AP European History Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Huguenots
French Calvinists
Luftwaffe
the German air force
Montesquieu
Disappointed in Absolutism. 'The Spirit of the Laws', a book that described an ideal system of government using checks and balances. He believed that societies and political institutions could be studied scientifically, and that a balanced government would lead to success.
Philosophes
Eighteenth century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system. Leading philosophes such as Voltaire fought irrational prejudice and believed that society should be open to people of talent.
Gibbon
historican who believed Christianity caused the downfall of Rome
Reichstag
Seated Germany's lower house of Parlimrent, it burned in 1933 and Hitler blamed it on the communist, this event led to Hitler becoming the absolute dictator in Germany.
Napoleon III
National identity, strong leader necessary to support rich AND poor, committed to social progress, gov't could stimulate the economy to create jobs and make people happiness. Shared power with Nat. Assembly. Dissolved National Assembly and voted as hereditary emperor. Gov't intervention with economy was good, keeps people happy and rebellions away. supported better housing, regulated businesses (conditions, number of jobs), right to unionize, but people HE wanted into offices. Gave Assembly more power. 1870- Forced to write a new constitution leaning towards more Parl. power (wanted more territory for France).
Frederick William I
1713-1740. Militaristic, wanted complete submission to the King. Kidnapped, beat, mandatory for nobles to serve the "Army of the North", a perfect and strict army. Absolute
D-Day
Allied forces under Dwight D. Eisenhower landed on the beaches of normandy in history's greatest naval invasion
Palladio
Venetian architect who specialized in the design of country villas
Portolani
Charts made by navigators and mathematicians, however they were out of scale and not useful for sea voyages.
Utilitarianism
A theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that is based upon the principle of "the greatest happiness for the greatest number." Bentham argued that this principle should be applied to each nation's government, economy, and judicial system.
Josephine Butler
(1828-1906) English reformer who challenged the Contagious Diseases Acts in order to protect the livelihood and rights of women.
Munich Agreement
agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war
Carnival
festival beginnins in January and ending at Lent that was a time of great indulgence
Conciliar Movement
The conciliarists believed that church authority rested in the council's representing of all Christians, not the authority of the pope.
Black Shirts
Broke up socialist gatherings and offices. Violent, but not kill. Under Mussolini (fascist).
Battle of Stalingrad
1942-1943. SU counterattack, circled Germany, cut off supplies. Took over STALINgrad for propaganda, access to VUlga river, oil supply
English Reformation
(1517-1640) Result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property
Rene Descartes
This French mathematical genius said that one should apply logic and try to answer problems with mathematical equations (deductive reasoning)
95 Theses
(1517) Luther's complaints about the church and indulgences (how they were bad)
John Wycliffe
(Middle Ages) ______ ________ (c. 1328-1324) was an English scholar who argued that the Bible was the only source of Christian doctrine and also translated it into English. His movement was violently suppressed.
Paracelsus
First scientist to believe that "like cures like". He believed that disease was caused by chemical imbalances.
Putting out system
A pre-industrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes. For example, watch manufacturers in Swiss towns employed villagers to make parts for their products. The system enabled entrepreneurs to avoid restrictive guild regulations.
Spanish Armada
Spain's failed attempt to invade England by sea
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
Lusitania
A British boat carrying some 100 American passengers that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI.
Andrew Bonar Law
Conservatives replaced Lloyd George with him, a conservative, fell to throat cancer, and was replaced with Stanley Baldwin.
Wesley
missionary of the English people who developed methodism
Auschwitz
a Nazi concentration camp for Jews in southwestern Poland during World War II
Aristotle
Earth is the stationary centre of the universe. Planets- Crystal spheres. Elements- Fire, water, earth, air. Geocentric. Views pro-Christain. Heaven- beyond 10th sphere. Science and theology were intertwined.
Counter Reformation
1540's. The reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected).
Charles VII
With Joan of Arc's help, raised English's siege of Orleans, and was crowned King of France.
Quadruple Alliance
After the Congress of Vienna: Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West
Clement VII
a Medici and very interested in extravagance; conflict between Charles V and Francis I which led to middle path supporting Charles then Francis; Battle of Pavia= Francis I captured and Pope switching loyalty then Charles leading the sack of Rome
Treaty of Paris (1783)
recognized independence of American colonies
Magna Carta
(1215) This ________ _______ is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king (John) was bound by the same laws as all other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair trial.
Amsterdam Bourse
created by Amsterdam to replace the exchange of goods with stock trading
Taille
A direct tax on the French peasantry. The taille was one of the most important sources of income for French monarchs until the French Revolution.
Travels
written by Marco Polo, this was the most informative of all the descriptions of Asia by medieval European travelers
May Laws of 1876
These temporary regulations regarding the Jews were proposed by minister of internal affairs Nikolai Ignatyev and enacted on May 15 (May 3 O.S.), 1882, by Tsar Alexander III of Russia. Originally, regulations of May 1882 were intended only as temporary measures until the revision of the laws concerning the Jews, but remained in effect for more than thirty years.
Battle of Jutland
Largest naval battle of WWI. (May-June) Brits vs. Germans off N Great Britain. No clear winner
Nikolai Bukharin
editor of Pravda and the main ideological voice for the right wing, a Communist Party faction who opposed Trotsky's drive for rapid industrialization in the 1920s. Bukharin supported Lenin's NEP. He and Stalin shared similar positions on economic development, but he was later forced off the Politburo when Stalin changed his policies in 1929. Under the Great Purges, Bukharin confessed to political crimes and was convicted and executed
Stalingrad
a city in the European part of Russia on the Volga
Salic Law
German law that crown must be passed through male relatives; used by France in 100 Years War to keep crown from Edward III
Alexander I
The czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon
Edict of Nantes
(1598) gave Hugeonots the right to liberty of conscience and worship in 150 towns; with Henry it would lead to Fr absolutism in 17th century
Stamp Act
British attempt to levy new taxes on the colonies
Charles I
as Charles II he was Holy Roman Emperor and as Charles I he was king of France (1630-1685)
Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)
Bohemian rebels seized the throne from Ferdinand of Spain and replaced him with Elector Palantine Frederick IV, but were soon crushed and Ferdinand regained the throne
Panther
the gunboat sent out by the Germans to the Moroccan port of Agadir to protect the German citizens there
Count Stephen Bethlen
The effective ruler of Hungary during the 1920s. He presided over a government that was parliamentary in form, but aristocratic in character.
Marshal Petain
He was an ancient hero of Verdun and led the new French government and asked for an armistice after the Germans went around the Maginot Line by going through Belgium and invaded France.
Mein Kamph
the book Hitler wrote in jail w/ plans of world domination, detailed Final Solution
Diet of Worms
(1521) council held by Charles V, here Luther listed grievances with the church which led to unrest
Committee of Public Safety
led France after the king was beheaded
Bartholomew Diaz
first person to round the Cape of Good Hope
Pope Pius IX
He wrote Syllabus of Errors in which he strongly denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty, denying that "the Roman pontiff can and ought to reconcile and align himself with progress, liberalism, and modern civilization."
Locarno Pact
In 1925 the leaders of Europe signed a number of agreements at Locarno, Switzerland. Germany and France pledged to accept their common border, and Britain and Italy agreed to fight either France or Germany if either one invaded the other. Other boundary disputes were also settled.
Armistice Day
11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918. Official end of battles on the W. Front. Allies wouldn't accept Germ's surrender from monarchy
War of the Spanish Succession
a general war in Europe (1701-1714) that broke out when Louis XIV installed his grandson on the throne of Spain
King Charles X of France
Wanted to be absolute, and so was disliked by his people. Goals:
1. Lessen influence of middle class.
2. Limit right to vote.
3. Put clergy in charge of education.
4. Public money used to pay nobles for loss of lands in French Revolution.
Origram
1. Attack 1814 Charter and got rid of it
2. Controlled the press.
Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
(1520) Luther's urge to make German princes reform kingdoms by destroying papal power; to confiscated ecclesiastical wealth to abolish indulgences, dispensations, pardons and crucial celibacy
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