"sweating"
subcontracting of piecework done at home
Sir Francis Bacon
Inductive reasoning: direction observation
San Martin
liberator of Chile and Peru
Slater
British immigrant who established the first textile factory in the US
realism
rejected romanticism and dealt with ordinary people and careful observation
Marcel Proust
Great French novelist. Wrote remembrance of things Past in which he recalled bittersweet memories of childhood and youthful lore and tried to discover their inner most meaning. He cooped himself up for ten years in his apartment withdrawing from the present to dwell on the past.
Lebensraum
(German for "habitat" or literally "living space") served as a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression. In his book Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum (for a Grossdeutschland, land, and raw materials), and that it should be taken in the East. It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, Germanize or enslave the Polish, and later also Russian and other Slavic populations, and to repopulate the land with reinrassig Germanic peoples. The entire urban population was to be exterminated by starvation, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and allowing their replacement by a German upper class.
Passchendaele
a COMPLETELY worthless battle that resulted in millions dead
Leviathan
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
common law
the unwritten law, especially of England, based on custom or court decision, as distinct from statue law
quattrocento
word for Italian 15th century; when Italy's elite culture developed (Italian/Northern Renaissance, 1450-1550)
Second Industrial Revolution
steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum led to new frontiers
Montaigne
Established the essay as an accepted literary genre; skeptical tone..."What do I know?"
Scott
author of Ivanhoe who wrote historical novels
Cartwright
invented the power loom which allowed faster weaving
leitmotiv
musical theme in opera where human voice combined with orchestra and did not rise above it
Savonarola
A Dominican friar that predicted the French invasion of Florence from the paganism and the moral vice of the city
Tanzimat
This was a short ottoman parliament designed to model the western model of an empire
Walter Scott
This Scottish Romantic poet used history to write his poems
Søren Kierkegaard
Danish religious philosopher who made a total religious commitment to a remote and majestic god, after rejecting formalistic religion
Gustav Stresemann
German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr
Diaz
This was the first explorer who rounded the southern tip of the Cape of Good Hope but was never able to go all the way around
Analyze
the study of the separation of the components into its part
William Shakespeare
perhaps the greatest writer in English or of all time (Italian/Northern Renaissance, 1450-1550)
Desiderius Erasmus
Father of humanism; wrote "The Praise of Folly" satire; wanted Church reforms
liberalism
belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible
frescos
paintings done either on wet or dry plaster an important medium of art during the renaissance. sistine chapel
Crompton
inventor of the mule, a combination of the spinning jenny and the water frame
Victorian Age
Britain during the reign of Queen Victoria characterized a pious complacency
treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Shakespeare
This man wrote several plays and poems and is regarded as one of the best writers of all time
Modern liberalism
This was new thought that the governments should be subject to change. This was the counterpart to conservatism
reparations
Germany had to pay billions of dollars after WWI to the victors
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Was an Austrian philosopher and a logical empiricist who argued in Essay on Logical Philosophy that great philosophical questions like god freedom and morality were "quite literally senseless."
The Decameron
A work that portrays an acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society through descriptions of merchants, friars, and husbands
Thomas Hobbes
This was the philosopher that believed that a strong central government was needed to avoid rebellion and civil war
Donatello
One of the first and best Renaissance sculptors. He was also one of the first artists to sell his works
Josef Pilsudaski
was the authoritarian ruler of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he was a major influence in Poland's politics, and an important figure on the broader European political scene. He is considered largely responsible for Poland regaining independence in 1918, after a hundred and twenty-three years of partitions
Cardinal Richelieu
Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French crown under Louis XIII in 1624. Died in 1642.
Hundred Years' War
In France, war between Valois and Plantagenet dynsasties; Valois won the throne (Italian/Northern Renaissance, 1450-1550)
Municipal Corporations Act
new police forces spread into boroughs and counties were allowed to establish police forces
Charles VII
french king made great by those who served him. created a pemanent professional army
Franco-Prussian WAr (1870-1871)
initiated by Bismarck editing a letter to insult the French
Congress of Vienna
This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
Philosophy of the Enlightenment
This dealt with skepticism, the government, and the role of reason in everyday life
Johann Gutenberg
Man who created the printing press and changed the production and reading of books
Jesuits
This was the group of people that was important in converting Asians and Latin Americans to Catholicism which allowed for the mass spread of Christianity
Edwin Chadwick
This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses
Henry VIII
This was the man who started the Church of England because he needed a reformation in Catholicism which would allow him to divorce his wife
Public Health Movement
Sought to remedy the high disease and mortality rate that occurred in cities. People sought to sanitize cities by creating sewage systems and cleaning up the environment
Ferdinand VII
king of Spain who did not allow a constitutional system so was dethroned then restored by outside intervention
Reasons for Russian weakness
These were the reasons of bad leadership, and lack of organized or effective army
Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)
This was the first French president as a result of the election after the Revolution of 1848
Japanese "opening" of Korea
The Japanese had a war with China and ended up gaining Korea, which they opened to trade; Japan became an imperialist power
Development of Anglo-German rivalry & Naval arms race
This rivalry developed because of the increasing naval race, and because Germany was becoming increasingly militaristic
Institutes of the Christian Religion
This was the work by John Calvin that described to the world the ideology of John Calvin
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