Nutrition 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Iron
Anemia
horses
non ruminant
cuisines
styles of cooking
proteins are where?
everywhere
proteins with carbohydrates attached
glycoproteins
Keratinization


•When the protein keratin accumulates and clouds the eye’s
cornea
•Can worsen to a condition of permanent blindness called xerophthalmia


•


•Childhood blindness, preventable by 2 doses of 60,000 mcg of vit A 

•


•275 million children deficient 

•


•WHO/UNICEF give vitamin A supplements and childhood death
rates are reduced by half





Combating eating disorders
-self-esteem
-size acceptance
Approximately what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight loss for at least one year?
50
lipoprotein with major function involving delivery of dietary fatty acids
chylomicron
___ is excessive urine production.
polyuria
Dysphagia:
refers to difficulty when swallowing.
Vitamin E is also called?
Tocopherol
protein rda in pregnancy
+25 grams
The mechanical and chemical digestion of food is initiated in the ________________ .
Mouth

 Food labels list ingredients based on

predominance by weight or volume. (mostly weight)
True
APPETITE
definition
the primarily psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food often in the absence of obvious hunger
trans bond
hydrogens are diagonal from eachother
blood
the fluid of the cardiovascular system; composed of water, red and white blood cells; particles, nutrients, O2
fiber sources
bran, fruits, legumes, all veggies
Minerals:
are inorganic elements essential to the body as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
How many centimeters in an inch?
2.521
-Part of cell membrane.-Synthesis brain and nerve tissue.-Visual development.-Maintain integrity of skin.-Immune cell function.-Regulate genetic activities.
EFA deficiency
Vitamin A
Function: 1. retinol - reproduction
2. retinoic acid - support
growth, cell maturation
and differentiation
3. retinal - vision
(night and color)
- immuity
Active form: Retinol
Food sources: foods of animal origin
liver - richest
egg yolk, butter, whole
milk
Provitamin beta-carotene
in dark green and
yellowish orange veggies
and fruits
RDA : 900 microgram for men
700 microgram for women
1300 microgram lactation
DRI : 2/3 animal sources, 1/3 plant
AI
EAR
UL : 3 milligram ie. 3000microgram
Deficiencies: night blindness,decreased
mucus production, xerosis,
Bitot's spot, Follicular
hyperkeratosis
Enzymes:
Coenzymes:
Bile
produced in liver and stored in gallbladder; an emulsifier (not enzyme) that mechanically breaks down fats into smaller fat molecules; increases fats' surface area, thereby enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis
In the stomach, proteins are broken down into smaller peptides by _________________ .
Pepsin
What nutrient is used to form ketones?
Fat
Biotin Function
metabolism of carbs, fat, and protein
ethnic foods
foods associated with specific social subgroups of a population
a carbohydrate made of two sugar units
disaccharide
What governs water intake?
by thirst and satiety
Stages of Iron Deficiency
Iron Depletion <12ng/mlIron deficiency erythropoiesis <16%Anemia <12g/dl
inflammation
response to injury or irritation. up in white blood cells, pain, swelling. chronic inflammation - dietary factors
Osmosis
Movement of water through a membrane that separates solutions of different concentrations. Water moves to equalize the concentration pressures on both sides of the membrane.
tube feeding
aspirate contents and measure amount to evaluate absorption of last feeding. If tube in small intestine contents cannot be apirated. If greater than 100 ml is drawn, may delay feeding. Put gastric contents back in stomach so as to not disturb electrolyte balance. use water to flush tube.
Stage IIIron deficiency- enthroipolesis
decreased iron transportreduced transferrin reduced producation of hemesymptoms: reduced work capacity
carbohydrate function
promote energyglucose only fuel source to enter brain and red blood cells.fuel excersizeprevent ketoacidosis
Anthropometric Measurements-Body Comp
Skinfold Thickness measured with calipers, Bioelectric empedance analysis (BIA), Duel energy x-ray absorptiomerty(DEXA), BOD POD body comp tracking system
B6 function
coenzyme in metabolism of proteins, CHO, fats, stored in muscle, glycogen-glucose; synthesis of hemoglobin & RBC, immune system, mycrocitic hypochromic, neurologic disorders, dermatitis,
What is the term that describes the process by which the foods we eat are broken down into smaller components by either mechanical or chemical means?
Digestion
221. Which of following is a feature of potassium?
a. Muscle weakness
carbonic acid
a compound that results from the combination of CO2 and water; of particular importance in maintaining the body's acid base balance.
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
definition
the body system consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. this system transports nutrients, waste products, gases and hormones throughout the body and plays an important role in immune responses and regulation of body temperature
Estimated Energy Requirement
Average dietary energy intake needed for most of the healthy people population
CONDITIONALLY ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
- ordninarily nonessential amino acids but different circumstances cause the nonessential amino acid to become an essential one. - Some conditions are: not enough precursors or disease states
occur naturally in plants like beta cartone
define oil
Function of Folate
-coenzyme for reactions that transfer single carbons-Homocysteine metabolism -DNA synthesis-Is Important where there is rapid cell division ----GI Tract ----Bone Marrow- where we make blood ---Embryonic Development
Five Requirements on food labels?
-Product name
-Manufacturer’s name and address
-Uniform serving size
-Amount in the package
-Ingredients in descending order by weight
enzyme
any of a great number of working proteins that speeds up a specific chemical reaction, such as breaking the bonds of a nutrient, without undergoing change itself.
Cardiovascular disease
SATURATED FATS ARE THE LEADING DIETARY FACTOR CONTRIBUTING TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE.
Chronic diseases during pregnancy
Adverse influences during critical periods may increase chance of chronic disease when baby is born/grows up
The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin?
Riboflavin
o Immune System During Aging
• Decrease in immune function; thus infection disease disease is a major cause of death-ie. pneumonia
glycemic load
the amount of carbohydrate in a good multiplied by glycemic index of the carbohydrate
NEUROTRANSMITTER
definition
a compound made by a nerve cell that allows for communication between it and other cells
energy-yielding nutrients
the nutrients the body can use for energy. They may also supply building blocks for boedy structures.
Deficiency of B-12
Anemia (large cell type), smooth red tongue, fatigue, nerve regeneration, tingling or numbness of skin
Triglycerides:
circulate in the blood and are made up of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol
What three elements are carbohydrates composed of?
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Synthesis of both protiens and fatty acids.
Sources of Biotin?
Common nutrition supplements for athletes
-Amino acids, caffeine, Pyruvate, Ginseng
Full liquid diet
Liquid at room temperature or melt at body temperature: Milk, cream soups, custard, grits, strained cereals, ice cream, pudding, yogurt etc.
Avoid getting __ g Omega 3 fatty acid per day.
>3 g
A monosaccharide that has 6 carbon atoms also has ____ hydrogen atoms and _____ oxygen atoms.
12,6 (C6H12O6) = glucose
Three organ systems involved in the digestions and absorption of food
-gastrointestinal tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small/large intestine, anus)
-aided by secretion of mucus and enyzmes
-regulated by nervous and hormonal signals
Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE)
The energy expended to maintain an awake resting body that is not digesting food. Effected by factors such as age, gender, weight and growth rate.
What are the three functional subcategories of nutrients?
1. Energy yielding (protein, carbohydrates, lipids)
2. Promote growth, development and maintenance (water, some vitamins and minerals, protein and lipids)
3. Regulate body processes (water, some vitamins and minerals, protein and lipids)
What are the three functional subcategories of nutrients?
What functions do they serve?
behavior modification strategies- Contingency management
forming a plan of action, responding to the situation and rehearsing appropriate responses
1:10 units
ratio between 1 lb corn vs 1 lb animal fat
Which of the following characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?
Noth are synthesized in the body
Fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K:
-can be stored in adipose tissue
-don't need on a daily basis
-toxicity can be a problem
Function of Vitamin B-6
Coenzyme needed in aa and fatty acid metabolism, helps create RBC, helps convert tryptophan to niacin/ serotonin
isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol
sugar alcohols that can be derived from fruits or commercially produced from a sugar
What nutrients appear to be protective of cataract formation?
Vitamin C and vitamin E
Which of the following fators has the most influence on the body's metabolic rate?
Amount of lean body tissue
SUCCESSFUL WEIGHT LOSS MAINTENANCE
- acheiving a weight loss of at least 10 percent of initial body weight and maintaing the weight loss for at least one year.
What is a complex carb? What are the two types of Complex Carbohydrates?
polysacchorides- molecular structure is harder to break down, takes longer to digest

digestible- starches, modified starches (potatoes, wheat, corn, other vegetables)

partially digestible- beans, legumes
What are the food sources of Thiamin (B1)
Thiamin (B1)- pork, ham, bacon, liver, whole and enriched grains, legumes, seeds (occurs in all nutritious foods in moderate amounts.)
describe what a cis-trans is
cison the near side of; refers to a chemical configuration in which the hydrogen atoms are located on the same side of a double bond.transon the other side of; refers to a chemical configuration in which the hydrogen atoms are located on opposite sides of a double bond.
When comparing the two categories of nutrient standards, the Dietary Reference Intakes and the Daily Values, one difference between the two is:
a. The Daily Values are used on the U.S. food labels.b. The Dietary Reference Intakes are to be used on food labels.c. The Daily Values are a better way of determining nutrient goals of individuals.d. The Dietary Reference Intakes do not account for age or gender.e. a and c (A)
which of the following is a feature of zinc in nutrition
Pancreatic enzymes are rich in zinc
What are the key points in a healthy diet plan?
-reduced in calories yet supply all essential nutrients&#13;&#10;-contain a wide variety of foods that appeal to your taste and help prevent hunger between meals&#13;&#10;-suited to your current lifestyle and personal preferences&#13;&#10;-provide a slow rate of weight loss
If you feed an animal less feed than what is required for maintenance.
 
1. all of the NE will be used for maintenance
2. half of NE will be used for maintenance, half for growth
3. the animal will gain weight slowly
4. none of the above
1. all of the NE will be used for maintenance
Sterol
Similiar to cholesterol
Fats?
Lipids solid at room temperature
sterols exist where?
other than cholesterol..plants
most common sweetener in use
aspartame
hydrogenation
adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids to make fat more solid and resistant to the chemical change of oxidation
lipoproteins
assembled packages of lipid and protein molecules
Sterols
ex?
interconnected rings of carbon with side chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen attached.
-Bile & vitamin D
what form is glucose formed in?
glycogen
omega 3e
endmost double bond 3 carbons..Linolenic
what is known as fruit sugar?
fructose
phenlalanine and aspartic acid along with methanol are the components of this sweetener? It is 200 times sweeter than sucrose and 4 kcal per gram. damaged when heated
aspartame
chylomicrons
transport food fats through the water fluids to the liver and other tissues
satiety
Feeling of being full after a meal
EPA & DHA
found abundantly in fish oils..
Transfat
fats that contain any unusual fatty acids
(LDL) low density lipoprotiends
carry lipds to tissues
what comprises 20% of the digestible starch found in veggies, beans, breads, pasta and rice?
amylose
sweetener approved for use in more than 40 countries. 200 times sweeter than sucrose with no calories (sunette)
acesulfame-k
what ages does maldigestion begin?
3-5 years old
what is branched and provides many more sites for enzyme action?
amylopectin
Saturated fats
Triclycerides in which most of the fatty acids are saturated
omega 6
ex?
endmost double bond six carbons from the end of carbon chain
- linoleic
What purposes do fats serve?
Store energy,protect organs,insulate temps,
Cons of Olestra
Vitamin losses, digestive upset, anal leakege, expensive, No long term studies
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
2 or more points of unsaturation
what are symptoms of maldigestion?
abdominal pain, gas, diarhea
explain enzymic digestion
begins in mouth, salivary amylase mixes with starchy products. breaks down starch into disaccharides. food moves down esophagus and reaches stomach into acidic environment and inactivates salivary amylase. Reaches small intestine and alkaline environment of intestine digests carbs. Pancreas release enzymes. Amylase in food present in in sm intestine as glucose and fructose.
what is a newly studied category of functional fiber?
prebiotics
how long are liver gylcogen stores depleted?
18 hours
what forms glucose?
6 carbon dioxide molecules combine with 6 water molecules. Solar energy is converted to chem bonds in sugar and 6 oxygen molecules are released into air
Linoleic acid &linolenic
poly unsatuarated fatty acid that are essential nutrients for human beings
(HDL) high density lipoprotiens
carrying cholesterol away from the body cells to the liver
what is the basic unit of all carb structures?
monosaccharides
unsaturated fatty acids
lacks hydrogen atoms and has one or more points of saturation
Essential fatty acids
fattty acids the bidy needs but cannot make in amounts sufficient to meet physcological needs
what is secondary lactose maldigestion?
lactase production is decreased in response to another condition.
what is the average intake of sugars per day?
82 grams/16 teaspoons
any product containing the label "excess consumption may have a laxative effect" has a daily ingestion of what?
50 grams of sugar alcohols
Lipids?
how many and what are they?
-organic compounds soluble in organic solvents but not in water.
-3..Tryglcerides,phospholipids and sterols.
what are the carbs that make up fiber?
cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, mucilages. noncarb-lignin
what is the process photosynthesis
green plants create carbs and leaves get sun's solar energy into cells and transform it into chem energy. Energy stored inc hem bonds of carb glucose as it is produced from carbon dioxide form water/air
Triglycerides?
whats it made up of?
Chief form of fat in the body.
-3 units of fatty acids & 1 unit of glycerol
what does saturation mean
whether or not a fatty acid chain is holding all of the hydrogen atoms it can hold.
what are foods with no carbs?
beef, eggs, chicken, fish, veg oils, butter, margarine
what is a disaccharide and what are the disaccharides found in food?
two monosaccharides combined and sucrose, lactose, and maltose
Phospholipds
where are they present?
Has acid in place of one of the fatty acids
-all cell membranes
why is honey not safe to feed to infants?
contains spores of bacterium clostridium botulinum. adults have acidic stomach the inhibits growth of bacteria
Bile is made where and stored where
made in the liver stored in the gallbladder
how is sucrose formed and where is it found naturally?
glucose and fructose bonded together and sugarcane, sugar beets, honey, and maple sugar
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