Nutrition 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
b3=?
niacin
Vitamin E
tocopherols
Sodium
Average Intake
2300-4700mg/day
 
 
what inhibit vitamins?
antibiotics
helminths
tapeworms, flukes, roundworms
anaerobic
not requiring oxygen
Phosphorous
Upper Limit
3-4 grams/day
Storage of Fe
Ferritin
hemosiderin
unsaturated
liquid at room temperature
RQ for fats (100%)
0.71
Vitamin D
Daily Value
10 micrograms/day
Sodium Toxicity
Hypertension
Increased Calcium excretion
Kidney Stones
Copper food sources
FOOD SOURCES:
liver
shellfish
nuts
seeds
mushrooms
soy
dark chocolate
Carbs
DV 130: gm
Toxicity: N/AFunction: Satisfies Calorie Needs, Provides Energy
Source Rice, Bread, Potatoes, Pasta, Fruit
Deficiency
3 functions of NA
electrolyte balance
neurotransmission
muscle contraction
in cold and flu meds
peppermint
Food intolerance
non-immune responseex. lactose intolerance
cancer
a condition characterized by uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells
true or false: A foodborne intoxication is caused by consuming a food contaminated with a toxin produced by a pathogen
True
Percentage of ingested fat-soluble vitamins that are absorbed...
40-90%
Food sources of Phosphorous
FOOD SOURCES:
Milk
Cheese
Meat
Bakery products
Cereals
Fluoride deficiency
Associated with increased cavities
b2 deficiency?
chelosis, magenta tongue, dermatitis, aribofavinosis
Pantothenic acid
DV: 5 mg
 
Toxicity: N/A
Sources: Mushrooms, Liver, Broccoli, Eggs Function:
Part of Coenzyme-A– Essential for metabolism ofcarbohydrate, fat, and protein
Deficiency: • Deficiency rare
– Usually in combination with otherdeficiencies
Nutrients
substances that provide energy and materials needed for metabolic activites
not a risk of gensing
vomiting
Normal fasting blood glucose level
70-100 mg/dL
The classification of underweight is defined when the BMI first drops below
18.5
Conventional medicine and alternative medical therapies are commonly linked together into a practice called
complementary medicine
Musculoskeltal Fitness
-Fitness of muscle and bones
-Anaerobic (cannot meet energy needs through oxygen)
- Weights, resistance, training, plyometrics
-Sprinting, jumping
 
-Components
-Muscular Strength
-Muscular Power
rectum
terminal portion of the large intestine
denaturation
alteration of a proteins three dimensional structure, usually because of treatment by heat, enzymes, acid or alkaline solutions, or agitation
Releases enzymes that help further release fat soluble vitamins.
Pancreas
Location of Enzymatic Conversion
Liver or Intestines
Fluid required to replace losses
1-3 liters/day
DASH guideline for lowfat/fat-free dairy
2-3 servings/day
Selenium
AO, part of glutathione peroxidase, production of thyroxine (thyroid hormone)too much- brittle nails, hairtoo little- Kashan- heart diseaseKashin-Beck-arthritis
Lipids
molecules that are insoluble in water
Magnesium (Mg)
DV: 400-420 mg Toxicity:350 mg
Sources: Bran, Green Veggies, Nuts, Chocolate, Legumes 
 Function: Bone Formation, Enzyme Function, Nerve & Heart   • Nerve and heart functions
• 60% is stored in the bones
• Absorption based on body’s needs(normally 40%-60%)
• Cofactor for +300 enzymes
Deficiency: • Irregular heartbeat• Weakness
• Muscle pain
• Disorientation
• Seizures
what factor increases the risk of cancers of the head and neck, mouth, throat, breast and liver
Alcohol
placebo
generally a fake medicine used to disguise the treatments given to the participants in an experiment
Folate and B12 required to regenerate what?
MET
the common form of ginseng found is
teas
Absorption of B12 requires:
1. gastric acid2. IF
Food frequency Questionnaire
retrospective review of intake frequency
Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?
Corn oil
Which of the fllwing best exemplifies an activity that promotes flexibility?
 
Yoga
Pilates
Weight Lifting
Jumping Rope
Yoga
cirrhosis
a loss of functionioning liver cells, which are replaced by nonfunctioning connective tissue. any substance that poisons liver cells can lead to cirrhosis. the most common cause is chronic alcohol intake.
connective tissue
protein tissue that holds different structures in the body together some structures are made up of connective tissue- notably, tendons and cartilage. Connective tissue also forms part of bone and the nonmuscular structures of arteries and veins
bolus
a moistened mass of food swallowed from the oral cavity into the pharynx
To meet the additional need for protein during pregnancy, how much more grams of protein are needed in the 2 and 3 trimester. 
25
lactovegetarian
a person who consumes plant products and dairy products
Most vitamin absorption takes place here...
Small Intestine
Phosphorous Deficiency
RARE:
Chronic deficiency = bone loss, decreased growth and poor tooth development
From the stomach, chyme is slowly released through the ________spincter to the small intestine
pyloric
Too much iron
fatal poisoning- nausea, vomiting, dizziness
deficiency of b12?
vegetarians, crohns disease. fatigue, constipation, hepatomegally, glossitis, dizziness, headache, nervousness, permanent neuro damage, tingling hands and feet
A
DV: 900 mcg RAE
Toxicity: 3000 (mcg) Signs and symptoms– Bone/muscle pain, loss of appetite, skin disorders,
headache, dry skin, hair loss, increased liver size,
vomiting
– Fetal malformation
– Possible permanent damage
 Effects of high carotenoid intakeSources:Liver, Fortified Milk & Cereals
Function: Vision, Growth, Dry skin, Immune System,
 Acne medication
Deficiency: vision-skin conditions
How many fruits and vegetables are recommended in the DASH diet?
8-10 servings
case-control study
individuals who have the condition in question, such as lung cancer, are compared with individuals who do not have the condition
Nutritional Anemias
inadequate Hb in blood due to inadequate nutrient supply
ephedra also konwn as in chinese herbology
ma huang
Superoxide dismutases fxn
this enzyme catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide to H202 and O2
Vitamine E properties:absorbed?fxn
absorbed in the intestine and transferred to the liver as a component of a chylomicronIts function is as a chain-breaking antioxidant that prevents the propagation of the lipid carbon-centered radicals of fatty acid residues
If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which of the fllwing tissues can use it to form vitamin A?
 
Eyes
Kidneys
Adipose cells
Intestinal cells
Intestinal cells
All of the fllwing are hormones that promote satiety except
 
PYYCCKleptin
ghrelin
ghrelin
What formulation of zinc has been found effective in treating the symptoms of the common cold?
Zinc gluconate
Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
45 minutes
minerals
elements used in the body to promote chemical reactions and to form body structures
phagocytosis
a process which a cell forms an indentation, and particles or fluids entering the indentation are then engulfed by the cell
epinephrine
a hormone also known as adrenaline; it is released by the adrenal glands (located on each kidney) at times of stress. It acts to increase glycogen breakdown in the liver, among other functions
bomb calorimeter
an instrument used to determine the calorie content in a food
Aid in Vitamin E absorption
Bile and pancreatic enzymes
Most reliable and abundant source of Iodine in US Diet
Iodized salt
saturated fat should be no more than __% of total calories
7
what causes deficiencies of b2?
orral contraceptives, alcohol, broad spectrum antibiotics and strenuous exercise
Zinc (Zn)/tm
DV: 11 mg Toxicity:40 mg • Inhibits copper metabolism
 • Possibly increases risk for prostate cancer
 • Causes diarrhea, cramps, nausea, vomiting
 • Depresses immune functionSources: Seafood, Meat, Greens, Whole GrainsFunction:
(Required For Nearly 200 Enzymes, Growth, Immunity, Sex Dev)
• Cofactor to many enzymes
• DNA synthesis, growth, protein metabolism,wound healing
• Immune function• Bone & sexual organ development
• Insulin function
• Cell membrane structure and function
• Prevention of oxidative cell damage
• Slows macular degeneration
Deficiency: • Symptoms
– Rash– Diarrhea
– No appetite
– Reduction in taste & smel
l– Hair loss
– Growth can be hampered
Name some interview tips for dietary assessment
open-ended questionsnon-leading questionsobjective responseask about supplementsask about Rx or OTC medications
what kind of fleshy root plant can be used to treat type II diabetes
ginseng
What are the three most common reactive oxygen species
SuperoxideHydrogen peroxidehydroxyl radical
Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?
 
Antiviral agent
Antifungal agent
Anticancer agent
Antioxidant agent
Antioxidant agent
A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?
Niacin
The duration of exercise warm-up and cool-down periods should be
5-10 minutes each
A person's level of C-reactive protein appears to be a strong predictor for
a heart attack
THe importance of CHO
1.) Necessary for high- intensity 
-Anaerobic Glycolysis
2.) Necessary for fat metabolism
-Need CHO to "burn" fat
3.) Lack of CHO=fatigue
-depleted liver and muscle glycogen stores
muscle tissue
a type of tissue adapted to contract to cause movement
Women who enter pregnancy with excess weight should do what with her weight
gain 15-25 pounds
underweight
a BMI below 18.5. The cutoff is less precise than for obesity because this condition has been less studied
Vitamin D that is tightly regulated by the PTH and kidneys.
Vitamin D3
Consequences of ignoring thirst mechanism
ADH released by pituitary
Reduced urine output by kidney
Decreased BP triggers renin-angiotensin system
what are nutrients?
chemicals in foods critical to human growth and function
6 essential nutritional factors and describe one source for each group...
1. Carbohydrates (cereal)
2. Proteins (meat)
3.Lipids (Nuts)
4. Minerals (Milk)
5. Vitamins (Plants)
6. Water
Name the calories required for the following levels of fitnessNormal fitness programIntense trainingElite athletes
Normal fitness= 25-35kcal/kg (1800-2400 per day)Intense (2-3hrs daily, 5-6xweekly)= 50-80kcal/kg or 2500-4000kcal/dayElite= 150-200kcal/kg (7000-10,000kcal/day)
Problems With The Old Food Pyramid 


doesn't distinguish between good and bad fat
doesn't distinguish between good and bad carbohydrates
eating isnt everything
PAR can be divided into
1. light (1-1.8)2. moderate (2-4)3. Heavy (>4) often to 15
All of the fllwing are characteristics of neuropeptide-Y except
 
it stimulates appetite
it reduces fat storage
it is synthesized in the brain
it increases carbohydrate craving
it reduces fat storage
Approx how many people in the US have HIV or AIDS?
3.3 million
2 laws of bioenergetics
1) energy canot be created or destroyed, but can only change fron one form to another2) energy transfer proceeds in the direction of increased release of free energy and entropy
positive energy balance
the state in which energy intake is greater than energy expended, generally resulting in weigh gain
Possible health benefits of Ca
decreased risk of colon cancer
fewer kidney stones
decreased lead absorption
lowers BP
improved blood lipids
decreased PMS symptoms
possible weight loss
Digestion in the stomach includes
Mechanical- mix food with gastric juiceChemical- digestion of proteins, fats
what are the only 2 chronic diseases not effected by high saturated fat diets?
osteoprosis and dental/oral disease
Name some effects of DRUGS on FOOD therapy
Nutrient absoption: chelation, adsorption, transit time, GI environment, damage to intestinal mucosa, intestinal transportNutrient metabolism: increase speed, vitamin antagonismNutrient excretion: interfere with resorption, increase/decrease excretion
Omega 3 Fatty acids in diet come from...
SMASH
salmon, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, herring
Common biochemical measures for assessment (5)
1. Serum albumin2. serum prealbumin (transthyretin)3. transferrin4. hemoglobin, hematocrit
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
Characteristics of manganese in nutrition include all of the fllwing except
deficiencies are seen primarily in the elderly
What is Musculoskeletal fitness?
 
Strength and power
must do 1-2 a week to keep up
Accessory organs of the GI include:
Liver- produces bile to emulsify fatpancreas-produces digestive enzymes, bicarbonate to neutralize chymegall bladder- stores bile
7 macrominerals required in human nutrition, one function of each, and good dietary sources for each...
1. Calcium: bone and tooth formation (dairy)
2. Phosphorus: muscle contraction (dairy)
3. Sulphur: structural component of connective tissue (protein)
4. Potassium: water balance (milk)
5. Chlorine: acid-base balance (salt)
6. Sodium: acid-base balance (salt)
7. Magnesium: enzyme activator (cereals)
Name some effects of drugs on nutritional status
Side effectsOral taste and smell: dysgeusia, hypogeusia, mucositis, xerostomiaGI effects; irritation, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, kill flora, fat malabsoprtionAppetite changes: lose/gain weight, imbalance, appetite suppressants/stimulats, CNSOrgan system toxicity: hepato or nephro toxicityGlucose levels: too much or too little
on a food label where are the nutrients you want to get 100% of located
Below the heavy black line
When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?
Excreted primarily in the urine
What is believed to be the primary cause of type 1 diabetes?
Defect of the immune system
The ultimate goal of ex metabolism
-to provide energy from stores during ex and to re-establish energy stores during recovery
Lining of the GI tract has special structures to facilitate absorption-called...
Villi- folds in liningmicrovilli- brush borderfat soluble abosorbed through villi, H20 soluble through blood stream
Name Harris Benedict equation, how accurate, and when it was developed?Name Mifflin St. Jeor Equation, how accurate, and when it was developed?What are they both used for ?
HB: accurate (within 10%) 69% of the time, 1919MSJ: accurate (within 10%) 82% of the time, 1990Calculating Resting Metabolic Rate
who developed the HEI and why
USDA developed this in order to assess whether individuals and populations were complying with recommendations and if they were if it translated to nutrients
Which of fllwing is a feature of vitamin A in foods?
Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
Which of the fllwing is known to cause discolored enamel of the teeth?
 
 
Excessive flouride in the water
what do you get with a vitamin A deficiency?
dry hair, skin, eyes; decreased growth, night blindness, skin disorders, insomnia, fatigue, colds, reproductive difficulties.
Why does the use of the BMI overestimate the prevalence of obesity in the Afro-American pop.?
Blacks have denser vones and higher body protein concentrations than whites
Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
putting a demand on muscles by making them work harder
Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition?
 
The coenzyme contains pyrosulfate
It is required for regeneration of folate
It is required for regeneration of niacin
It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane
It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane
All of the fllwing are features of low-density lipoproteins and coronary heart disease except
excess LDL cholesterol in the blood is removed by high-density lipoproteins
Phospholipids
triglycerides, choline
green
glucosinolates
 
broccoli, brussels sprouts 
BMI=
wt (kg)/ht (m2)
Carbohydrates
Provide short term energy
Tetany
Neuromuscular disorder of uncontrollable muscular cramps and tremors
UL
Tolerable Upper Level Intake
•Monosaccharide-Single sugar unit-Several types found in food supply: glucose (blood sugar- brain needs it for fuel- what most sugars and starches turned into), fructose (fruit sugar- found in honey- component of disaccharides), and Galactose (compone
simple carbohydrates
DHEA, Andro
-precursors of testosterone
-promote test. production
-same negatives as anabolic steroids 
All bottled water contains fluoride?
T/F
False
 
ectoderm
brain, nervous system, skin hair
Laws:
Should be well characterizedstable enough to minimize rearrangementsToxicants and anti-nutritional factors must be at or below current cultivarsPre-market approvalLabeling
Fatty Acids
Simplest form of Lipids
•Water•HCl (acid)- unfolds protein•Pepsin- split protein into smaller fragments
gastric juices
TRUE OR FALSEPLANTS AND ANIMALS CONTAIN STEROL?
TRUE
rhodopsin
light sensitive pigment of the retina;
 
rhod=red (pigment)
opsin=visual protein
physical characteristics of quashicore disease?
engorged belly
what carbohydrate has even more branching sites/enzyme ends than amylopectin?
glycogen
Solvent
Fluid in which substances are dissolved
Vit. A Toxicity
UL-3000ug/day: digestive disturbances, HA, blurred visionlong term: joint pain, weakness, loss of appetiteteratogenic: causes birth defects
Gluconeogenesis
Synthesis of new glucose from noncarbohydrate source.
when body loses 5% of water
dehydration
Staight Chains
Shape of saturated fatty acid
•Glycogen (carbohydrates)-Mainly in skeletal muscles and liver•Fat (lipid)-Fat pads
energy storage system
Lobbyists
Make sure government doesn't pass legislation hurting them
Daily values
based on a 2000 calorie diet
weight gain ranges
underweight: 28-40 lbs
normal: 24-35 lbs
overweight: 15-25 lbs
obese: 15-20 lbs 
what is fiber made up mostly of?
polysaccharides
deficiency of this vitamin causes ricketts
vitamin D
Bioavailability
Amount of nutrient available to the body based on its absorption
Riboflavin
B-2, nice yellow color, glows under UVif you add several large molecules to sugar-FMN and FAD (coenzymes)
weight gain during 4-6 months
it doubles (7-14lbs) 
glucogenic amino acids are used to make
glucose
Cancer Testing
use old animals - highest concentration that does not shortened the life span of the animal
________ is primarily stored in the muscle.
Protein
Essential Fatty Acids
Omega-3 Fatty AcidOmega-6 Fatty Acid
Vit A functions
1. vision-rhodopsin-see in the dark
nightblindness if deficent
2. growth-bone remodeling (growth failure)
 
3. epithelial tissues healthy
-skin
-GIs
-respitory tract
protect from sickness
 
4. antioxidants
beta-carotene
protect against damage to cell-membrane, lipids, proteins, and alterations to DNA
 
•Ongoing and collaborative effort•Food and Nutrition Board of IOM (U.S.)•Includes RDA, AI, EAR, and UL•Gender and age specific•Refer to intake averaged over time or “usual diet”
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
Thermogenesis
Portion of calories needed for eating, transport, swallowing, digesting, etc. Some escapes through heat. Calories spent on heat is 10%
macro mineral
type of mineral needed iin amounts that are greater than 100 mg
insulin resistance
a condition in which cells "resist" the action of insulin in facilitating the passage of glucose to cells.
starch
a carb made of multiple units of glucose
attached in form body can digest
complex carb. 
What food group should  you eat the most from?
Grains
Longitudinal fissures
Slits or wrinkles that extend the length of the tongue
Protein digestion: stomach
stomach: HCl denatures protein and enzyme
pepsin breaks down protein into smaller polypeptides
rennin breakds down casein (milok protein) and readies it for pepsin
how many grams of carbs are needed daily to prevent ketosis
100g
Genetic Engineering
manipulation of the gene pool using biochemical techniques
How do you calculate your max heart rate?
220-age
FNB
Recommends that 5% of cal. come from omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids
What activity are considered moderate
-briskly walking 3.5 mi/hr-hiking-gardening/yard work-dancing-golf-bicycling >10 mi/hr
trans fatty acids
what is the newest label law?
Vitamin D
Produced when UV-B rays hit skin. Regulates Ca
2000 calories
percent daily value is based on this many calories a day
hitting the wall happens when
body runs out of glycogen
Saturated fatty acid
Fatty acid that contains no double bonds. Fatty acid chain is occupied by all of the hydrogen atoms it can hold.
Metabolism and Absorption
absorption rate depends on speed of CHO release into small intenstine, mixture of food present in intestine
glucose excesses converted to fat and stored as adipose (fat) tissue
zinc deficiency in children..
reduces body ability to taste foods/grow
Alcohol is also metabolized by ____ __________ ADH to yield ______, which is a toxic compound.
colon bacterial; acetaldehyde
Essential amino acids
cannot be made by the body
 
there are 9 essential amino acids (20 total)
non-essential amino acids
made by the body using essential amino acids plus nitrogen
2400mg
In a 2,000 calorie diet, what is the grams of sodium?
Atkins diet
Some health risks, diet not long term. Positive effect on lipids/glucose/insulin and blood pressure. Not recommended for peeps with liver/kidney problems. Leaves glycogen stores empty which can cause nausea headache decreased stamina and lowered concentration.
3 phases of cancer
1.) initiation phase: the start of cancer; begins w/ the alteration of DNA within cells.
 
2.) promotion phase: cells with altered DNA divide, producing large numbers of abnormal cells. (10-30 yrs)
 
3.) progression phase: marked by a loss of control over the abnormal cells, and their numbers increase rapidly.
Calcium absorption is increased when a sugar is present?
T/F
True 
Carbs
(ie lactose and glucose)
Essential amino acids (EAAs)
all must be present in body simultaneously for synthesis
needed for tissue growth and maintenance
foods that contain the 8 EAAs in moderate amounts are complete proteins, which includes most animal proteins
What is ghrelin?
A hormone produced by the stomach to stimulate the desire to eat meals at the usual times
What are the generic waist measurements to assess chronic disease risks?
Male->40 (apple shaped)Female> 35 (pear shaped)
•Calcium and osteoporosis-high in calcium•Sodium and hypertension-Low sodium•Dietary fat and cancer-Low fat•Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and heart disease-Low saturated fat, low cholesterol, and low fat•Other similar claims: Be ab
health claims allowed on food labels
Functions/roles of Vitamin: D, B6, C
Vitamin D
Function: Bone health through calcium and phosphorus regulation. It may prevent diabetes and some cancers
Vitamin B6
Function: Riboflavin important to Energy Metabolism
Vitamin C
Function:Synthesis of Certain Amino Acids.  Need to make collagen, important antioxidant.

 
TRUE FALSE?OMEGA 6 FATTY ACID HAS THE DOUBLE BONDE ON THE 3RD CARBON FROM THE END
FALSE6TH FROM THE END
what are fibers that form structural parts of plants(hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignin) called because they are not readily dissolved by intestinal bacteria?
insoluble or poorly fermented fibers
RAR and RxR (nuclear proteins)
Bind to retinol in the nuclear membrane; bind to DNA and can change gene expression
groups at incr risk of nutritional probs
elderly, preggo, lactating women, adolexcents, poor and socially isolated
What are the consequences of anorexia nervosa
-delayed puberty, stunted growth-lack of menstruation -dehydration-osteoporosis-irregular heart/heart failure-premature death
What can help reduce blood pressure?
Reduce your sodium intake
Lose excess weight
Stay physically active
Drink alcohol Moderately
what types 'sugar' is used in the food industry a LOT today?
high fructose corn syrup
Retinol binding protein and pre-albumen
These attach to retinol as it leaves the liver
What is the function of calcium?
Used in bone and tooth structure, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, blood pressure/clotting, and regulating transport of ions across cell membranes
Why would consumption of soft drinks be detrimental to bone health
Replacing milk with these beverages can lead to deficient intake of calcium, can cause an increase loss of calcium because it is drawn to neturalize the acid, the caffeine could cause increase calcium loss through urine.
What factors affect the magnitude of lean tissue synthesis?
○ Normal internal levels of anabolic hormones○ Type, intensity and frequency of training○ Body size, composition, and somatotype○ Previous training experience○ Muscle fiber type○ Genetics○ Diet○ Gender
how many glucose units do complex carbs contain?
can contain 1000 or more glucose units
What is the formula to calculate your weight in kilograms?
weight in pounds / 2.2 lbs/kg
List factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis?
Smoking, Low body weight, Low calcium intake, Low sun exposure, Alcohol abuse, & Amenorrhea
what is a functional fiber?
a form of fiber that may be added to foods
What are some negative sides of BMI
-it is not very good proxy for individuals-it cant distinguish between muscle and fat-obesity is diagnosed using 3 factors (pg. 327
consequences of too much or too little high-quality or well-combined protein
if too much, it stores excess as fat
if too little, and not all EAAs are there, stores as energy/fat and waits for new influx
Is it important for athletes to have a high protein diet?
No, not good evidence of needing more protein. It is need for muscle building, but extra protein is not needed, only the normal amount
ME
GE-(fecal+gaseous+urinary)
4 kcal/g
carbs
proteins
define cariostatic
caries inhibiting
Vitamins
-Organic-Essential-Function: Allow body to obtain energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein.
resting metabolic rate (RMR)
pear-shaped fat patterning


–lower body

•No
significant increased risk for chronic diseases





Female athlete triad
-disordered eating
-amenorrhea
-osteoporosis/low bone density
150. What iron containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
a. Hemoglobin
NOTE: Epinephrine and cortisol stimulate liver and muscle glycogenolysis in response to danger or stress. Called the fight-or-flight response, ensures glucose availability, especially under extreme circumstances.
Normal Ideal Body Weight range
90%-110%
Forms body structures, hemoglovin, antibodies?
Protein
Endocytosis:
process whereby solid and liquidmaterials are taken into the cell throughmembrane invagination and vesicle formation
symptomes of PKU
odor in urine
o Vitamin A
• Unlike other vitamins and minerals, Vit A is absorbed and stored more efficiently; most have good Vit. A status
Iodine
Source: Iodized Salt, Seafood, Dairy ProductsFunction: Thyroid Hormones
digestibility calculations
amount consumed - amount excreted
microbes
bacteria, viruses or other organisms invisible to the eye.
Anthropometry?
regional fat distribution; and it measures the circumference of the waist, hip, and thighs
membrane in brain and nerve cells
fat
True or False:
Minerals are destroyed by cooking.
False
Chylomicrons
The first lipoproteins formed after absorption of lipids from food.
Herbal therapy (phytotherapy)
-traditional medical practices
-little scientific evidence of safety or efficacy
Lacteal
each villus contains this, a small vessel of the lymphatic system, and capillaries; both absorb nutrients into the blood stream
Most digestion and absorption occurs in the _____________________ .
Small Intestines.
The series of reactions involving the conversion of glucose to pyruvate is known as
glycolysis
DRI
Dietary Reference Intake: a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Canada. Used for planning and assessing diets.
organic
carbon containing. 4/6 classes of food are organic: carbs, fat, protein, and vitamins
NOTE: Scientists have long known that SFA intake is positively related to risk for cardiovascular disease
Do people need adequate protein in their diets?
yes
sources of iron
meat/seafood, whole grains, enriched bread, peas, beans
Blood travels...
liver, returns to the heart/passes through digestive system-- delivers nutrients and picks up waste
Anabolism:
is the building of more complex biochemical substances by synthesis of nutrients. Anabolism occurs when an individual adds lean muscle through diet and exercise. Amino acids are anabolized into tissues, hormones, and enzymes. Normal metabolism and anabolism are physiologically possible when the body is in positive nitrogen balance.
Carbohydrates-Sugars
Water soluble, produced by both plants & animals. Glucose most abundant simple sugar (monosacch).
ferroportion
an iron transport that helps regulate iron absorption and releases iron from the enterocyt into general circulation
fat in stomache
gastric lipase digests some triglicerides
protein
small role in energy producting during exercise-
toxicity of mg
calcification of soft tissue, diarrhea
The best known role that vitamin A plays in the human body is what ?
Vision
89. What is a major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation?
a. Chylomicrons
hypercalcemia
high blood calcium is known as this and may develop from a variety of disorders including vit D toxicity. is not associated with high calcium intake.
PHAGOCYTOSIS
definition
process in which a cell forms an indentation, and particles or fluids enter the indentation and are engulfed by the cell
Sphincters
Regulate the flow of food through the body
VITAMIN B6
- water soluble- part of coenzyme used in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism- helps to convert tryptophan to niacin and to serotonin- helps to make red blood cells
how many carbons are found in a monosaccharide
six
You dont even understand how much this helped!
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Moderation = ?
plan your intake; control portion size
neurotransmitters
chemicals that are released at the end of a nerve cell when a nerve impulse arrives there. Inhibit or excite.
Adrenocorticotripic Hormone (ACTH)
An adrenal cortex hormone that stimulates secretion of more hormones.
Stages of fetal growth: Fetal
Week 9 to delivery
Growth
Which of the following is highest in Vitamin B6?`
Meats
Tom and Jane are both 19-year-old athletes who are 6’ tall and weigh 170 pounds; Jerry is a 41-year-old salesman who weighs 165 pounds and is 5’ 7” tall. Who would have the higher basal metabolic rate?
a. Tomb. Jerryc. Janed. Tom and Janee. All the same(A)
227. Which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood?
a. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Measurement of energy expenditure in body under resting and postabsorptive conditions.
RDA - recommended dietary allowances
nutrient intake goals for individuals; the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the needs of nearly all or healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group.
Diseases of Vit K Deficiency
hemorrhage and poor skeletal mineralization
Amount of energy required to carry on involuntary activities of the body at rest is?
basal metabolism
How much energy do carbohydrates yield?
4 kcal per gram
Help diminish capollaries by strengthening capillary walls
Sources of vitamin K are:
Length gain in infants
Increas by 50% by 12 mos
Coenzymes that preserves adequate delta-6-desaturase activity
B6, B3, C, Mg, Zn
Makes up 98% of the fat in our foods and the fat in our fat stores:
Triglycerides
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
definition
one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system also called leukocytes
white blood cells are able to squeeze through intracellular spaces and migrate. they phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as detoxify protiens that may result from allergic reactions, cellular injury and other immune system cells
PROTEINS ROLE IN METABOLISM
- yields energy- yields glucose when carbohydrates are unavailable- yields amino acids and body proteins- yields fat stores
Toxicity of Folate
-High intakes may mask the symptoms of B12 deficiency
What FOUR nutrients should Americans consume less of?
Fat, calories, salt and alcohol
Blood cholesterol values (normal and unhealthy ranges)
Blood Cholesterol (less than 200mg/dL)
weight gain in second and third trimesters
3/4-1 lb per week
Jim is 45 year old who eats fast food at least 3 times a week and smokes a pack of cigarettes each day. he just had a physical examination and was told that his biody mass index is 24. In what category would Jim's BMI be classified?
Healthy Weight
Limiting amino acid
If an animal responds to addition of a single amino acid to the diet, that amino acid is likely a limiting amino acid
What foods/supplements are contraindicated following renal transplant?
St. John's Wort negates the effects of immunosuppressants (Prograf, Cellcept)Grapefruit juice interacts with Prograf and Cellcept
What are naturally salty foods?
What are salted foods?
What are processed or refined foods?
What are canned and frozen foods?
salt water fish and shellfish
peanuts, chips, pretzels
cheese, ham
soups, vegs
Very-low density lipoprotein
VLDL. Type of lipoprotein made by the liver to transport lipids to various tissues in the body
What is the primary factor that differentiates bulimia nervosa from binge eating?
Purging is rarely practiced in binge-eating disorder
WEIGHT CONTROL RELATED TO PROTEIN
- adding some protein to the diet helps control weight because of satiety - The food that protein is in has to be low in fat.
What do fats to in the body?
-provide 9kcal of energy per gram
-main fuel in endurance/aerobic excercise
-stimulates hormones that slow gastric emptying, food stays in stomach longer
-slow digestion
-essential fatty acids form part of cell wals
-needed to carry fat soluble vitamins-a, d, e, and k
Why are some plant oils hydrogenated
If plant oils are left in their unsaturated form they are more likely to spoil, go rancid. By hydrogenating them they have a longer shelf life, better cooking characteristics, higher smoking point (better for frying), and make them spreadable (i.e. butter)
WHAT DOES THE STORAGE OF GLUCOSE AS GLYCOGEN ALLOW FOR?
RAPID HYDROLYSIS- CELLS ATTACK THE MANY BRANCHES OF GLYCOGEN TO GET GLUCOSE QUICK
Which of the following is NOT a trend of physical activity in America?
a. Decreased participation in physical activity throughout adolescenceb. Majority of elementary schools provide daily physical educationc. Less than half of adults get no free-time physical activity at alld. a and be. None of the above(B)
which of the following defines the body's set point
point above which tha body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight
Why are adolescents not well fed?
· \nSkip breakfast\n\n· \nBad snacks\n\n· \nAfraid of being fat\n\n· \nNo milk\n\n· \nFad diets
Vitamin K
Quinones
-Phylloquinone (Plant)K1
-Menaquinone (Animal)K2
-Menadione (synthetic)
sensitive to light
but stable to heat and oxidation
Function: BLOOD CLOTTING
osteocalcin activation -
Active form: K1 - phylloquinone(Plant)
K2 - Menaquinone(Animal S)
K1 more active
Food sources: main source-green leafy
veggies, bacteria living
in colons.
RDA
DRI varies with age. older people
requires more
AI : 120 microgram/day for men
90 mocrogram/day for women
more than 400microgram/day for bone
EAR
UL
Deficiencies: prolonged coag., time
reduced bone density
prone to fracture
Toxicity: hemolytic anemia
Enzymes:
Coenzymes:
/ 291
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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