AP European History Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
defense mechanisms
Wilhelm Roentgen
discovered x-rays
"Here I stand"
Martin Luther
French novelist and critic
popolo minuto
small shopkeepers and artisans
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Italian Fascist dictator; supported intervention over neutrality in WWI
the eighteenth-century writers and critics who forged the new attitudes favorable to change. They sought to apply reason and common sense to the institutions and societies of their day
Pierre Proudhon
utopianist. "what is property?"-theft
Red Shirts
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Johannes Kepler
Mathematician who used models, observations, and mathematics to prove the heliocentric theory developed by Copernicus. His work was later supported by Galileo.
Cahiers de Doleances
Grievances- Criticized the governtment's wastefullness, indirect taxation, church taxes and corruption, and rights given to the aristocracy. Begin to demand more equal rights.
Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus
Algeciras Conference
Conference, provoked Germany backfired on Germany over the issus of the Morocco crisis
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Karl Marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Cardinal Mazarin
Italian who continued Richelieu's policies when he was in charge when Louis XIV was in power
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the racially superior German people
Meaning "charcoal burners." the most famous of the secret republican societies seeking to unify Italy in the 1820s
San Martin
revolutionary that freed Chile, Argentina and Peru
All teachings of John Calvin. Emphasized that God SUPREME authority over ALL. Emphasize doctrine of predestination. Called reformed tradition or faith.
Thomas Wolsey

Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
This medieval philosophy emphasized a study of the sciences, theology, and professional training in the law and medicine.
Tycho Brahe
Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.
Roundheads and Cavaliers
Roundheads were supporters of Parliament, including non-Anglican Protestants and Puritans, while Cavaliers (or royalists) were supporters of the King, largely Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and nobles.
Separatists (Puritans)
Radical Protestants in England who believed Henry VIII did not take extreme enough measures in merely creating the Anglican Church. They favored "purifying" the new Anglican Church of all similarities to the Catholic Church.
Any person seeking "purity" of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the reform of the Church of Endgland. Many of these people settled in the American colonies.
city that had become the world's banker
This was based on these things:
-Better firepower
-Steamships & Canals for transport
-Drugs to prevent bad diseases
New Imperialism
The belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature. Deists believed that natural laws could be discovered by the use of human reason.
95 Theses
written by Martin Luther about indulgences and posted on church doors, leading to Protestant Reformation
Johann Tetzel
sold indulgences, corrupt/abuse of the church, made Martin Luther extremely annoyed
(1726-1775) Head of the bloody peasant revolt in 1773 that convinced Catherine the Great to throw her support to the nobles and cease internal reforms.
The socialist idea that we should embrace socialism in a gradual advance, with no bloody war
an artistic style developed at the beginning of the 20th century; Pablo Picasso; geometric designs to re-create reality
Where the boers migrated after brits took control of Cape town
1877-Brits seized it which led to revolt
recognized as independent South african replublic
Dmitri Mendeleyev
Russian chemist who developed a periodic table of the chemical elements and, using his chart, predicted the discovery of several new elements
Tribute Money, the Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, Italy
Fabian Society
an association of British socialists who advocate gradual reforms within the law leading to democratic socialism
Rober Owen
Improved working conditions of his workers by building houses to rent for his workers. He also founded a community called New Harmony in Indiana
Presbyterianism is the form of church government in which elders, both lay people and ministers, govern.
John Huss
(1369-1415) Czech priest who was burned at the stake for questioning religious beliefs
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
their beliefs and practices were too radicale for their times, and they were bitterly persecuted by other Protestants and Catholics
Test Act (1673)
law prohibiting Catholics and dissenters to hold politcal office
Soviet Union started a period of stagnation. Saw de-Stalinization as a dangerous threat.
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch scholar known as "Prince of Northern Humanists." Lived from 1495-1536. He criticized the lack of spirituality in the Church in "The Praise of Folly", which ridicules the superstition, ignorance, and vice of Christians on pilgrimages, in fasting, and the Church's interpretation of the Bible.
Richard Arkwright
British inventor of the water frame (1769), which helped revolutionize textile production.
Maria Theresa
The eldest daughter of Emperor Charles VI, who promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction to allow her to succeed to the Habsburg monarchy, and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Baldassare Castiglione
The author of "Book of the Courtier."
Louis XIII
Successor of Henry IV. Relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu.
Napoleon Bonaparte
French emperor from 1804 to 1815. Established several of the reforms of the French Revolution during his dictatorial rule
Tabula rasa
Locke's theory that all humans enter the world as blank page.
sold by tetzel. bought people out of purgatory. forgiveness for sins
Frederick William IV
(1840-1861) King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848.
Joseph II of Austria
Enlightened monarch who created Toleration Act, tried to help peasants, 1) Made nobles pay taxes and ended serfdom 2) Allowed other religions 3) Everyone must speak German 4) Every group found reason to hate him 5) Had secret police but died of stress
Dual Monarchy
The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns
Official Nationality
A program initiated by Nicholas. It was a program of autocracy that championed the power of the tsar as the single authority that could govern Russia and its people. It was presided over by Count S.S. Uvarov.
The Puritains
They wanted a Calvinist version of Protestantism. Don't like Catholic practices and ceremony. They are too radical and Elizabeth doesn't like them
English Civil War
conflict between Parliament & royal authority, ended with the victory of Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Eiffel Tower
An iron structure that dominates the skyline of Paris. When it was built in the nineteenth century, it was the tallest freestanding structure in the world.
Arthur Young
his Travels During 1787, 1788, and 1789; he observed the French agricultural system and illustrated the weaknesses of the French agricultural system- nobles did not develop land, which became wasted
Frederick II
known to posterity as Frederick the Great, ruled the kingdom of PRUSSIA from 1740 to 1786.
Council of People's Commissars
(November 1917)Lenin's government that was set up after the red army took over government
organic chemistry
the study of the compounds of carbon.
She married her cousin Philip of Spain, son of Charles V and persecuted several hundred Protestants, two acts that alienated her subjects.
Mary Tudor
A belief that the existing society and government must be destroyed so that a better society can be created.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen guaranteed security of property. True or False?:
British Rule of India
White Supremacy, wouldn't let trained representatives play a role in activities
Became King of France in 1814; the conservative Congress of Vienna restored him to power. He was the brother of Louis XVI and ruled as a constitutional monarch until his death in 1824.
Affair of the Placards (1534)
"An incident involving anti-Catholic posters which appeared in public places in Paris, France during the night of October 17, 1534. It marks the end of the conciliatory policies of Francis I, who had formerly attempted to protect the Protestants."
Reconcentration Policy
implemented in the Boer War, was a policy that arrested civilians to combat guerilla warfare
1. The country that was the victim of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact was
Treaty of Tilsit
Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I signed this treaty which confirmed France's gains. The Prussian state was reduced to half its previous size. Prussia and Russia became allies of Napoleon against Britain.
The Paris Commune
After a republic was established the National Assembly was dominated by monarchists. This displeased the Parisians, who then elected the Paris Commune, which wanted to administer Paris separately from France. The army came in and crushed the movement, representing the triumph of the nation-state.
Divine right monarchy
Belief that a monarch's power derives from God and represents Him on earth.
Surplus Value
This is the value of the unpaid surplus labor performed by the worker for the capitalist for profit
maastrich treaty
passed in 1991. a series of specific european economic community (eec) proposals for a unified currency and a strong central bank. biggest success was the eventual formation of the european union (eu) and the circulation of the euro
Spanish Inquisition
introduced by the Pope at the request of Ferdinand & Isabella; guaranteed the orthodoxy of converts from Judaism; told Jews & Muslims to convert or leave
Sturm und Drang
Meaning storm and stress. A movement in German romantic literature and philosophy that emphasized feeling and emotion
Josiah Wedgewood
An English maker of pottery and china, he developed the pyrometer (measures temperature in kilns) and was able to produce inexpensive china. He is also noted for introducing mechanization to the porcelain industry.
October Manifesto
the result of a great general strike in October 1905, it granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected duma (parliament) with real legislative power.
Thomas Aquinas
said every thought is God inspired and God never gives bad thoughts thus faith and reason always go together.
supported Scholasticism and supported by the church.
said if can't find connection then you were wrong not the church
wrote Summa Theologica
the lower house of the German Diet, or legislature.
I wanted to make France the strongest country in Europe and realized that to do this I needed to decrease power of the Huguenots and nobles.
Cardinal Richelieu
a member of a political party in Great Britain from the late 17th century to about 1832 that favored royal authority over Parliament and the preservation of the existing social and political order: succeeded by the Conservative party.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catherine ordered the killing of the Huguenot's leaders, and this lead to a massacre in which over three thousand Huguenots were murdered in Paris.
Who led this provisional government?
Two leaders; Lamartine, a liberalist, and Louis Blanc, a socialist.
an oligarchy
group of people that held the power in the Dutch republic
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf, an atempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction, communistic in nature.
Peace of Westphalia
This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
Gothic Art
A dark period of art during the Middle Ages that was scorned by Renaissance contemporaries
First, Second and Third Estates
First Estates consist of clergy, second nobility, third all other.
Treaty of Versailles ends... with which countries...
WWI.. USA, France, Great Britain
The fasces or bundle of rods with an ax was a symbol that Mussolini's party derived from?:
ancient Rome.
Jan Matthys and Jan Beukelsz
These two Dutch emigrants led the Anabaptist majority in Munster and forced Lutherans and Catholics to convert or emigrate.
Battle of Stalingrad
A great turning point in the war, that marked the end of Nazi advances in the Soviet Union.
Battle of El Alamein
World War II battle in which the Britain won a decisive victory over Germany in Egypt, securing the Suez Canal
The chief argument between Truman and Stalin at Potsdam in July of 1945 was over:
free elections in Eastern Europe.
Tensions leading to the outbreak of war
Nationalist Rebellion in Ott Empire resulted in Turkish repression, Russion intervention, & Great Power tensions
power to execute confined to papal territories
sacred congregation of the holy office
What were the Carlsbad Decrees?
Decrees in an attempt to root out any Napoleonic sympathies in the German Confederacy.
The feeling of most members of Parliament toward the parliamentary acts that removed England from Papal jurisdiction
Henry used the Parliament to legalize the Reformation in England. The Act in Restraint of Appeals and the Supremacy Act created great debate in Parliament, however, only a few if the members really understood what these acts were all about.
What happened to Rome during the Babylonian Captivity?
Lost a great source of revenue during the absence of the papacy.
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