nutrition Flashcards

Terms Definitions
b9=?
tetrahydrofolate
Vitamin K
phylloquinones
Lutein
Lycopene
Zeaxanthin
Other carotenoids
what is b2?
riboflavin
campylobacter jenjuni
raw meat
RQ for protein
0.82
Magnesium
Average Intake
80% RDA
Chloride
Average Intake
5400 mg/day
Zn
Upper Limit
40  mg/day
Saturated
solid at room temperature
BMI for normal person
18.5-24.9
Vitamin A
Average Intake
meets DRI
Functions of Ca
FUNCTIONS:
Bone Development/maintenance
Blood clotting (converts prothrombin to thrombin)
action potentials
muscle contraction
cell metabolism
Decrease Copper absorption
iron
magnesium
molybdenum
vitamin C
Choline
DV:425-550 mg
Toxicity:3.5 gm
Sources:Widely distributed
Function: • Essential nutrient, though not a vitamin
• All tissues contain choline
• Precursor for acetylcholine(neurotransmitter)
• Precursor for phospholipids
• Some role in homocysteine metabolism
Deficiency: Deficiency rare  
Proteins are digested into?
amino acids
What vitamin is an antioxidant
E
Two forms of beri-beri
Wet (edema)Dry
cytosol
water-based phase of the cytoplasm
constipation
a condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements
Functions of Vitamin E
FUNCTIONS:
Antioxidant
Reduces Oxidative Stress
DASH guideline for fruit
4-5 servings/day
Fluoride food sources
FOOD SOURCES:
fluoridated water
tea
seafood
seaweed
b5 sources?
meat, shells of whole grains
Major Minerals
Calcium, Cloride, Phosphorus, Sodium, Sulfur, Magnesium
Peristalsis
wave-like muscle contractins that push food down
Fill in the percentages for physician-pt perspectives__pts reported preference for no or minimal weight discussion.__pts reported being comfortable discussing weight with physician__physicians comfortable discussing weight, diet, physical activity with ob
64%88%84%72%18%
Trace Minerals are usually
cofactors for enzymes
Injury factor
the increased catabolism accompanying injury or sickness
The prescription drug sibutramine acts by regulating the utilization of
serotonin
During a physical activity, what hormone signals the fat cells to begin releasing their fatty acids?
Glucagon
nutrients
chemical substances in food that contribute to health, many of which are essential parts of a diet. nutrients nourish us by providing energy, materials for building body parts, and factors to regulate necessary chemical processes in the body
villi
the fingerlike protrusions into the small intestine that participate in digestion and absorption of food
trypsin
a protein-digesting enzyme secreted by the pancreas to act in the small intestine
Vitamin D Deficiency
Children: rickets
Adults (mostly women): osteomalacia
Proportion of body that is water
2/3
50-70%
Hypertension Stage 1 BP
140-159 Systolic
90-99 Diastolic
cofactors for superoxide dismutase
copper, zinc, manganese
Separates esophagus from the stomach:
Gastroesophageal spincter
preventable nutritional problem
anemia - iron will prevent
C
DV: 75-90 mg
Toxicity: 2 gm
• Excess excreted– Diarrhea commonSources: Citrus Fruits, Strawberries, Broccoli, Greens Function: • Synthesis of collagen
• Antioxidant– Reduces cancer-causing agents• Iron absorption• Immune functions– Doesn’t prevent colds, reduces symptoms •Neurotransmitter\Hormone\Connective Tissue Synthesis
• Synthesized by most animals fromglucose
– Not by humans

Deficiency: • Scurvy
– Deficient for 20-40 days
– Fatigue, pinpoint hemorrhages– Bleeding gums
– Weakness– Fractures
– Associated with poverty
overnutrition
a state in which nutritional intake greatly exceeds the body's needs
Deficiency of Thiamine causes
beriberi- polished rice diets
wernike-karsakoff syndrome- alcholics
food infection
from consumption of food containing living microorganisms
Nitrogen balance equation
intake (g/24h) -UUN (g/24hr) -4gapplies when urinary urea nitrogen is measured
Estimate for BMR for a 50kg person
1kcal/hr/kg
Approx what percent of the body's vitamin A stores are found in the liver?
90
Anorexia nervosa is most common in
female adolescents
What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thryoxine?
Iodine
ketone bodies
incomplete breakdown products of fat, containing 3 or 4 carbons, w/ ketone
nervous tissue
tissue composed of highly branched, elongated cells, which transport nerve impulses from one part of the body to another
Sarcopenia
the decrease of muscle mass and strength that occurs with age
fruitarian
a person who primarily eats fruits, nuts, honey, and vegetable oils
Vitamins newborns are injected with within 6 hours of birth...
Vitamin K
Magnesium
RDA
men = 400 mg/day
women = 310 mg/day
(add 10-20 mg after age 30)
Function of Iodine
FUNCTIONS:
component of thyroxine and triodothyronine
Undigested food moves through the ________spincter to the large intestine
Ileocecol valve
Phytochemicals
Occur in plants, reduce risk of cancersource- lycopene, flavonoids
things about b9?
brain food (dna/rna synthesis), blood cell formation, increased immunity, helps depression/anxiety,
NUTRIENT
- any chemical substance in food that can provide energy, form new body components, or assist in the functioning of various bodily processes.
Water
 DV Recommend:
9 cups for women
13 cupsfor men as a starting point
 
 
• Universal Solvent
• 50%-70% of body weight
• Muscle contains 73% water
– Fat contains ~20%
• Can’t survive long without it
 
 
subclinical
stage of a disease or disorder not severe enough to produce symptoms that can be detected or diagnosed
Vitamin K from
leafy greens, egg yolks, liver, bacterial synthesis in gut
What does vitamin D do?
manitains adequate plasma calcium
TEE for an eating hospitalized patient
BMR*injury factor*activity factor*1.10*24hrs
Interpretation of percent of transferrin saturation1. iron deficient2. normal3. hemochromatosis
Translating transferring saturation:1. 2. 25-50%3. >50%
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
folate
There is a high risk of obesity-related health problems when a man's waist circumference begins to exceed
40 in.
Which of the fllwing is present in highest concentration in soft water?
 
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Sodium
Direct contributors to the metabolic syndrome include all of the fllwing except
 
obesity
hypertension
insulin resistance
high sodium intake
high sodium intake
respiration
the use of oxygen; in the human organism, the inhalation of oxygen and exhalation of CO2; in cells, the oxidation of food molecules to obtain energy
histamine
a breakdown product of the amino acid histidine that stimulates acid secretion by the stomach and has other effects on the body, such as contraction of smooth muscles, increased nasal secretions, relaxation of blood vessels, and changes in relaxations of airways
immunoglubulins
proteins found in the blood that bind to specific antigens; also called antibodies. The five major classes of immunoglobulins play different roles in anti-body-mediated immunity
chromosome
a single, large DNA molecule and its associated proteins; contains many genes to store and transmit genetic information
identical twins
two offspring that develop from a single ovum and sperm and consequently, have the same genetic makeup
Two types of Vitamin E
(8 total compounds)
Tocopherols
Tocotrienols
 
Both have alpha, beta, gamma and delta forms
Amount of water produced by metabolism
1- 1.5 cups/day
Nutrition is involved in the prevention of many diseases such as
scurvy-Vit. C deficiencygoiter-Iodinerickets- Vit. D
what does b12 do?
prevents megaloblastic anemia, aids in iron utilization, needed for nerve cell activity, ach production, myelin sheath, dna replication, SAM
Calcium (Ca)
DV: 1000- 1200 mg Toxicity: 3-4 gm
Sources: Bran, Green Veggies, Nuts, Chocolate, LegumesFunction:
-Bone Formation, Enzyme Function, Nerve & Heart Funtion
Absorption
– Requires slightly acidic environment and vitamin D
 
Deficiency:
• “A pediatric disease with geriatricconsequences”
• Leads to ~1.5 million fractures / year
• Slender, inactive women who smokeare most at risk
• “Less bones”
symptom
a change in health status noted by the person with the problem, such as stomach pain
Ginseng can be found in what kindof drinks
energy drinks
Adequate Intake (AI)
recommended intake level for use when an RDA is not available; most commonly seen for young infants.
Of the fllwing, which is the richest food source of thiamin?
soy milk
Of the fllwing foods, which would be the only source of Vitamin B12?
 
Pecans
Hot Dog
Cauliflower
Whole Grain bread
Hot Dog
An enzyme in which zinc or copper is an integral part of its structure is classified as a(n)
metalloenzyme
Which of the fllwing blood pressure readings first signifies a diagnosis of hypertension?
 
110 over 50
120 over 70
130 over 80
140 over 90
140 over 90
kilocarlorie (kcal)
the heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1000 g (1L) of water 1degree celcius
gall bladder
an organ attached to the underside of the liver; site of bile storage, concentration, and eventual secretion
Programmed Cell Death
genes determine the life span of cells; aging occurs as cells die
positive protein balance
a state in which protein intake exceeds related protein losses, as is needed during times of growth
Food Sources of Vitamin D
FOOD SOURCES:
Fatty fish
Cod liver oil
Fortified Dairy and cereals
 
Distribution of Water in Body
Extracellular = 37%
Intracellular = 63%
how many amino acids are used in the body?
20
b3 deficiency? toxicity?
pellegra (3 Ds), glossitis. niacin flush.
What predominates with duration of training?
Oxidation of FA increasesAerobic metabolismBut still need glucose to prime the pathways
Which fruit shaped fat causes greater risk?
apple, upper body obesity
Vegetarian nutritional concerns
deficiencies: aas, vit b12, Ca, Vit D, Fe and Zn
Niacin: occurs as
occurs in diet mostly as NAD+ and NADPNiacin or niacinamide
Which of the following may be used to calculate the amount of energy expended by the body?
 
oxygen consumed
total air exchanged
intestinal gas expelled
CO2 consumed
Oxygen consumed
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficieny?
Inadequate absorption
Anyone who is medically advised to lower blood cholesterol should
achieve desirable body weight
2 basic families of LDH
LDHm: pyruvate --> Lactate (mostly skeletal tissue)LDHc: Lactate--> pyruvate (mostly cardiac tissue)
negative protein balance
a state in which protein intake is less than related protein losses, such as often seen during acute illness
Transport of Vitamin D3
Processed in liver where it is inactivated and travels through blood for weeks before it is reactivated in kidneys.
absorption- the process of ...
taking molecules across a cell membrane and into cells of the body A small amount of absorption occurs in the stomach, most absorption of nutrients occur in the small intestines.
what are some important nutrient factors for lowering hypertension?
lower salt intake, lose weight, moderation with alcohol, increase fruits, veggies, fish, and dairy products, reduce fat intake, calcium, pottassium, and physical activity.
What are the calcium requirements for athletes?
Female athlete triad1) Estrogen deficiency2) Disordered eating3) Low body fatReduce treatment and supplement with D3 and estrogen replacement therapy.
Calculating desirable body weight: MediumMale Female
1. Base=100 lbAdd 5lb for each additional inch2. Base=106add 6lb for each additional inch
Which of the fllwing is a characteristic of vitamin D nutrition?
Prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in skin, thus preventing vitamin D toxicity
To lower a high blood cholesterol level, all of the fllwing are recommended except
consume 2 serving/week of fish
binding of enzymes to substrates can:
-increase the interaction of substrate adn other molecules (proximity)-enable substrates to orientate w/ other substrates which increases chemical rxn-develop the active site of the substrate maing it more reactive -increases strain on substrate which changes its shape and facilitates transition state of the molecule-decrease the energy requirement of hte rxn-
Factors that decrease Fe absorption
low need for iron
phytic acid in whole grains and legumes
oxalic acid in leafy vegetables
polyphenols in tea, coffee, wine and oregano
reduced gastric acidity
excessive intake of other minerals (Zn, Mn, Ca)
1. ____ of all Americans are overweight____ of those are obese.2.Gaining ___ pounds or ___ inches in the waist is a signal for?
1.60%40%2.10 pounds/ 2 inches/ diet evaluation
What are some key points in physician nutritional counseling?
Anything is better than nothingAcknowledge problem is keyMore specific is beterMore tailored is betterFollow up is important.
Measuring RMR: estimating number of Kcal expended during a period of measurement per hour
amount of O2 consumedamount of Co2 produced
The primary mechanism by which soy consumption may lower the risk for osteoporosis is related to
the estogen-like activity of soy phytochemicals
Skin formation of Vitamin D3 (Steps)
1. Sunlight makes Provitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol.
 
2. Sunlight converts Provitamin D3 to Previtamin D3 in skin.
 
3. Previtamin D3 is converted to Vitamin D3 and released into the bloodstream.
What are the good and bad sides of formula/meal replacement diets for adults?
Good= appropriate composition, portion controlledBad = removes need for decision making, doesn't alter lifestyle after program completed.
why is beri beri considered a medical emergency
it can lead to heart failure
Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?
Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts
Which of the fllwing would be the best choice for physically active people who need to rehydrate?
 
"Sweat" replacers
Salt tablets and tap water
Diluted juice or cool water
Water warmed to body temperature
Diluted juice or cool water
Micrograms per 1 IU Vitamin E
1 IU (synthetic) = .45 mg
1 IU (natural) = .67 mg
Defiency in B12 results in what? (2 things from reactions)
1. Folate being trapped in metylated form2. Neuropathy
Which of the fllwing is characteristic of dieting and ketosis?
Body fat losses on a ketogenic diet are initially high but then taper off after one week
Which of the fllwing is an effect of physical fitness on fat metabolism?
Fatty acids concentrations in the blood rise significantly after the first 20 minutes of physical activity
Which of the folllowing is a feature of vitamin D?
The average consumption in the US does not meet the recommeded intake
Which of the fllwing is a feature of copper nutrition?
It is involved in collagen synthesis and wound healing
b12=?
cyanocobalamin
Vitamin D
calciferols
Normal BP
120/80
sources of b6?
banana
norwalk virus
contam water
DRV for choelsterol
Calcium
Upper limit
2500 mg/day
Potassium
Daily Value
3500 mg/day
Copper
Daily Value
2 mg
Esophagus
structure:muscular tube~10 inches long
function: carries food to stomach by Peristalsis
EAR
Estimated Average Requirement:average value which is used as as tarting point for calculating an RDA.mean Intake for a healthy population in that life and stage group.
Fat Soluble Vitamins


Retinoids
Carotenoids
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Anions of ECF
Cl-
HCO3- (Bicarbonate)
Decrease bioavailability of Iodine
Goitrogens
Fat
DV 51.7-91.5 gm
Toxicity N/A
Source
Deficiency
Cobalamin
cofactor for conversion of homocysteine to metionine
Deficiency of Vitmain D
in children?
adults?
rickets
osteoalacia
Recommended protein for healthy adults
0.8g/kg/d
glycolysis
metabolic pathway that converts glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, w/ the net gain of 2 ATP and 2NADH + 2H+
amylase
starch-digesting enzyme produced by the salivary glands and pancreas
Functions of Retinoids
FUNCTIONS:
Growth and Development
Vision
Immune Function
Dermatology
Effects of 20% water loss
Coma
Death
Iodine food sources
FOOD SOURCES:
saltwater seafood
iodized salt
molasses
dairy
active forms of b2?
FAD and FMN
Water 2
Functions of water
• Body temperature regulation
– Water absorbs excess heat
– Body secretes fluid via perspiration
– Skin is cooled as perspiration evaporates
• Removal of body waste via urine– Urea excretion– Sodium excretion– Avoid concentrated urine • Amniotic fluid, joint lubricants, saliva, bile
 
Small intestine
Structures:20 ft. Long and convoluted(having numerous overlapping coils)
This is the most important digestive organ
90% of all digestion occurs here as a result of Pancreatic juice and bile
Sources of Saturated Fat
animal fat
tropical oils
food intoxication ingesting food with preformed toxins
Pregnant women should consume this amount of folic acid.
600ug/day
When the diet contains adequate protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin?
Tryptophan
What percentage of people with diabetes have type 1?
5-10
Factors affecting lipolysis
-Cardiovascular, fitness level, endurance
 
 
tissues
collections of cells adapted to perform a specific function
urea
nitrogenous waste product of protein metabolism; major source of nitrogen in the urine, chemically NH2-C-NH2 O
Food sources of retinoids.
FOOD SOURCES:
Liver
Fish oils
Fortified Dairy
Eggs
Sodium
Upper Limit
2300 mg/day
~95% of americans exceed
Calcium content in almonds, seeds, canned salmon, dry beans
20-30%
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease:
overweightsmokinginactivityhigh bpdiabetes
Unsaturated fatty acids
liquid at room temp.
Trace Elements
Iron, Iodine, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Chromium, Flouride, Manganese, Molybdenum
eating smoked or well cooked meats introduces carcinogens into the ______________ digestive system and may increase the risk of cancer in this system.
Digestive
undernutrition
failing health that results from a long-standing dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs
Vitamin D found in
sunglight, plants, animal foods
food-bourne illness
transmitted through food or water either by and infectious agent or poisonous substance; food poisoning
What is known as Natural Vitamine E
alpha-tocopherol
Biotin use
prosthetic group of enzyme for carboxylation
% of protein as nitrogen
16% as nitrogen
Which of the fllwing food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
 
Tryptophan
Chlorophyll
Xanthophyll
Beta-carotene
Beta-carotene
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
K
All of the fllwing are considered heavy metals except
 
iron
lead
mercury
cadmium
iron
glycogen
carbohydrate made of multiple units of glucose w/ a highly branched structure. storage form of glucose. synthesized and stored in liver and muscles
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
the single-stranded nucleic acid involved int he transcription of genetic information and translation of that information into protein structure
Excess weight during pregnancy can increase the mother's risk for 
gestational diabetes
vegan
a person who eats only plant foods
Functions of Vitamin D
FUNCTIONS:
Ca and P homeostasis
Regulation of Blood Ca levels
Cell differentiation
Immunity
Function of Phosphorous
FUNCTIONS:
Support bone and teeth (80%)
part of every cell
ATP
DNA, RNA
phospholipids
acid/base balance
Chromium food sources
FOOD SOURCES:
Nutrient databases are inadequate:
processed meats, liver, eggs, whole grains
Fatty acids can differ in..
length, shape, saturation
Vitamin K
coenzyme for proteins involved in blood clotting
which vitamins control production of homocysteine?
6, 9, 12
Vitamin E
anti oxidant in many tissues, selenium metabolism. 
 
deficiency - hemolytic anemia (loss of red blood cells)
 
source: vegetable oils 
diets account for what pecentage of all cases of cornary heart disease?
about 33.3%
1/3
energy density
a comparison of the calorie (kcal) content of a food with the weight of the food. An energy-dense food is high in calories but weighs very little (e.g. potato chips) whereas a food low in energy density has few calories but weighs a lot such as an orange.
Fat soluable vitamins absorbed with
lipids- bile salts required
2 functions of Chloride
electrolyte balance
HCL (counter ion for H+)
Vit E sources
grains, wheat germs, nuts, vegetable oils (corn and safflower oils)
All of the fllwing are forms of vitamin A except
 
retinol
retinal
retinoic acid
retinoquinone
retinoquinone
Typ. foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge include all of the fllwing except
 
bread
cookies
ice cream
vegetables
vegetables
Which of the fllwing conditions is known to lead to copper deficiency?
 
excess zinc
excess protein
insufficient iodine
insufficient calcium
excess zinc
What is the magnitude of the increase in risk for CVD for a person with a blood pressure reading of 140/80 compared with the optimum blood pressure?
100%
beta-oxidation
break down of fatty acid into numerous acetyl coA
umami
a brothy, meaty savory flavor in some foods. Monosodium glutamate enhances this flavor when added to foods
cardiovascular system
the body system consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. This system transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body and plays an important role in immune responses and regulation of body temperature
direct calorimetry
a method of determining a body's energy use by measuring heat release from the body. An insulated chamber is usually used
Acute Vitamin A Toxicity
Symptoms disappear when megadose stops:
 
GI effects
headache
blurred vision
poor muscle coordination
Food sources of Zinc (Zn)
FOOD SOURCES:
protein rich meat
seafood
vegetables depending on soil
Fat is essential to:
Cell membrane strucutreprotection of internal organsinsulation
what does vitamin k do?
helps make prothrombin, bone formation/repair, converting glucose to glycogen in liver, aids longevity, transports Ca to intestines, reduces morning sickness
Water soluble Vitamins
• Dissolve in water
  • Generally readily excreted from body
  • Subject to cooking losses
 • B’s function as coenzymes  
Metabolic rate
the BMR plus the energy needed for physical activity
E coli
bacteria may be bloody could lead to kidney problems and death; raw boof sausages unpasteurized apple juice and cider
In a hospital what is the version used for BMR
25kcal/kg/24hr
What is the apprx. body mass index of a woman who is 5'5" and 125 lbs?
21
The absorption of which of the fllwing vitamins is most affected by the disorder atrophic gastritis?
 
Choline
Vitamin C
Vitamin B12
Pantothenic acid
Vitamin B12
The major form of vitamin K in foods is known as
phylloquinone
What is the name of the biochemical pathway describing the conversion of lactate to glucose?
Cori cycle
What disease accounts for the majority of deaths in US women?
Coronary heart disease
Intermediary Molecules for energy transfer
-ATP: adenosine triphosphate -ADP: adenosine diphosphate -CrP: creatine phosphate-NAD: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-NADP: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phophate -FAD: flavin adenine dinucleotide-Coenzyme A(molecules can be used in a controlled manner to provide G for muscle contraction [ATP hydrolysis] or ATP resynthesis)
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
an organelle in the cytoplasm composed of a network of canals running through the cytoplasm
anal sphincters
a group of two sphinters (inner and outer) that help control expulsion of feces from the body
What is the correct sequence of gestational events
zygote--> embryo--> fetus
gruels
a thin mixture of grains or legumes in milk or water
Symptoms of Osteomalacia
Softened bones caused by low calcium intake, low exposure to sun or repeated pregnancy with lactation.
(Bow legged and bent over)
Calcium (Ca) Absorption
25% of calcium in food is absorbed
Requires acidic environment
Upper SI
Estrogen, parathyroid and lactose all aid absorption
3 macronutrients and funciotn
carbs, fats, proteins- provide energy to the body
What is basal metabolism
1.Minimum energy expended in a fasting state (12 hrs) to keep a resting, awake body alive in a warm, quiet environment- rest metabolism2. 60-70% of the body energy used for basal
What are the vitamin/mineral requirements for athletes?What is the limit?
Current DRI seems adequateCan increase B vitamins for energyAntioxidants may enhance recovery.Limit to 100% DRI, or else could be toxic.
Lipids are digested into (2 things)
OR
absorbed as (2 things)
digested-- FA, and glycerol (TG)
absorbed-- cholesterol, fat-soluble vitamins
Location of catalase
It is located in peroxisomes as a hemoprotein
Appox. how many people in the US are believed to have eating disorders?
5 million
What is the primary action of orlistat, a weight loss drug?
It inhibits pancreatic lipase
Chris has been competing all day in a track competition and is now ready for the 100-meter dash. Although he feels tired, which of the fllwing high-energy muscle coumpounds can he rely on for quick enegy in the event?
Creatine phosphate
ATP Hydrolysis
ATP + H20 ---ATPase---> ADP + P-OH + H-primary way to breakdown atp and releases ~7.3 kcal.-chemical energy in phosphate bondes is released as free energy-process is 25% efficient
very low calorie diet (VLCD)
known also as protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) this diet allows a person 400- 800 kcal per day often in liquid form. of this, 120-480 kcal is carbohydrate, and the rest is mostly high-quality protein
Vitamin A - RDA
Men = 900 micrograms
Women = 700 micrograms
Antiox's function in 2 ways
Vitamins sometimes donate e-'s to stabilize free radicalsMinerals act w/ enzyme systems to destroy ex's:superoxide dismutasecatalaseglutathioine peroxidase
A diet high in __________ fat and _______ fat is a major contributor to the development of plaques and the progression of atheriosclerosis
saturated and trans fats
What is the iron requirement for athletes?What is sports anemia?
Supplementing only helpful with anemia. Endurance athletes may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia so may need supplements.Transient decrease in volume of blood with low ferritin and hemoglobin. usually goes away after training for a while and there is not effect on performance.
calculation of TEE requires the following:
BMR or RMRestimate of energy expenditure (physical activity)estimate of thermic efect
The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of 
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Insulin resistance is defined as
reduced sensitivity of cells to blood insulin
Types of reactions in body
-HYDROLYSIS : involves the addition of H and OH to the reaction. H typically in form of water -ex: ATP hydrolysis-OXIDATION REDUCTIONS RXNS ( oxidation = loss of electron and reduction = gain of electrons) electrons typically hydrogen or Oxygen. -oxidizing agents accept the electrons-reducing agents donate the electrons.-Example: LDH rxn (pyruvate + NADH + H Lactate + NAD) cardiac tissue uses lactate
Free radical
An atom that has lost an e- and is left with an unpaired e-
Explain what is meant by the four basic food groups in the diet, and explain their nutritional value.
Milk Group: calcium, phospjorus, potassium, magneisum, vitamin A, and B.
Meat Group: provides phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, and B vitamins.
Fruit & Veg Group: most vitamins.
Bread & Cereal group: B vitamins.
Name ways to determine iron status in order of markers of early to later deficiency.What is NOT useful and why?
Ferritin level (1st stage)Transferrin saturation (2nd stage)Total iron-binding capacity (2nd stage) Erythrocyte protoporphoyrin (2nd stage)Hemoglobin (3rd/4th stage)Hematocrit (% RBC in total blood vol)-3rd/4th stageSerum iron not useful because of daily variation.
What patients should be monitored if they are taking vit E supplements? why?
People on anticoagulants since it interferes with blood clotting time
Results of research studying carnitine supplementation as an ergogenic aid showed that it
produced diarrhea in half of the subjects
Crohn's - cure, place, continuous, sym?
no cure, lower small intestine, not continuous, bloody diarrhea
What is the creatine dose in strength athletes?
Loading 20-30g/day for 1 weekMaintain 10-15g/ day while training
Adolescent food habits can lead to what?
deficiencies in some nutrients (Vit A, B6, Ca, Fe, Folate, Zn)excess of fat and sodiumEating disorder (more so for females)
What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout?
Glucose and fatty acid are still abundant in the blood
Which of the following is a feature of the DASH diet?
It works synergistically with reduction of sodium intake
Carbohydrates- what they do, how many kcal, where they are found
Carbs provide energy to the body, esp. the brain. 4 kcal/gm, founds in grains, vegs, fruits, legumes
Major concern for a 1-3 year old is what?
Iron deficiency anemia and inadequate calcium intake for good bone development
Which of the fllwing defines the body's set point?
 
min. wt. of a person
max. wt of a person
pt. at which a person's wt plateaus before dropping again quickly
pt. above which the body tends to lose wt and below which it tends to gain wt.
Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight.
All of the fllwing are valid reasons for consuming sports drinks by most physically active people except
they are better than water at preventing sodium depletion
In what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin B6 metabolism?
It dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme
What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency?
Increase in its size to trap more iodine
C6H12O6
Monosaccharide
soluble fiber
pectin
orange-yellow
flavonoids
 
oranges, tangerines, lemons, plums 
DRI
Dietary Reference Intake
Cholesterol
Lipid like substance-circulates through blood
Amorphous
Having no definite form
six classes of nutrients
-water
-carbohydrates
-fat
-protein
-vitamins
-minerals
Vitamins
•Composed of various elements•Enable chemical reactions•Fat soluble•Yield no energy
lacto-vegetarian
only milk and plant foods
Osteoporosis
Age-related disorder characterized by decreased bone mass, causing bones to be more susceptible to fractures
hyperplasia
increase in NUMBER of cells
Genetic Regulation
Oncogenes(mutation/ cause cancer) /proto-Oncogenes (normal)Tumor Supresor genes= tell cells to growth or die - the mutation leads to no more prevention of cancerp53 is a classic tumor supressor
Conala and Olive Oil
Monounsaturated Fats
digestion
breaksdown nutrients into simple compounds (mechanically and chemically)
True or falsePlants and animals contain cholesterol?
FALSE
Pigment
molecule absorb wavelengths of ligth reflect on those perceive as certain colors
fructose
six carbon monosaccaride that usually exists in a ring form; found in fruits and honey; fruit sugar
 
diverticula
pouches that protrude through the exterioir wall of large intestine
Phytochemicals
Plant chemicals that can stimulate estrogen function
Pantothenic Acid sources
peanuts, egg yolk, meat
Lactose
A disaccharide, commonly known as milk, sugar, that is composed of glucose and galactose.
rec amont water for females
9 cups/day
Lipases
Enzymes that break down tryglceride molecules Gastric and Pancreatic
stomach
store, mix, dissolve, and continue digestion of food, disslove food particles with secretions, kill microorganisms with acids, release of protein-digesting (pepsin) enzyme, lubricate and protect stomach surface with mucus, regulate emptying of dissolved food into small intestine
bichemical assessments
concentrations of nutrients and nutrient by products in the blood, urine, feces; blood enzymes activity
balance
characteristics of a healthy diet:food choices do not overemphasize one food or nutrient at the expense of another
Riboflavin
Yellow. Used with oxygen demanding pathways. Also antioxidant.Inflammation of mouth/tongue, dermititis, cracking, sensitivity to sun, confusion, forgetfulness.Sources: Milk, meat, eggs, leafy grees, asparagus.
Complex carbs
-Starches-body must break down the complex starch into a simple to burn as energy
to estimate protein requirements you need?
body weight
type one diabetes
insulin dependent
immune system attack of pancreas:cause 
intrinsic factor absorption of this in small intestine
B-12
Hypercalcemia
Excessive levels of Ca in the blood
Functions of Pantothenic acid
helps produce coenzyme A
 6 Advantages of breast feeding
 
economic
safer
promotes weight loss
bonding 
contraction of uterus
less chance of overfeeding & airbubbles
Incomplete Protein 
missing at least one EAA
 
most vegetable proteins
Unacceptable application
can’t deceive, or replace good manufacturing practices
__________ _______ affects 1% of female adolescents in the U.S. (1 out of 100)
Anorexia nervosa
Lipids
known as Fats and OilsDoesn't Readily dissoce in water
Satiation is
the perception of fullness when eating
-Fat free: less than 0.5g fat/serving-Low fat: less than 3g fat/serving-Cholesterol free: less than 2mg cholesterol and 2g or less of saturated fat/serving
fat(label terms)
Food Intolerance
Adverse reaction to normally harmless substances that do not involve immune system.
soybean...yumm
only plant that contains all of the essential amion acids
skinfold measurement
-measuring the thickness of fat folds that lie underneath the skin
-calipers used to measure thickness of fat folds
 
advantages: cheap, painless
limitations: often performed by untrained people 
where are polysaccharides chiefly found?
grains, vegetables, and fruits
long term ant acid use leads to requirement for this mineral
iron
Nonheme iron
Iron provided by plant sources; less efficiently absorbed heme iron
Semiessential amino acids (SEAAs)
needed for tissue growth/maintenance in children
aren't alone enough to support gorowth
discretionary calories
number of calories left over after recommended nutrient intakes have been met
Acceptable Applications of additives
improve nutritional value, enhance quality, reduce waste …
There are more than ______ genes that have been linked to body weight regulation
300
A healthy man's body fat is?A healthy womans body fat is?
12-20%20-30%
portal circulation
the protion of the circulatory system that utilizes a large vein to carry nutrient-rich blood from capillaries in the intestines and portions of the stomach to the liver
Activity level
inactive (less than 2 hours activity): 30%average (2-4): 50%Active (4+): 75%
calories listing
listing of the number of calories in one esrving of the food
a protein which can be used in anaerobic environment?
carbs (macronutrient)
Very low-density lipoprotiens VLDL
Lipoproteins that are synthesized in the liver and contain both triglcerides and cholesterol. They function to deliver driglycerides to other tissue
absorption of amino acids
absorbed by active transport and diffusion, with aid of vitamin B6 and energy
 most travel to liver, some metabolized in muscle
liver removes excesses to prevent build-up, provides amino acids to tissues
Self
how to stop it from killing our own cellsat birth antibodies taught to recognize all cells that are thereautoimmune disease is when this doesn't workDiabetes is an example
Long-term excessive alcohol consumption generates toxins and free radicals that cause
1) liver damage: fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis2) hypertension, heart disease and stroke3) increased risk for certain types of cancers
Food sources of Protein
Meat (1 oz)...7gms
Bread (1 slice) ...3gms
vegetables.... 3gms
(1/2 cup cooked veggies)....2 gms
Fruit and Fat... 0gms
Milk (1 cup) ...8 gms
1/2 cup legumes....7 g protein
•Omission leads to decline•Regain normal function when stored to diet•Has a specific biological function
you need essential nutrients because...
Testing for Allergies
Skin prick, finds absence of, test isn't proof because tests are inaccurate half the time.
causes of cancer
80-90% of all cancers are related to environmental factors.
 
some top factors related to cancer development: obesity, low vege/fruit intake, physical inactivity, smoking, excess alcohol intake 
Fluid volume deficit (FVD)
Equal amount of sodium and water loss in relation to their gains
During preg. progesterone:
enhances fat stores in back, abs & thighs
acts on smooth muscle to relax
relaxes GI muscle
When is acetaldehydge made?
When alcohol is metabolized by colon bacterial ADH
What are the characteristics of Bulimia Nervosa
-Binge purge cycle-often normal weight-fear of uncontrolled eating-recognition of abnormal behavior-guilt shame secrecy-depression/lack of control
Excess calories from alcohol turn into what?
Fat and excess weight
Parts of food label-Serving size
Reflects how much a person should eat
where is glucose found?
in blood and in table sugar(bonded to fructose)
What are the two types of VK?
phylloguinones and menaquinones (plant and animal origins)
what types of fats are assoc w/ incr serum cholesterol?
Saturated fats
trans-fatty acids
What are good sources of Zinc?
meats, shellfish, poultry, milk and milk products, some legumes and whole grains oysters, shrimp, enriched cereal, beef steak, yogurt, pork chop
Protein is made up of what elements?
Amino Acids containing: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
which raises blood sugar quicker? amylose or amylopectin?
amylopectin because it has so many more branches/enzyme sites, it therefore breaks down faster(and raises teh blood sugar quicker)
What are some functions of VE
prevent hemolysis of red blood cells, protects cell membrane from free radicals (occurs in the mitochondria)
How much water do men need in a day? Women?
Men-13 cupsWomen-9 cups
What does magnesium do?
It is a critical cofactor for over 300 enzymes and plays an important role in DNA, ATP, and protein synthesis. Bone contains 50-60% of this.
What are the components of energy expenditure
- Basal Metabolic Rate- Thermal Effect of activity- Thermal Effect of food- Adaptive thermogenesis
low glucose supply in cells can result in...
ineffective metabolism of fat, and ketosis
What is the formula to calculate your height in meters?
heigh in inches X 0.0254 in/m
Where do you get essential amino acids?
In foods such as MEAT and MILK
if animals store glycogen in their muscles, are meats, fish and poultry a good source of carbs?
no, animal products are not good food sources of their or any other carb because glycogen stores deplete quickly after animal dies
•CO2 + H2O + light -> C(H2O)n + O2 (plants)•C(H2O)n + O2 -> energy + CO2 + H2O (animals)
carbon cycle (plant and animals)
How much weight is healthy to gain bearing a 7.5 lb baby?
30 - 35 lbs 
30 is prime
"30 flirty and thriving"
When you over eat what happens to excess carbohydrates
Stored in liver or in muscles in the form of glycogen
Myxedema
Severe hypothyroidism
Insulin Resistance
RDA
Recommended Dietary Allowance
1 G FAT=
9 CALORIES
what vitamin reduces cholesterol
niacin
protein quality
bio-availability/biological value, ability of protein to sustain life on its own (synthesize body proteins)
net protein utilization (NPU): digestibility (cooking, acidity)
 high quality contains all EAAs and some non EAAs, mostly animal origin
Kinks in Chains
Unsaturated Oils
hunger
the physiological need for food
what is niacin synthesized from?
trypotophan
Protein
only energy-producing nutrient to contain nitrogen (becomes waste product of metabolism)
 most plentiful substance in body next to water (75% of body solids) 
95% ingested broken down into amino acids (protein:amino acids as CHO:glucose)
nitrogen balance is direct indication of protein status
nutrient required most by body
water
Risk Factors
Total blood cholesterol >200mg/dlSmoking (increase clotting)Hypertension (>139/89)Diabetes (guarentees development)
•Drains interstitial fluid•Joins up with Cardiovascular system near heart
Lymphatic System
BMI
height/weight relationship. Know pros and cons. 25 - overweight30 - obese35 - 40 - morbidly obese
Emotions
it controls, relives tension and boredom
a ___ bond links amino acids
peptide
hypoglycemia
40-50mg glucose for 100 ml blood
vitamin required for normal reproduction?
vitamin A
High intensity uses what?
Carbohydrates and glucose
hyperactivity isn't related to 
additives or sugar
Cell (30 trillion in the body)
growthdifferentiatestaticdie
Z-TrimCelluloseMattrinStellarOatrimGum Fiber
Startch Derviatives that bind water
You women are typically ____ deficient
iron
muscular system
produces body movement, maintains posture, and produces body heat
Where do complex carbs come from?
-bread-pasta-cereal-rice-FIBER
What is NIDDM?
Non insulin dependent diabetes medication
chronic inflammation
causes damage to molecules within other cells in the body
photosynthesis
process by which plants use energy from sun to sythesize energy-yielding compds such as glucose
formula: 
six co2 plus six h20 yields glucose(c6h1206) plus six o2 
Placebo
An inert substance or treatment given to subjects in the control group instead of the actual substance or treatment being studied.
All women should take Ca supplements to prevent osteoporosis?
T/F
False
RAE for men and women
Men=900 RAEWomen=700 RAE
Protein metabolism/absorption
absorbed as AAs through small intestine directly into liver circulation
absorption requires energy, B6 and manganese
nitrogen is removed and hydrolized to form ammonia, removed from blood, taken to liver, then kidneys, excreted in urine (75% of nitrogen is eliminated)
keto acids=end product of deamination, may be oxidized for energy, used to make NEAAs,or converted to fats and stored as adipose tissue
protein catabolism ends up with urea, creatinine, uric acid, ammonia salts
Frutose
A monosaccharide that has a simple ring structure. It is the sugar found abundantly in fruit, honey and also some vegetables such as beets, sweet potatoes, parsnips and onions. It is the sweetest sugar.
works with insulin to control blood glucose levels
chromium
When serotonin levels are high, the body craves _______
protein
Rancidity
Decompostion of oils resulting in bad odor, sour and stale tastBreak downw of the double carbon bonds by uv light, and or diioxideReason for limited shelf life
carbohydrates
basic nutrients that supply the body with glucose, the energy from most commonly used to sustain normal activity
reproductive system
performs the processes of reproduction and influences sexual functions and behaviors
Methods of determining fat content
Underwater, bodpod, Callipers
fortified food
food in which nutriends not usually found in the food are added
breast feeding helps lower percentages of these diseases
ear infections
respiratory illness
diarrhea
hospital admissions
  
in the US we get protein from?
animal sources
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
The recommended nutrient intake required to meet the known nutrient needs of the healthy population.
Enternal feedings
Feeding delivered in a liquid form through a tube for patients unable to ingest nutritients orally
USDA recommendations: sugar
less than 25% daily caloric intake
(20-30g of which should be fiber)
Reproductive Studies
if effects three generations is not allowed: fertility, live births, body weights, gross abnormalities, length of gestation, still births, survival at 4 days (equivalent to a year in humans).
Total energy expenditure (TEE)=
Basal energy expenditure (REE)+ Physical activity + Thermic effect of food (TEF)
Examples of Polyunsaturated Fats
Corn OilSunflower OilSafflower Oil, Peanut OilSoy Bean Oil
globular proteins
soluble: dissolve in water-so they can move through blood stream
-enzymes
-hormones
-blood
-proteins
clinical assessment
skin, eyes, tongue, hair loss, sense of touch, ability to cough, ablitity to walk
What percent of your caloric intake is carbs?
50%
WHAT IS A PHOSPHOLIPID EXAMPLE?
LECITHIN, COMPOUND SIMILAR TO TRIGLYCERIDE BUT HAVING A PHOSPHATE GROUP, CHOLINE IN PLACE OF ONE OF THE FATTY ACIDS
effects of long term rigorous training does all but
increase pulse rate
what type of products is B-12 only found in?
animal products
VK is stored where?
Stored in liver and excreted readily
anerexia
the subject does not eat at all the person just sits around all day and does not do anything.
what is parenteral nutrition?
through the vein,(intravenous) this is provided when the client is unable to ingest or absorb foods
incomplete proteins
one of more essential amino acids are missing or in inadequate amounts--will maintain life but no growth
 
-grains
-vegetables
-legumes (cept soy)
-seeds and nuts
skeletal system
supports the body, and allows for body movement, produces blood cells, stores minerals
Where is the majority of alcohol metabolized?
In the LIVER
water consumption after exercise
○ First 30 minutes: 16.5-33 oz ○ Every 1-2 hours: § 33 oz until consumption is 150% of sweat loss
Which foods are good sources of energy?
Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
we are _th fattest nation in the world by BMI (_% overweight)
9th; 74%
what would a cardiac patient need to be restricted from?
sodium and cholesterol
pre game meals should be
easy to digesthigh carbbreads pastas potatoeslight (300-800 cal)3-4 hours before eventlots of fluids
•Supplies cells of the body with oxygen and nutrients•Removes carbon dioxide and waste products from cells
Function of Cardiovascular System
What does Iron do?
Helps carry oxygen through our blood into our cells. 2/3 of it is found in hemoglobin. Involved in the metabolism of carbs, fats, and proteins. Apart of the enzyme system that fights free radicals.
If you are prego
(or breast feeding) -- dont eat swordfish, shark, mackerel and tilefish because mercury sucks.
glycogen's role in the body
glycogen stores in the muscles and liver can deliver about 2000 calories worth of energy for performance.
 
a persons ability to perform activity is limited to the amt. of glycogen stored.
What does lactic acid do?
Secreted from muscles in blood; begins to shut down glycolysis
2 most common predictors of poor pregnancy
1. poor nutritional status
2. biological immaturity of mother
What are some psychological factors that cause eating disorders?
1) low self-esteem2) need for self-control3) unhealthy body image
What are the external influences on eating
Sensory cuesFood availability and pricingphysical inactivityportionssocial factors
Good food sources of Vitamin K?
Green leafy vegetables and vegetable oil
what waist circumference indicates an apple shape and excess storage of visceral fat?
over 40" in men, 35" in women
Sugar is a good source of chromium?
T/F
False
Chromium can be found in complex carbs
What determines the difference in chain length?
Number of carbon atoms in the chain
What the deal with supplements
they arent cracked up to what they claim to beonly useful to correct deficiency- well balanced diet does not need them
Carbs, protein, and fat calorie content
Carbs: 4 cals/gProtein: 4 cals/gFat: 9 cals/g
which about alcohol absorbtion is incorrect?
A most alcohol is absorbed in the stomach
who has nasogastric feedings? and long can they be there for?
clients who have incact gag reflexes and who have adequate gastric emptying, also for clients who are in a short term ng feeding
•Promote healthy lifestyle•Reduce preventable diseases and deaths•Reduce obesity in adults and children•Increase intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain products•Lower intake of fat, saturated fats, and sodium•Increase intake of calcium
How will we be able to attain the goal of Healthy People 2010?
a typical personality with an eating disorder?
a tight perfectionist that needs to be in control
What are the risks associated with central obesity?
-Risk of death from all causes is higher-diabetes-heart disease-hypertension-gallbladder stones-stroke-some cancers
why is honey not safe to feed to infants
it can contain sporers of clostridium botulinum
cause foodborne illness
does not cause same problem in adults because of the more acidic environment 
Where does most of the SODIUM in a typical diet come from?
Processed foods contribute a hefty 77% of the sodium in the diet.
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