Nutrition . test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nutralceuticals
Zinc Deficiency


–slow
growth

–poor
appetite

–decrease
in wound healing

–loss
of hair

–impaired
smell & taste

–more
frequent infections

–hypogonadism
(males)





bmi
body mass index
Eclampsia effects
Convulsive seizures
Coma
NEp
Net Energy for production
Phosphorus lab data:
3.0-4.5 mg/L
AMDR
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. 45-65% kcal from carbohydrates 20-35% kcal from fat 10-35% kcal from protein.
lipids
organic substances largely insoluble in water, fats, composed mostly of C, H, and O
Minute vascular structures potruding from the surface of the villi covering the inner surface of the small intestine, forming a "brush border" that facilitates absorption of nutrients:
Microvilli
function of epinephrine
raise blood glucose
Oligosaccharides Food sources: (2)?
beans, legumes
-poultry-grains-nuts-oil-sunflower seeds-(spinach? lettuce?)
Omega 3 fish fats:
temp for med rare meats
145
The longer an individual exercises, the more ___________________ is used for energy.
Fat
The dietary guidelines that Americans recommend is that we ________ our intake of simple carbohydrates and ________ our intake of complex carbohydrates. 
The hypoglycemic effects of oral medications used to control type 2 diabetes mellitus are enhanced when these drugs are taken with:
alcohol
poly-unsaturated
2 or more carbon double bonds
KWASHIORKOR
- results either from inadequate protein intake, or from infections- symptoms are big round bellies and swollen limbs. - enlarged liver
nutrients
substances obtained from foodused by the body to promote growth, maintenance, or repair
Metabolism:
refers to all the biochemical reactions within the cells of the body. Metabolic processes are anabolic (building) or catabolic (breaking down).
calories
units of energy. Strictly speaking, the unit used to measure the enrgy in foods is a kilocalorie; it is the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water 1 degree celsius.
Conducting Research:Controls
-Subject divided into two groups-Experimental group receives the treatment being studied-Control group does not receive treatment (or receives placebo)
Kinesiotherapist
a healthcare professional who treats the effects of disease, injury and congenital disorders through an application of scientifically based exercise principals adapted to enhance strength, endurance and mobility of ppl with functional limitations
Bolus intermittent feedings
-Formula delivered rapidly with syringe
-Stomach ONLY
-Monitor client for distention and aspiration
The type of vegetarian who consumes dairy products but excludes all other types of animal protein, is called a ________________________ .
Lacto-vegetarian
57. Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs?
a. Folate
B-Complex Vitamins


are especially important for energy metabolism. 
thiamin (B1)   folate   riboflavin (B2)   Vit B12  niacin  
pantothenic acid   Vit B6  biotin
A nutritious (optimal) diet:
1)maximizes health and longevity2)prevents nutrient deficiencies 3)decreases risks for chronic diseases4)composed of foods that are available, safe and palatable
NOTE: short and medium chained fatty acids are somewhat hydrophilic and therefore can be circulated away from from the small intestine in the blood. They are first bound to the protein albumin. Fatty acid-albumin complexes flow in the blood from the small
What trace mineral is required for cellular energy metabolism?
irom
Chylomicrons
Clusters formed when lipids from a meal are combined with carrier proteins in the cells of the intestinal lining. Transport food fats through the watery body fluids to the liver and other tissues.
functions of water
major component in body metabolism
solvent (ionization), transport (semicolids and solutes), dilutent (free movement), hydrolysis and oxidation
Regulation of body temperature- high specific heat, thermal conductivity and latent vaporization
The Typical North American Diet: how much of the protien is from animal sources?
66%
Gender
Men require more calories and protein due to muscle mass. Women need more iron due to menstruation. Prenant and lactating women have increased caloric and fluid needs.
inflamatory response
localized swelling, pain, heat. and redness at a site of injury
Vit D (calciferol)
*acitve form: 1alpha 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol - intestinal Ca and P' absorption and increase PTH*Rickets in children/oseomalacia in adults
Role of Nurse
Resolve conflcts with medical treatment, Explain various treatments and plan of care, teach and counsel pt on nutritional care
salmonella
6-48 hours, from eggs and poultry, nausea and cramps
Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine
Coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate. involved in metabolism of amino acids. Meat, liver, whole-grains, soybeans, vegetables. Sideroblastic anemia, Cheilosis or stomatitis. Convulsions. isoniazid therapy is a common cause
228. Tiffany is a strict vegan and does not consume calcium-rich plant foods nor supplements of calcium. Which of the following is most responsible for maintaining her blood calcium levels in the normal range?
a. Parathroid hormone
most of the body's magnesium can be found in the:
bones
ORGAN SYSTEM
definition
a collection of organs that work together to perform an overall function
what is the function of the hypothalamus?
hunger saitey
B VITAMIN DEFICIENCIES
- Glossitis- tongue becomes very smooth and swollen- Cheilosis- reddened lips with cracks and corners
negative Nitrogen balance
more N excreted than consumedsick, astronaut, anyone losing mass
Underwater Weighing
A technique that uses the difference between body weight underwater and body weight on land to estimate body density and calculate body composition.
Health Claims on Food Labels: Tooth decay?
Sugarless gum
antigen
a microbe or substane that is foreign to the body.
Metabolism
The process by which food is broken down to yield energy-Excess energy stored as body fat
Low birthweight
Less than 5.5 lbs at birth
Classified according to gestational age
What is the name of the substance first extracted from the bark of old Pacific yew trees (and now synthesized in the laboratory) and found effective in treating cancer?
Paclitaxil
What is nutrient density?
Most nutrients for their calories
The lipo?? protein condition that appears to be associated with lower risk of heart attacks is which one?
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein)
ENZYME
definition
a compound that speeds the rate of a chemical process but its not altered by that process. Almost all enzymes are protiens
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
- indispenable amino acids- 9 amino acids that can't be made at all by the body or is not synthesized in sufficient amounts.
Absorption of protein
The cells in the intestinal lining absorb single amino acids, the dis and tris are broken down by enzymes and then absorbed
Carbohydrates:
are the main source of energy in the diet. Each gram of carbohydrate produces 4 kcal and serves as the main source of fuel (glucose) for the brain, skeletal muscles during exercise, erythrocyte and leukocyte production, and cell function of the renal medulla. People obtain carbohydrates primarily from plant foods, except for lactose (milk sugar).
What are microminerals and their functions?
Iron- hemoglobin
red meat

Iodine- thyroid hormones
iodized salt

Fluoride- teeth
fluorinated water
Mega 6
- Present in lipid barrier function of the skin.
Why do cats require niacin?
Cats efficiently degrade tryptophan (by the enzyme adaptation of rapid activity of picolinate carboxylase shunting tryptophan precursors away from niacin) so little is available for niacin synthesis. Niacin can be found in plants but the bioavailability tends to be poor comparable to animal tissues
BMI categories
18.5 - 24.9 = normal
25 - 29.9 = overwight
more than 30 = obese
79. In what capacity does vitamin C function?
a. Cofactor in collagen formation
utilization of fatty acids
transport to tissue; release of fatty acids from triglyceride; uptake of fatty acid and use for energy and storage
Saturated fat vs. monounsaturated fat vs polyunsatruated fat
-SAT saturated with hydrogen atoms
-UNSAT. contain carbon-carbon double bonds
a)mono- 1 double bond
b)poly-more than one double bond i.e. olive oil
Vitamin A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid) 800-1000 Retinal equivalent

s/s of excess:
anorexia
loss of hair
dry skin
bone pain
What is the function of cholesterol?
component of cell membrane
necessary for the production of several hormones
component of bile salts needed for the digestion of fats
needed for the synthesis of vitamin D
after swallowing what order does food pass throught the GI tract
stomach, doudenim, ileum, colon
mechanisms of protection by a high fiber diet
dilution of fecal carcinogens
binding of carcinogens
altered bile acid metabolism
decreased stool transit time
fermentation of fiber to short chain FFA
40. Which of the following statements reflects our knowledge of water-soluble vitamin toxicity?
a. Toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be sever and irreversible
what are the building blocks of proteins?
amino acids, there are 20
what are biofarms?
This where u put foods to keep people from being harm such as allergies
What are the best food sources for proteins?
cottage cheese (lowfat/nonfat), chicken and turkey (skinless), eggs and egg whites, fish, lean red meats, soy products
Edema in a pregnant woman who does not have high blood pressure or protein in the urine is
expected and normal.
50. Which of the following is a feature of folate nutrition?
a. Synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring food folate
How does fiber affect gastrointestinal health?
makes stool softer and larger which reduces pressure needed to move material
energy cost of physical activity
the energy that is expended on body movement and muscular work above basal levels.
What are the food sources of Vit c
vit. C- Citrus fruits, cabbage-type veggies, dark green veggies, cantaloupe, strawberries, peppers, lettuce, tomatoes, potatoes, papayas, mangoes. (destroyed by heat and oxygen)
Write\nthe major function of iron in the body and 2 other functions.
\n Hemoglobin in red blood cells, myoglobin\n in muscles, transportation on oxygen, oxidation
What has the most sat. fat? What has the least?
most saturated fat=coconut oil, least saturated fat=veggie oils
In the typical American diet, what percent of total kcals are lipids?
33%, 60% of which come from animal fats
what is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet
Salt added during cooking and at the table
Fats in the body
energy storage paddingsurvival insulationmuscle fuel forms cell membranes
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Term:
Definition:
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