Nutrition 17 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Thiamine
Beriberi
BMI


–Expresses
the ratio of a person’s weight to the square of their height 


–BMI
= weight (kg) / height (m)2 –BMI
values below 18.5 or above 30 have increased risks of health problems





large intestine
absorbs water
AI for calcium
(1000mg)
NOTE: Monoglycerides, triglycerides, and diglycerides play many roles, including serving as sources of energy, insulation, and protection.
colorful foods
rich in vitamins
Food additives purposes
-consistency
-quality
-improve nutritional value
-leavening
-enhance flavor or color
Fradulent weight reduction literature referes to visually apparent, lumpy forms of body fat as
cellulite
The most abundant monosaccharides found in food are 6-carbon sugars called _____. These include glucose, fructose, and galactose.
hexoses
Hyperglycemia resulting from excessive secretion of counterregulatory hormones in response to excessive insulin and consequent low blood glucose levels is called?
rebound hyperglycemia
Macrominerals:
Minerals are classified as macrominerals when the daily requirement is 100 mg or more.
*Peanuts*Beans*Milk*Eggs*Meat
Vitamin B2 is also called
preeclampsia
hypertesion induced by pregnancy, whole body edema, protein in urine, sudden large weight gain, to help: increase K, Ca, and Protein
The fingerlike projections of the small intestine that increase surface area and allow for the absorption of nutrients are called ?
Villi


???Nitrogen, excess protein in the diet, is done what happens to it?
SEROTONIN
definition
 
a neurotransmitter synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan that affects mood (sense of calmness), behavior and appetite, and induces sleep.
(DE)
Digestible Energy
GE intake - fecal energy
 
 
 
GE=Gross Energy
cortex
the outermost layer of something. brains concious thought takes place.
glycogen
12-24 hrs of stored energy-animal equivalent of starch-not a significant food source
Chyme:
food in an acidic, liquefied mass
How many lbs in a kilogram?
2.2
3 Categories, based on chemistry:1. Triglycerides2. Sterols3. Phospholipids
Triglycerides:
steroid -actions
1. anabolic-tissue growth 2. androgenic-masculinization
Small Intestine
completion of digestion and absorption of nutrients; first 10'' = duodenum; secretes hydrolytic enzymes; inner walls are lined with villi and microvilli; 6 meters long in adult humans
The smallest units of matter that cannot be broken down by natural means are what?
Atoms
210. All of the following pay important roles in acid-base balance except
a. The liver
Vitamin B12 Functions
formation of bloodnervous system functionhomocysteine (amino acid) metabolism
elemental diets
diets composed of purified nutrients of known chemical composition
Note: Although fructose has a 5-sided ring structure, it is still classified as a hexose b/c it contains a total of 6 carbons.
What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
A,D,E, and K
Free Radicals
contain one or more unpaired electrons, which maked the molecules highly reative
Four basic chemical tastes
sweet salty bitter sour--savory
Vegetarianism:
is the consumption of a diet consisting predominantly of plant foods.
Testing feeding tube placement
Aspirate GI contents-Gastric secretions grassy green, off white or tan. Intestinal fluid is staind w/bile and has golden or brown color. measure ph - see above. lower ph for acidic. auscultate over epi and ULQ, less reliable than ph. confirm length to mark.
Zinc absorption inhibitors
high non heme iron intakefiber
hypoglycemia 1. reactive
pancrease secreats to much insulin
Observation
careful observation of body parts may reveal signs of dehydration
folate function
coenzyme in b12, absorption and metabolism, clearing out oxidant homocysteine (intermediate of methionine metabolism), dna synthesis, regulation of rapidly growing cells
Obesity is classified as having a BMI of what?
30-39.9
209. All of the following are common participants in the regulation of body fluid pH except
a. Oxalic acid
parathyroid hormone
a hormone from parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium by raising it when levels fall too low; aka parathormone
ANUS
definition
last portion of the GI tract; serves as an outlet for that organ
Pyloric Sphincter
Allows chyme to enter the small intestine
BULIMIA NERVOSA
- recurrent episodes of binge eating- inappropriate behavior to prevent weight gain like throwing up or misuse of laxatives- self evaluation is influenced by body shape and weight- Two types are purging and nonpurging- Cycle: - Negative self perceptions - restrictive dieting - binge eating - purging
breaking of dietary fiber in the large intestine is due to
bacteria
Set-point Theory
The theory that when people finish growing their weight remains relatively stable for long periods despite periodic changes in energy intake or output.
The Dietary Guidelines and You: There is no?
optimal diet
chelating agents
molecules that attract or bind with other molecules and are therefore useful in either preventing or promoting movement of substances from place to place.
Why hydrogenate?-To increase shelf life.How do I know if my food contains trans fats?-Read the food label.
Essential Fatty Acids (EFA)
Calcium for the elderly
Bone health
Reduced ability to absorb
What type of exercise is considered best to strengthen the heart and blood vessels?
Aerobic exercise
True or False: Dieting is the number one trigger of eating disorders
a. true b. false(TRUE)
gastroinstestinal tract (GI)
a long, muscular tube consisting of several organs: the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, & large intestine
MUSCLE TISSUE
definition
a type of tissue adapted to contract to cause movement
postprandial hypoglycemia
an unusual drop in blood glucose that follow a meal and is accompanied by sumptoms such as anxiety, rapid heartbeat, and sweating; also called reactive hypoglycemia.
Monounsaturated FA
one double bond of C ^^^^^_^^^^^^protect against CVD olive oil, canola oil, peanut
Fatty acids:
are composed of chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms with an acid group on one end of the chain and a methyl group at the other.
What is the basic unit of a protein?
Amino acid
Vitmanin C is important in ______?
Fighting the aging process
Males with eating disorders
-fewer than women
-usually when in sports, modeling, or acting
-pressure for certain shape or weight
Nursing Care: Assisting with meals
-Prepare clt and room
-Make sure correct clt, correct diet
-Offer alternate meal if unappealing
-Describe the plates contents for visually impared
-Record % of meal taken
Sources of Monounsaturated fat
olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, nuts, peanut butter.
What are the two essential fatty acids?>
linoleic and linolenic acid
What is a placebo?
-fake medicine or supplement that is indistinguishable in appearance from real thing
-used to disguise the control and experimental groups in experiment
Futile Cycling (substrate cycling)
a process that wastes energy by allowing opposing biochemical reactions to occur simultaneously.
What are lipids mainly composed of?
Carbon, Hydrogen and little Oxygen
Factors that Influence Basal Metabolism
Body surface area (weight, height), Lean body mass, Gender, Body temperature
Thyroid hormone, Nervous system activity
Age, Calorie intake, Pregnancy,Use of caffeine and tobacco
NDF (neutral detergent fiber)
measure the cell wall of a plant (cellulose hemicellulose, lignin) and has an inverse relationship with dry matter intake
99. If a normal, healthy adult were to begin consuming a vitamin A poor diet, approximately how much time would pass before the first deficiency symptoms would appear?
a. 1 to 2 year
When would vitamin K toxicity likely occur?
1. Excessive consumption of K1
2. Excessive consumption of K2
3. Excessive consumption of K3
4. Any/all of the above
3. Excessive consumption of K3
How to minimize nutrient loss
Prevent from exposure to air and light,Prevent heat destruction and water lossHALThumudityairlighttemperature
naturally occurring sugars
sugars that are not added to a food but are present as its original constituents, such as the sugars of fruit or milk.
What is the Cori cycle?
A process in the liver that regenerates glucose from lactic acid released by muscles.
Which of the following is the body's first response to the absorption of abundant amounts of carbohydrate?
Synthese and storage of glycogen
NUTRIENTS AND GENE EXPRESSION IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
- cells can regulate gene expression to make the type of protein, in the amounts and at the rate, they need.- Ex: The pancrease makes insulin proteins, but not hemaglobin
What are the best food sources for carbohydrates?
complex structure and/or high nutritional content

(whole grains, beans, legumes, vegetables, fruits)
What are the functions of Vitamin B6
Vitamin B-6: Part of co-enzyme needed in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, helps convert tryptophan to niacin/serotonin, helps to make hemoglobin for red blood cells.
why is emotional comfort and food related?
we eat certain foods for emotional comfort; comfort foods; soup, hot chocoalte etc
• Know the definition of a standard drink
• 12 oz beer• 4 oz wine• 1 ¼ oz of 80 proof liquor→ All contain about ½ ounce of pure alcohol
which of the following statements describes the glycemic effect of foods
a measure of how fast and high the food causes the blood glucose to rise
how many extra calories per day equal 10 extra pounds per year?
100 calories extra per day= 10 extra pounds per year
You need to supply 50g of lysine to a pig, using a supplement that contains 25% D.L-lysine. How much of this supplement should you feed?
 
1. 50g
2. 25g
3. 200 g
4. 400g
5. 12.5g
0.25g D,L-lys/g feed X 0.5g L/g D,L x? = 50g
0.25g D,L/g feed x? = 100g
? = 400g
4. 400g
Abnormal taste perception
Dysgeusia
EAR
Estimated Average Requirement-requirement for health of half of healthy people
Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)
220-age
Monosaccharides
[simple carbs](C6H12O6)-6 Carbon-12 Hydrogen-6 Oxygen
net carbs
good - bad carbs
Pyruvate
Primary end product of glycolysis
Caloric Density of Protein
4 calories
fat-soluble vitamins
vitamins A,D,E, and K
ideal % of protein intake
10-20%
decompression
decompression is a process that decompresses or drains the stomach of unwanted fluid or contents.
Phospholipids
Consist of glycerol backbone, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group
lipoproteins 



lipids are transported in the blood in spherical particles 
Reduction in gastric hydrochloric acid production
Achlorhydria
Binge-Eating Disorder



Individuals with BED are overweight or obese, 1/3 are male


Binge eating behavior not accompanied by purge or compensatory behaviors


Triggered by stressful events or dysphoric moods; Tend to have poor coping skills


Usually in private setting with feeling of loss of control


After binge display poor self-esteem, depression, shame, remorse, self-hatred
gylcogenolysis
catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide and water
Triglycerides
substances that have three fatty acids; they account for over 90% of the lipids in food and in the body
Dietary chloride is usually associated with...
sodium.
calorie free
less than 5 kcal per serving
transamination 



the coenzyme form of vitamin B6 is PLP which plays a role in the process of making nonessential amino acids. this process is termed 
Which of the following is NOT associated with the female athlete triad?
hypertension
anaerobic activity



Conversion of glucose to energy for intense activity doesn’t require oxygen (anaerobic)


People can do intensive activity only as long as stores of glucose last

-activities include basketball, soccer, tennis
Body Fat Content



Weight-for-height and percent body fat do not always correspond


Muscular people can have “obese” BMI


Inactive normal BMI people can still have too much body fat


If people retain fluid, BMI may show overweight but body fat may be low
nutrient density
the proportion of essential nutrients to the number of kilocalories
water is ___% of adult's total weight
50-60%
Polysaccharides
a branched chain of dozens, sometimes hundreds, of glucose molecules; starches
Fats
lipids that are solid at room temperature
A degenerative disease that is more common in women than in men is...
osteoporosis.
Basal Metabolic Rate formula
BMR:HEALTHY body weight(lbs) x 10(women) = BMRHEALTHY body weight(lbs) x 11 (men)= BMR
Health Effects of Fiber
weight control, prevents constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, prevents appendicitis, prevents diverticulosis, decrease colon cancer risk by 40%, prevents heart disease, manage diabetes (slow movement from stomach to intestine- slow increase in blood sugar),
what increases the RDA for vitamin C
smoking ciggs
High energy compound that can regerate ATP in seconds
Creatine Phosphate
Ergogenic Acids
-substances that claim to increase the capacity for muscular work; relatively few work and most are not tested for safety
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
energy needed to maintain life-sustaining activities for a specific period of time at rest
DV
Daily Value %based on 2000 cal diet and RDI and DRI
Metabolism
the sum of all the physical and chemical processes by which living substance is formed and maintained and by which energy is made available for use by the organism
Anemia
a condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells or hemoglobin Anorexia
The following help control diarrhea...
Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, Toast
Iron deficiency anemia is most common at what time during pregnancy...
second trimester.
cholesterol free
less than 2 mg of cholesterol
2g or less sat fat and trans fat combined


Reverse cholesterol transport, facilitated by HDL particles, refers to


The movement of cholesterol from other (peripheral) tissues to the liver
Which of the following fatty acids is critical to fetal brain and eye development?
Docosahexaenoic (DHA)
passive transport
particles move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
Which type of feeding tube is the following:a short-term tube placed into the duodenum or jejeunema)PEGb)NEc)NGd)J
NE (nasoenteric)
Food safety guidelines for patients with low immune function include avoiding _____.
uncooked meats and eggs
percent fat free
may be used only if product meets definition of low fat or fat free.
requires disclosure of grams of fat per 100 g food
Nutrient Density vs. Energy Density
Nutrient density: same amount of calories, but one may have more nutrients/cal
energy density: how many calories/g of food
What are indications for use of enteral feedings?
Protein-energy malnutrition, severe dysphagia, major burns, short gut (pt. had part of their intestines removed), intestinal fistula, individual is not able to orally consume adequate nutrients to support metabolic and energy needs.
Weight loss and excercise are main features of the treatment for...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
adding extra dietary protein may lead to 
an increase in body fat 
what could inadequate inake of folic acid lead to?
fetal neural tube defects, anencephaly, or maternal megaloblastic anemia
How often should the Gastric Residual Volume be checked
Gastric Residual Volume should be checked every 4 hours for the first 48 hours of enteral feedings.
Populations most susceptible to food borne illness
people with weakened immune systems or certain chronic illnesses, pregnant women, young children, and older adults
where is 2/3 of the body's water contained?
Intracellular fluid contains 2/3 of the body's water.
what actions must be performed before starting tube feeding?
wash hands, check bowel sounds, check residual and PH levels of stomach.
How do Low Carb Diets work?
If no carbs, body uses fat for energy. Body racts in starvation mode, then converts muscle protein to glucose. Ketosis develops - acidifies blood.
What is the route used to administer Total Parenteral Nutrition?
TPN is administered via an IV in acentral venous catheter.
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Term:
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