Nutrition 10 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Diminished thirst
Estimated Average Requirement
potatoes, tomatoes, broccoli
vitamin C
Dietary Fiber
laxative properties
water holding
increased fecal bulk
speeds transit time
alters microflora (good bacteria)
lowers cholesterol,decreases lipid absorption, increases bile excretion [heart disease]
slows glucose absoprtion, decreases plasma insulin response [diabetes]
increases satiety,includes less calorie-dense foods [obesity]
Consist of Alpha-linolenic Acid
number of essential amino acids
raisins, spinach, meat, dried fruits
elevated trigylcerides in blood
risk for heart disease
sugar effects bloodo lipids the most
always in moderation can causeEsophagus, pharynx, and month cancer
Association recommendations for fat intake is 20-30% of total from fats7-10% can come from saturated/trans fat200-300mg cholesterol/day
•Composed of hydrogen and oxygen•Majority of our body weight•Found in foods•Yields no energy•Functions: solvent, lubricant, medium for transport, chemical processes, and temperature regulator
Mono/di/poly saccharides
Simple (mono/di), complex (poly)
Energy Balance
Energy intake matches energy expenditure
female athlete triad
osteoporosis, eating disorders, amanorea
with alcohol consumption, what vitamin must be increased?
AI and DV for bitoin
30mcg/day300mcg/dayNO UL
Diabetes is a disease of
carb metabolism
Insert genes into other organism animal, plants, bacteria, yeast
What factors affect BMR
-Gender-Age-Physical Activity-Body size and weight -Growth
USDA's New Food Guide Pyramid:person climbing stairs
Types of nutrients?
SIX:1. vitamins2. minerals3. proteins4. fats5. carbohydrates6. water
Making glucose from a non-sugar carb source
environmental trigger
inactivity, high-fat diet, or high sodium intake that causes a genetic tendency toward a disorder to be expressed
gestational diabetes
diabetes in pregnancy, treated with insulin regimen and diet resolves after baby delivery
at risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life 
A group of nutrients that contain carbon and are required in small amounts to maintain normal body function.
Tensional forces
Actions in which the pressure stretches or strains the structure
Functions of B-6
transamination; w/out p.phosphate a.a. aren't synthesized; glucogen breakdown can't happen either
Protein digestion: small intestine
pancreatic enzymes convert polypeptides into dipeptides
intestinal enzymes break down dipeptides into AAs
A disaccharide commonly known as table sugar, it is composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule.
Clonal Selection
takes a long time) Active immunityeffector cells: produce antibodiesmemory cells: look for that antogen
The location of fat storage is determined primarily by ________.
Health realated effects
Decrease blood clottingREduce heart attackDecrease inflammationExcess may cause hemmorrhagic strokePossibly lowers triglycerides, rhumatoid atheritis, and behavorial disorders
Intense exercise
heart/lungs cannot meet oxygen demands for muscles (fat cannot be used--needs oxygen)
muscles are using glycogen stores
-oxygen debt building up-deficit
partial breakdown of glucose
lactic acid-accumulates in blood and tissues
-burning muscle pain and fatigue
only liver can return lactic acid into glucose 
-relax muscles at intervals -breathe deeply allows blood to carry LA to liver and supply oxygen 
high intensity==high glucose use, increased lactic acid and oxygen debt
Urinary system
removes waste products from the circulatory system and regulates the acidity , chemical composition, and water content of the blood
Abnormally low blood sugar, thought to be rare, often not diagnosed. Can be caused by insulin secreting tumors.Causes weakness, nervousness, confusion, irritability. Stops 5-15min after glucose intake.
simple carbs are mostly made up of this
how many types of foodborne illnesses have been ID'ed?
over 250
which group has the least likely chance of getting an eating disorder?
prepubescent boys
Registered Dietitian
A professional who has the education and clinical training to make dietary recommendations and to counsel patients.
Meats are more than half water 
true and false 
45- 65%
low carb diets
use protein for tissue synthesis, excessive oxidation of fats for energy leading to ketosis
A disaccharide that is composed of two glucose units.
Short Tern Toxicity
Weight gain, food consumption, organ weights, complete blood profile, histopathological examination of organs
The ____ allows 97% of the population to meet its needs.
Most common form of fats and oilsThree fatty acids attached to a glycerol
Primary vs. Seconday defiencies...and special conditions with vitamins/minerals
smoking lose vit. c
birth control-B6 and B12
cooking in water-lose water soluble nutrients 
stress-increase needs for B vits.
primary-not eating it (decreased intake)
secondary-eating it, but something blocking absorption, or increased loss, or something blockign utilization
to make something and it forms one layer (liver and gall bladder)
What percent of your caloric intake is proteins?
alcoholism is influenced by all except
type of alcohol sonsumed
vitamin oils are a source of this vitamin
vitamin E
Functions of Carbohydrates
quick source of energy
main source of energy for brain and eye
essential for coomplete oxidation of fats
maintains blood sugar
regulates GI function
spares protein from being used for energy
carries essential nutrients
glycogen in liver and muscle used as small and quick store for excess glucose [carboloading]
Complete Proteins
have at least 33% of essential amino acids
mostly animal & soy protein
how is a catherer in the central vein inserted?
complete protein
contain all 9 eseential amino acids in sufficent quantity to maintain body tissues and promote growth
"high biological value" 
In a 2,000 calorie diet, what is the grams of total fat?
Whatfactors lead to PEM?
- Poverty
- Poor Food Quality
- Insufficient Food
- Unsanitary Living Conditions
- Ignorance
- Stopping Lactation too Early
water during exercise
○ Fluid intake often fails to match fluid loss ○ Every 15-20 minutes: 6-12 oz
night blindness is a sign of a lack of
vitamin A
Digestion: stomach
can hold up to 2.5 liters (in adult male)
contracts when empty
food mixes with gastric digestive juices (pepsin, HCl) to form chyme
chyme slowly released through valve into small intestine
half the contents of full stomach of solid food will empty 2 hrs after meal, but can take up to 8 hrs to complete process
when is NPO diet ordered?
usually before anesthesia or after surgery until bowel sounds return
What can an unhealthy lifestyle lead too
hypertension, insulin resistance dyslipidemia, inflammation
hormones (stomach, small intestine, and pancreas)
such as gastrin, secretin, insulin, cholecystokinin, and glucagon stimulate production and/or release of acid, enzymes, bile, and bicarbonate; help regulate peristaisis and overall GI tract flow
What does Anemia mean?
"Without blood" is a severe iron deficiency that results in fatigue, weakness, and increase infections.
3 sources that trigger hunger
Hypothalamus, Limbic System, Cortex of Cerebrum
the overload principal?
more stress put on your body and you will adapt
Coenzyme are usually found where?
found in fatty acid oxidation and citric acid cycle
Major function of the Liver
secretes bile thats stored in the gallbladder & emulsifies fat
What make up a Phospholipid?
Two fatty acids and a phosphorus group
HOw much fluid should you have before an activity
2-3 hours 2-3 cups
Which people are most likely to have poorer Vitamin D?
Overweight and obese people.
sources of fuel used first by the body are
ATP and kreatine phosphate
Copper is important in the formation of collagen?
Copper is essential in RBC formation
Nutritional Fat LabelsList of Ingredients
Where can you find hidden fat in foods?
What happens when you are fasting?
Liver and muscle glycogen are broken down into glucose and are used. Body fats are liberated and are turned into amino acids and used
which about dietary supplements is true?
c must be approved by 1994 dietary supplement education act
who is a soft diet usually ordered for?
clients who have difficulty chewing and swallowing
•Preferred fuel (brain and RBC- red blood cell)•New RDA= 130 grams per day (based in energy needs of the brain)•Recommended that 60% (45-65%) of calories come from CHO •Recommended that no more than 10% (25%) of calories come from simple CHO
Why carbohydrates are needed for the body?
what of the idea body is true?>
eating food is abundant but body image is thin
What are some benefits of the BMI
-its easy to use, (Height vs. Weight)- you can do it yourself.-used as a proxy for tother health indicators for hte population
what ar teh top five carb. sources for u.s. adults?
white bread, soft drinks, cookies and cakes, sugars/syrups/jams, potatoes
SHOULD INCLUDE, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables 
How much protein should an individual consume?
0.8 g of protein/kg of body weight is needed daily
"fat splitting"
arrested sexual maturation
1. Magnesium
2. Astragalus
Corn oil
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
define double blind experiment
vitamin b12 RDA
2.4 ug/day
bmi = wt x     705
                         ht(in) (squared)
Thiamin Functions
carbohydrate metabolismcoenzyme in BCAA metabolism
If elevated, what lipoprotein concentrates in the blood and is a sign of high risk of heart attack?
potential to hold more H's
liquid at room temp
Common problems w/mineral nutrients are deficiency resulting in anemia (iron) or osteoporosis from loss of bone calcium
Slow-twitch fibers
-aerobic pathways
-high aerobic endurance
animal tissues and bones from slaughterhouses that are cooked and used to feed as protein back to animals
30. Among the following, which would be the best source of niacin equivalents?
a. Chicken
A condensation reaction chemically joins monosaccharides together by a ______ _______.
glycosidic bond
Dried beans 
bran cereal
3 High fiber foods
___ resistance accompanies stress and infection.
B6 Toxicity
Causes Nerve Damage-UL 100 mg/day
Classes and Sources of Nutrients (6)
Fat Soluble Vitamins
-absorbed with fat
-excess stored in liver or adipose tissue
not released directly inot the bloodstream
protein function
hormones, enzymes, fluid and electrolyte balance, acid base balance-buffer promotes blood clotting, contribute to immune function, provides energy and glucose
Composition MethodUnderwater Weighing
Most accurateExpensive, hard to determine residual air in lungs
56. Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate?
a. Macrocytic anemia
causes of neonatal death
preterm birth 27%
the oxygen holding protein of the muscle cells
the single stranded nucleic acid involved in the transcription of genetic information and translation of that information into protien structure
-acts to decrease blood glucose after meals
-acts on liver, muscle, and adipose tissue
white blood cells that participate in the immune response; B- cells and T- cells
makes all the subjects similar
iron is a
Vitamin D (cholecalciferol, ergosterol)

s/s of excess:
excessive calcification of bones

renal calculi
Importance of Energy Density: Focusing on macronutrient content is not?
As helpful
the body's long tubular organ of digestions, nutrient absorption
nutrition therapy
the provision of nutrient, dietary, and nutrition education needs based on a comprehensive nutritional assesment to treat an illness, injury, or condition
a saturated fat is fully loaded with
a molecule that provides the transfer site for biochemical reactions catalyzed by an enzyme.
factors that influence BMR
lean body mass
fever and disease
cold climate
Which of the following functions is(are) first to be affected when a person begins to drink alcohol?
Judgment and reasoning
omega-3 fatty acids (n-3)
Absolute requirements not well established Includes α-linolenic acid (essential), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) & docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) Strong indications that n-3 fatty acids critical for neural and retinal tissue development Have been shown to reduce CVD risk in people at high risk – decrease risk of arrhythmias (sudden cardiac death) decrease plasma triglyceride levels decrease growth rate of atherosclerotic plaques EPA & DHA from oily fish (mackeral, salmon, lake trout); α-linolenic acid from tofu, canola, walnut & flaxseed oils; some organic milks are supplemented with omega-3spreterm infant may be vulnerable to n-3 deficiency b/c of immature desaturase and elongase enzyme activities and low fat stores
a chemical substance made in the hypothalamus that stimulates food intake. the hormone leptin inhibits neuropeptide y production.
Most of the carbohydrates we consume are composed of monomers with ............ carbons
A. 2
B. 4
C. 5
D. 6
E. 10
D. 6
staple foods
foods used frequently or daily, for example rice or potatoes.
basal metabolism
amount of calories body uses when resting and awake in warm environmentthings that can effect: height, weight, muscle, body temp., gender, age, hormones, nervous system activity, calorie intake, pregnancy, use of stimulants
type one diabetes
own immune system attacks itself--need insulinborn with it/juveniles
has all essential amino acids for growth (meat, dairy, eggs)
complete protein
Carb Metabolism
Major source of body energy. Body breaksdwn carbs into glucose. Used as energy or stored as fat. Most stored in liver and muscles to be conv. back into energy.
underwater weighing
one of the mose accurate body measurements
Name the 3 types of nutrient absorption and an example of what products do each.
simple (lipids)
carrier-mediated/channel mediated (glucose)
active (amino acids0
Vitamin K deficiency causes internal bleeding and is due to..
fish based diets
Nursing Care: Enteral Nutrition
-Tube feeding or Gavage
-Tube inserted in stomach or intestines
-Inserted through nose or surgically through abdominal wall
-*Used if the client is unable to ingest foods or upper GI tract is impaired and transport of food to the sm. intestine is interrupted
-Administered: continuous or intermittently
A label reporting 0 g of trans-fats can have up to ___ g trans-fat in it.
0.5 g
a B vitamin active in metabolism as a coenzyme that carries activated carbon dioxide.
Limiting Amino Acids
an amino acids that is preventing other amino acids from being able to be digested properly
people who eat food of both plant and animal origin, including flesh
Sources of Magnesium
foods like potatoes, prunes, spinach, sunflower seeds
which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid
Stearic acid
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
-specific amounts of nutrients needed for a specified age, physiologic state, and gender
-includes EAR, RDA, AI, UL
cow's milk is inappropriate for infants for all reason except
too low in sodium
Made up of amino acids. composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen
____________ is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue.
Physical Fitness
mechanisms: dietary fiber lower cholesterol
1) bile-acid sequestering agent 2) reduce rate of insulin rise by slowing CHO absorption thereby slowing cholesterol synthesis 3) stimulate production of short-chain FA"s which are then absorbed by portal circulation and inhibit cholesterol synthesis
Dietary Reference Intake
A set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Canada.
What are nutritional recommendations for nausea associated with cancer?
Ginger products, dry carbs, bland foods, enjoy favorite foods when NOT nauseated, avoid liquids with foods, strict adherence to anti-nausea meds regimen
As of April 2005, MyPyramid – A Menu-Planning Tool: Replaces?
Food Guide Pyramid
body fat mass
the amount of body fat or adipose tissue a person has
How to choose dietary supplements
-enough quantity to be effective?
-how much research?
-is it safe?
-who is selling?
-product quality?
-"too good to be true?"
What are the food sources of Riboflavin
Riboflavin- milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, meat, liver, leafy green veggies, whole grain/enriched breads and cereals; Milk and grains especially good source.. (milk in opaque container)
specialization of the GI tract
cells of successive portions of the intestinal tract are specialized to absorb different nutrients.
Name two functions of fat in foods
add kcalories, texture, and flavor
High-Sugar Diets Recommendations: Limit sugar intake to?
no more than 10% of total energy intake
Name the 3 sections of the small intestine.
- duodenum
- jejunum
- ileum
What is the FIT principle ?
Frequency (how much), Intensity, Time (how long)
If insulin  promotes disposal of glucose, what happens in diabetics who don't get insulin shots?
1. their cells are starved of glucose
2. blood glucose drops dangerously low
3. There is no way to absorb glucose from the diet
4. Blood glucose rise
4. Blood glucose rises to dangerously high levels
high fat diets lead to what diseases?
heart disease, colon and breast cancers
How does the structure of Triglycerides differ from Phospholipids?
Triglycerides - glycerol and 3 amino acids
Phospholipids - glycerol, 2 amino acids, one phosphate
What are the physical and chemical characteristics of unsaturated fatty acids?
Tend to be oils at room temperature.
Increase bad types of cholesterol in the blood.(LDL)-Low density lipoproteins
*(HDL) - High density lipoproteins are good type sof cholesterol.
If you have a horse that grazes 50lbs of grass every day, and the grass is 30% dry matter, how much water is the horse taking in just from the grass?
A. 15lbs
B. 50lbs
C. 30lbs
D. 35lbs
E. 0lbs
50(.3) = 15
50-15 = 35
D. 35lbs
Risk factors for heart disease that can be changed include:
a. High blood LDL, low blood HDL b. High blood pressure c. Diabetes Mellitus d. Cigarette Smokinge. all of the above (E)
Which is a primary benefit for an animal to store energy as fat rather than carbohydrate?
1. Carbohydrate is harder to break down
2. You don't need carbohydrate when starving
3. more energy is stored per pound of fat
4. carbohydrate's can't be str
3. more energy is stored per pound of fat
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