Nutrition - Test_1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Organ meats
sugar alcohols
nutritive sweeteners
Active form:
Food sources:
zinc deficiency
-poor growth
-male reproduction impaired
Basic unit is?
fatty acid
iron needs in pregnancy
Source: Whole Grain, Poultry, FishFunctions: Hemoglobin, Prevention of Anemia
Compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that are HYDROPHOBIC (not soluble in water)
What it does: texture, flavor, aroma, satiety (fullness)
\n Functions- thyroid hormone, metabolism\n Deficiency- growth, goiter, tired\n Too much= energy\n Bind iodide- cabbage\n\n\n
Has how many nonessential amino acids?
body can't regulate blood glucose
where is vitamin A absorbed
Name 3 basic structural carbohydrate divisions:
Vitamin A Deficiencies
night blindnessinability to reproducefailure to normal growth
a hormone also known as adreniline;
it is released by the adrenal glands at times of stress. it acts to increase glycogen breakdown in the liver, among other functions
Folic acid (B9)
-methyl donor
-nucleotide synthesis (DNA)
-blood cell formation
-homocysteine metabolism
-pregnancy increases folic acid requirement
the foods (including beverages) a person usually eats and drinks
Functions of Nurtients
Maintenance, growth, reproduction, production, work
the major form of lipid ?
a monosaccharide part of the disaccharide lactose milk
3 monosaccharides are
glucose- most abundantfructose- sweetestgalactose
the thyroid gland hormone that regulates the metabolic rate of the body.
night blindness
disorder resulting from vit A deficiency
Water is...
Is a universal solvent.Participates in biochemical reactions.Provides form and structure to cells.Is a means of stabilizing body temperature.
63. Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of
a. Vitamin B12
High-Density-Lipoproteins (HDL)
Circulate in bloodstream and transport cholesterol back to the liver. "Good Cholesterol"
Element used to promote chemical reactions and to form body structures
insoluble fiber has the greatest blood cholesterol lowering affect compared to soluble fiber
simple carbohydrates
sugars, including both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units. The basic sugar unit is a molecule containing six carbon atoms, together with oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
What stores glucose and releases it into the blood stream as needed?
Case series
Several similar cases of illness reported
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
a sham treatment often used in scientific studies; an intert harmless medication. The placebo effect is the healing effect that the act of treatment, rather than the treatment itself, often has.
lag phase-
flat period of adjustment, enlargement little growth
Unsaturated Fat Ex.
olive oil, fish, and nuts
a yellowish liquid, esp. rich in immune factors, secreted by the mammary gland of female mammals a few days before and after the birth of their young.
LP that moves through the lymphatic system
What does refined mean?
refined: only endosperm (mostly starch and little protein) of the wheat left, the chaff, bran and germ have all been taken out.
gall bladder
pear shaped organ beneath liver that stores bile and secretes it into sm intestine
cellular respiration
Simplified reaction: glucose (aq) + 6 O2 (g) → 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l)
Name the correct carbohydrate sequence of a monosaccharide followed by disaccharide followed by polysaccharide.
glucose, maltose, amylose
What process of fats make food stay fresher longer and change their physical properties?
The transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to another organic compound to form a different amino acid
Toxicity of Vit C
nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, headaches, fatigue, insomnia, urination, rashes, kidney stone
Calcium (at least 800 mg)
canned fish with bones
what element is found in proteins but NOT in carbohydrates and fats
Alcohol's effect on nutrition
-excessive abuse can impair nutrition
-deficiencies of B-complex vitamins are common because they are needed to metabolize alcohol
Protein Digestion: starts where?
stomache- denatured by hdrochloric acid.
Anorexia diagnosis
-bmi less than 17.5
-fear of weight gain
-distorted body image
iron toxicity
leading cause of poison in children, hemochromatosis-excessive in rbcs, oxidation of tissue, affects liver and heart
It is a key constituent of bone. In other cells, it is in important life-sustaining compounds such as phospholipids, phosphoproteins, and nucleic acids. It is a component of many other phospho-compounds.
dietary fiber
NOT an NRG source plant polysacch & lignin resistant to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes high fiber diets maintained for long term reduce the incidence of colon cancer; proposed mechanisms include bulking action of fiber speeds transit through the colon reducing absorption of advrse chemicals or that fiber adsorbs carcinogenic agents
Lactose intolerance is due to a ___________
deficiency in lactase
- not appearance- good health and longevity- a person should have enough fat to meet basic needs but not so much as to incur health risks.
Four organizations involved in food\nsafety and responsibilities
-food and drug administration (fda)\n(investigates food products and their labels, etc)\n\n-department of agriculture (usda)\n(regulates meat products, checks for contamination of meat and poultry\n\n-environmental protection agency\n(epa) (establishes the types and levels of pesticides that may be used in\nfoods)
Functions of Glucose and Other Sugars (3)?
-Supplies energy
-Protein sparing
-Prevents ketosis
body system
a group of organs that work together to perform a function
100 Calories
2/3 soft drink/ beer2 Tbsp syrup1 Tbsp butter2 Tbsp jelly
hydration-fluid needs
Fluid needs depend on 1. intensity and duration of the exercise 2. surronding temp, altitude and humidity 3. fitness level 4. pregame state of hydration
DANNON®Light & Fit Carb & Sugar Control Strawberries & Cream provides the lowest percent of total calories per serving by using ____________.
a. Modified corn starchb. Acesulfame potassiumc. Sucralosed. b and ce. a, b, and c(D)
Each of the following is known to be linked to excessive intake of fats except
latose intolerance
Which factor would be likely to increase diet digestibility(%) in a pig?
1. high fiber diet
2. low feed intake
3. GI tract infection
4. old age
5. limited water intake
2. low feed intake
function & sources of magnesium?
enzyme reactions, potassium & calcium metabolism, proper nerve & cardiac functions, insulin release from the pancreas- sources are whole grains, vegetables, nuts, seeds
Glycogen: Structure similar to?
amylopectin – many sites for enzyme action
RDA - recommended dietary allowances
nutrient intake goals for individuals; the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of nearly all or healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group.
Which 3 nutrients give you calories? Which one gives you the most?
Lipids - most
Which yogurt provides the highest percent of total calories from dietary fiber per serving?
a. DANNON® Fruit on the Bottom Blueberry b. DANNON® Active Fiber Strawberry c. DANNON®Light & Fit Carb & Sugar Control Strawberries & Cream d. a and c e. All the same(E)
the most prone to iron deficiency
women in child-bearing years, infants just after nursing ends
What is the functions of vitamin A?
gene expression, vision, maintenance of body linings and skin, immune defenses. growth of bones and normal develp of cells
Vitamin A toxicity- symptoms and examples

•Almost as much of a problem as deficiency 


•Symptoms: abdominal
pain, hair loss, joint pain, nausea, stunted growth, liver damage


•Accutane- acne drug given in carefully controlled doses 

•Polar bear liver- bioaccumulation of vit A. 


•Healthy people can eat vit A rich foods in
large amouts without worrying about toxicity, except for liver. 

On average a human expends how much energy?
2000 to 3000 kcal/day
common nutrient benefits of vegetarians
2x dietary fiber than average diet, low in saturated fat and cholesterol, generally lower in calories= lower risk of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and obesity
two ways in which vitamin A supplements help deficient children
not go blind; not get diarrhea
The person with type 1 diabetes often receives ___ insulin to meet baseline needs and ___ insulin or insulin ___ to process energy nutrients after meals.
NPH (intermediate acting), regular (rapid acting), analogs
how many essential vs non essential.
20 in all. 9 ess, 11 noness.
What is the best approach to weight loss?
Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
The four Appropriate Uses of the DRIs?
-Diet planning
-Aim for RDA or AI
-Do not exceed the UL
-For the healthy population
which of the following is a feature of phospholipids
soluble in both water and fat
Contents and functions of gastric juice
- Acid - HCl (pH ~2) [kills bacteria, activates digestive enzymes, denatures proteins]
- pepsinogen [inactive proteolytic enzyme that uses HCl to convert into pepsin; initiates protein digestion in non-reuminanats
- mucus [protects stomach wall from acid and pepsin and a lubricant]
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Type 1 - low insulin production
Type 2 - insulin resistance
Fats in Food
Provides essential FAs SatietyConcentrated energy source texture, taste, color (phytochemicals)transport fat-soluble vitamins (A, E, D, K)
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