Nutrition 20 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
macronutrient
genogram:
Number of?
relatives
Zinc
Protein synthesisCHO metabolism
Chemical contamination
-pesticides
-animal drugs
-pollutants
HDL
'good' cholesterol. removes cholesterol from body and deliver to liver for excretion
Magnesium sources:
green leafy vegetables
nuts
beans
grains
vitamin C
water soluble, essential
causes of pneumonia
breathing infected air
enterohepatic circulation is the exchanges of gases in the blood capillary
false
what is therapy for constipation?
fiber
Food is measured in?
kilocalories (kcal)
Energy Density
Energy Density=Kilo-calories divided by grams of food.
most common insoluble fiber
psyllium husks
Zinc
These functions are best classified as: catalytic, structural, and regulatory. Catalytic roles are found in enzymes from all six classes of enzymes and well over 200 zinc metalloenzymes have been characterized. The zinc finger motif in proteins represents an extremely important structural role.


Grouping foods together based on their nutritional content makes them easier to use for weight and blood sugar management for the food ??? T/F
This system is called the _________.
True
glycolisis
Degradation of sugars into smaller compunds ; the main quanitative anareobic
chylomicrons
carry digested fat from small intestine through lymph into bloodstream to cells to deliver triglycerides
Where does most absorption occur?
small intestine
accessory organs
gall bladder, kidney, pancreas, liver.
Enzymes:
proteinlike substances that act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions.
ethnic foods
foods associated with aprtiicular cultural subgroups within a population
Dietary Guidelines:Physical Activity
-Increase energy expenditure--Decrease sedentary activities--Include cardiovascular, stretching, and resistance
Antioxidants
Vitamins that are thought to inactivate "activated oxygen molecules" sometimes called free radicals. Free radicals mau cause cell damage that leads to diseases of various kinds. Antioxidants may inactivate the free radicals before they do their damage
Gastrostomy/Jejunostomy devices
Used for long-term nutritional support (>6-8 wks)
Tubes are placed surgically or by laparoscopy through the abdominal wall into the stomach or into the jejunum.
Moderate alcohol consumption has been linked with a reduced risk of what disease?
Cardiovascular Disease
If a normal person expends 1200 kcalories while at rest, approximately how many are used by the brain?
300
Hormone that causes a decrease in blood glucose level.
Insulin
ENDORPHINS
definition
natural body tranquilizers that may be involved in the feeding response.
metabolic pathway that leads to the production of ketones. Occurs in the liver and is stimulated by the hormone glucagon.
ketogenesis
What mineral plays major role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and cell integrity, and is critical to maintaining the heartbeat?
potassium
Insoluble fiber
The tough, fibrous structures of fruits, vegetables, and grains; indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water.
Lipid Fxns
most conc source of E (9kcal/g)
Minerals:
Destroyed when cooked?
No, Not destroyed in cooking
RN diagnosis
Risk for imbalanced nutrition: more than body req. Intake exceeds metabolic needs. eating empty calories makes u fat and does not provide nutrients.
antiserum
human or animal serum that contains antibodies to a particular antigen becase of previous exposure to the disease or to a vaccine contianing antigens from that infectious agent.
Carbohydrate loading
the extra consumption of complex carbohydrates in the days prior to sustained performance
FDA
monitors pesticide residue on raw and processed foods, domestic, foreign imports
Water soluble vitamins
Vitamin B1 (thiamine)Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)Vitamin B3 (niacin)Vitamin B6FolateVitamin B12Pantothenic acidBiotinVitamin C
174. An Enzyme in which zinc or copper is an integral part of its structure is classified as a(n)
a. Metalloenzyme
osmotic pressure
the amount of pressure needed to prevent the movement of water across a membrane.
TRANSCRIPTION
definition
information on DNA needed to make a protien is copied onto RNA
 
 
Energy 
The primary function of carbs is to supply 
B VITAMIN TOXICITIES
- from high levels of supplements
Sources of vit A
Dark, leafy greendbroccoliDeep Orange fruits and vegetables
Skinfold Thickness
A measurement of subcutaneous fat used to estimate total body fat.
which of the following is a component of all three dietary disaccharides
Glucose
requirement
the amount of nutrient that will just prevent the development of specific deficiency signs; distringuished from the DRI recommended intake value, which is a generous alowance with a margin of safety.
Publishing Research
-Peer Review Process: To evaluate the procedures used and conclusions drawn from a study.-Validity:Conclusions are supported by finding or evidence.-Replication: Used to confirm or disprove findings. Repeating the experiment and getting same results=VALIDITY
Stages of fetal growth: Embryonic
2-8 weeks
Develop organ systems
vitamin d functions
helps absorb calcium regulates calicum and phosphorus in bones.. helps bone mineralization
What best describes denaturation?
1.(Heat)2. Chemical Reaction that causes a protein to lose its shape and function


The fatty acids and amino acids are active because they contain what?
carbon hydrogen
NOTE: Bile is a mixture of bile acids, free cholesterol, and phospholipids made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder until needed. Bile acids and phospholipids are amphipathic. The hydrophobic portions of these molecules associate with the lipid glo
BROWN BODY FAT
- masses of specialized fat cells packed with pigmented mitochondria that produce heat instead of ATP.
The _____ is the main site of alcohol metabolism
liver
Aspartame : Composed of ?
phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol
What are the dietary sources
Grains, Fruits, vegatables, meats, fish, and milk products
Cicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
The main omega-3 fatty acid in fish.
a protein deficiency causes
poor growth, immunity and hair growth
Conditions of positive and negative nitrogen balance
positive - growth, pregnancy
negative - under stresss, inadequate dietary protein, lack of an essential amino acid
2. What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
a. The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
Adding a buffer to a ruminent diet should aid which bacteria the most?
 
1. fiber digesters
2. starch digesters
3. ruminal fungi
1. fiber digesters
nonessential amino acids
11 amino acids that the body can synthesize
SOme complex carbs are: (6)
bread pasta cereal rice friuts veggies
When can you not check a residual?
if pt has Dobhoff
to eliminate the use of protein as an energy source our bodies need
adequate calories
True or False: Nutrition information for all foods served is NOT available at the UGA dining halls
a. trueb. false (FALSE)
About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
4 hours
what are the symptoms of beriberi
muscular wasting, edema, deep muscle pain, and enlaged heart.
What is the problem with high-fat fast or convience foods?
-readily abailable and inexpensive
-more calories per gram
-may encourage overconsumption; less suppression of appetite
Levin Vs. Corpak tube
-Levin = clear, firm, manipulate it to soften it; used for feeding and decompression
-Corpak = smaller diameter, softer, more flexible, soak in ice bath to firm up plastic (easier insertion); used only for feeding; cannot aspirate because tube will collapse
what is the average income in SW VA
10,904 (33,378 is state0
95. Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision?
a. Light causes retinal shift from a cis to a trans configuration
What is an essential nutrient?
-must be added to the diet because body does not make it
Break down complex food molecules into smaller molecules to utilize energy from food.
Speed up reactions in the body
What are the functions of Vitamin B12
Vitamin B-12: depends on folate for activation. Helps maintain nerve cells and the sheaths that encompass them, part of co-enzymes needed in new cell synthesis
What happens with your grocery bag?
the grocery bag goes from your the market to to the floor of the car and then to your table which is where is where the food goes.
What is type 2 diabetes? Whats its cause?
Type 2 diabetes (responsible for 90-95% of Diabetes cases) = the pancreas makes enough or too much insulin but the cells resist insulin’s action; most often found in adulthood. (often caused by obesity)
Limeys is a name given to sailors why?
Do to their poor nutrition, Sailors often developed a disease called scurvy. A cure was lime juice, which soon became a normal ration for sailors.
What kind of fats should be in your diet? What are the best food sources for fats?
-should include both kinds, but use saturdated fats sparingly


food:
olives, olive oil, avacados, fish and fish oils, vegetable oils, nuts
Can a child make up the nutrients missed from\nskipping breakfast?
· \nNoà causes\nlack of concentration
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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