Nutrition 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Energy \"In\"


3500 calories excess of estimated need, store 1 lb. body fat

single sugar units
Types of Protein
proteins with carbohydrates attached
Folate Toxicity

–interfere w/ medications –cause convulsion in people w/ epilepsy –mask B12 deficiencies leading to permanent nerve damage
Vitamin C
Active form:
Food sources:
256. Estrogen therapy for osteoporosis is often rejected because it may increase risk for
a. Cancer
linear, straight chained glucose molecule that is held together by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds
What does superoxide dismutase require?
Saccharin: Used in?
over 90 countries
Deposits of fatty substances, including cholesterol, that attach to arterial walls.
r of determine
reduced social contact
Salivary amylase is an ___________________ .

Refined white sugar is called what?
Carbohydrate composed of many monosaccharide molecules. Examples include glycogen, starch and fiber
alpha-linolenic acid -> EPA and DHA
the body's organs of gas exchange.
glycogen food storage system in animals
Catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide, and water.
What is parenteral nutrition?
administering nutrition intravenously
last option, to many complications
Hydrogenated fats
Hydrogenation: -a chemical process that turns an unsaturated fat into a saturated fat by adding hydrogen to the fat chains.
the group name for lipid-base steriods-including hormones, bile acids and chlosterol
incomplete proteins
-do not contain all AA
-soybeans, nuts, beans
The process of combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called what ______________________________ .
Mutual Supplementation
Ronnie eats a fairly balanced diet, but wants to include a good source of omega-3 fats. Which of the following should be your recommendation?
Iron Functions
component of hemoglobin in blood cellscomponent of hemoglobin in muscle cellsassists enzyme systems
unit of measurement for energy, the kilocalorie or Calorie is the official measurement for energy in food
NOTE: Linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) is metabolized to omega-6 eicosanoids; Linolenic acis (an omega-3 fatty acid) is metabolized to omega-3 eicosanoids
What vitamin helps the body metabolize carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids?
vitamin B
A chemical compound or substance that inhibits oxidation.
if not enough fiber
Diverticula- polyps on colon
Reducing hunger and enhancing satiety:
Increasing water content of recipe will?
decrease energy density
In a hurry-convenience or fast food. Stay home cook from scratch. Cooking skills and concerns about health influence patterns. Shift workers may need to alter eating habits.
an amino acid that requires adquate levels of folate, vitamin b6, and vitamin b12 for its metabolism. High levels of homoncystein in the blood are associated with an increased risk for vascular diseases such as cardiovascular disease.
glycemic load
amount of CHO x glyccemic index
diet history
specific food history obtained using three-day record
iron deficiency
most common nutritional world wide, most common in ages 6 months-4 years, early adolescence, female reproductive years, pregnancy
What is the "powerhouses" of the cell that produces energy from food molecule called?
113. The plant version of vitamin D is known as
a. Ergocalciferol
the stabilized form of a bone and tooth crystal in which fluoride has replaced the hydroxyl groups of hydroxyapatite.
a single, large DNA molecule and its associated protiens; contains many genes to store and transmit genetic information
Located on the walls of the small intestine, expands size to 600X, contains blood vessels, rapid cell turnover
- caused by long term food deprivation- characterized in children by short height for age (stunted growth)
what is the precursor for bile and vitamin d synthesis?
A hormone produced by the stomach that stimulates food intake.
Consume a ______ of foods ________ by a ________ intake of each food
a small fat fragment produced by the fermenting action of bacteria on viscous, soluble fibers; the preferred energy source for the colon cells.
Saturated fats: solid fats
Land animals.Milk and dairy, eggs.Tropical oils:Coconut, palm, palm kernel, cocoa
How does malnutrition affect fertility
Women: amenorrhea
Men: unviable sperm
In what system would the effects of vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
A fatty acid that contains no double bonds is called what?
Trans fat
small intestine
10-12 ft long, food is broken down into its smallest components,
the ring of smooth muscle between the end of the small intestine and the large intestine
spasm of both the vocal cords and the diaphragm, causing periodic, audible, short, inhaled coughs.
Deficiency of B-6 Diseases
anemia (small cell type), depression, confusion, rashes, scaly dermatitis, greasy skins
Body mass index (BMI):
measures weight corrected for height and serves as an alternative to traditional height-weight relationships.
What is nutrition?
The process by which food nourishes the body.
Vitamin C renews ______?
Vitamin E-allowing it to neutralize more free radicals.
Delaney clause
-no known carcinogens can be added to food
Ketogenic diet
diet high in fats and protein and low in carbohydrates, often indicated in the treatment of epilepsy
High fat in meat means _____ g saturated fat per ____ oz serving.
>4.5 g;
3 oz
a sterol can be attached to a fatty acid via an ester bond forming a ___ ___.
sterol ester
How do teeth function in digestion?
-breaks food into smaller pieces
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
The rate of expenditure under resting conditions. BMR measurements are performed in a warm room in the morning before the subject rises, and at least 12 hours after the last food or activity.
What are the six classes of nutrients?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Protein
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
Trans Fatty Acid Fat Ex.
partially hydrogenated oils found in various fried foods and processed foods
name the 2 coenzymes in the krebs cycle
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide  - niacin
    Flavin           Adenine Dinucleotide  - riboflavin
142. All of the following are features of vitamin K in butrition except
a. Gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most health adults
What is a trace mineral
-minerals required in the ppm or ppb
Name\na function each of copper, fluoride and chromium.
\n Copper- formation of hemoglobin, needed\n for absorption of iron\n Fluoride- bones and teeth\n\n\n· \nChromium- maintaining normal glucose metabolism
enriched foods and fortified foods
foods to which nutrients have been added. if the strating material is awhole, basic food such as milk or whole grain, the result may be highly nutritious. If the starting material is a concentrated form of sugar or fat, the result may be less nutritious.
Why are vegetarians at risk of developing vitamin B12 deficiency?`
Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin.
A featur of ketosis is that it
occurs when fats are partially oxidized
- energy in should exceed energy out by at least 500kcalories/day- gain 1 pound per month- emphasize energy dense foods- eat at least 3 meals a day- eat large portions of foods and expect to feel full- eat snacks between meals- drink plenty of juice and milk
What are the sections of the large intestine
Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
Omega 3 fatty acids do what concerning overall health? What are the food sources they are found in?
Omega 3 fatty acids- Lower blood clotting, lower blood pressure, decrease inflammation.In excess it increases the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, bleed time, and slows wound healing (cold water fish oils, tuna, fatty fish, canola, soybean, flaxseed, breastmilk) -pg 155
What is respiratory quotient (RQ)? What foods have a low RQ?
RQ is the ratio between oxygen intake and CO2 output for foodsCarbs have a high RQ while fat has the lowest RQ (therefore makes less CO2)
Which of the following is/are true about digestion?
a. the process by which food is broken down into smaller, absorbable units b. consists of mechanical and chemical actionsc. limited only by sleep and exercised. b and ce. a, b, and c(E)
what is the fate of excess dietary protein
after absorpton, the extra amino acids will be repidly degraded
Is it possible to exercise and still not lose body weight?
body changes with exercise, you may be losing the fat but you are also gaining muscle so you won't see much change in body weight
What is a major function of Chromium?
· \nMaintaining normal glucose metabolism
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