Nutrition 26 Flashcards

Terms Definitions










Types of lipoproteins	













Chylomicrons
Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) BAD
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) GOOD



Minerals
-Inorganic-Essential-Structural (Bones, teeth, Part of Vitamins, and body fluids)-Co factors.
Benefits of Fiber











Reduced risk of heart disease
Reduced risk of hypertension
Reduced risk of diabetes
Reduced risk of bowel disease
Promotion of healthy body weight



sulfites
color and texture
Who forms feces?
Large intestine
Vitamins:
Yields how much energy?
What foods contain fat
butter
Magnesium
Sources: Leafy Greens, Nuts, ChocolateFunctions: Protein Synthesis, Nerve Transmisson
Energy Balance Diagram
     Gross Energy
--------------------------------> Fecal Energy
     Digestible Energy
--------------------------------> Urine and Gas Energy
     Metabolizable Energy
--------------------------------> HI (digestion &
                                        fermentation Energy)
     Net Energy
NEm             NEg
golden rice and its benefits\n\n
Vitamins:
Are needed in? (volume)
tiny amounts
Types of Carbs
Simple- Sugars
Complex- Starches
Parietal
cells that release HCl in stomach
216. Which of the following minerals would a bulimia nervosa patient be likely to lose in the greatest amount?
a. Chloride


B-complex Vitamins: Niacin


Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid
Coenzyme assists with the metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids. Good sources: meat, fish, poultry, enriched bread products. Toxicity can result from supplements which causes vasodialation (flushing)
 
 
a glycerol molecule chemically bonded to three fatty acids via ester bonds. These fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, or a mixture of fatty acids classes. Extremely hydrophobic. Provide essential fatty acids needed for the body
triglyceride
Antioxidant
neutralize free radicals to prevent damage to DNA and lipids
athletes?
weigh before and after training session, consume 3 cups for every pound lost
what are macro minerals required for?
bones
Liver can: Store as
glycogen or fat
stomach
a muscular, elastic, pouchlike organ of the digestive system that grinds and churns swwallowed food and mixes it with acid and enzymes forming chyme.
protein small intestine
proteases into single AA
cortical
of, pertaining to, resembling, or consisting of cortex.
3.5%
Measure of body weight dairy cow consumes DM a day
Calcium absorption
Calcium is actively transported across the small intestine, and this process is linked to the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. Studies indicate that calcium is absorbed equally well from milk and various calcium salts, i.e. carbonate, citrate, gluconate, and lactate. Calcium is rather poorly absorbed with an average of 32% of intake absorbed across populations. The normal range for serum calcium is tightly regulated. (see related diseases)
sphincter
tight ring of muscles separating some organs in GI tract and opening when food is ready to pass to next section
Coenzyme in amino acid metabolism; supplements used to treat PMS and carpal tunnel.
Vitamin B6
SOLVENT
definition
 
a liquid substance in which other substances dissolve
(NE)
Net Energy
NE = ME - heat increment
ketone bodies
acidic, fat related compounds that can arise from the incomplete breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available.
The extra glucose that has "overfed" a fetus will result in production of extra insulin which may lead to ___.
hypoglycemia
Bone remodeling involves.. & definition of osteoclasts


–Resorption – surface of bones is broken
down

•Osteoclasts – cells that erode the surface
of bones

• 

–Formation of new bone by cells called osteoblasts


•Osteoblasts produce the
collagen-containing component of bone





Using MyPyramid :Choose low-fat and fat-free items from?
milk group
tissues
systems of cells working together to perform spexialized tasks.
What is another name for Folacin?
Folic Acid
Most digestion occurs in small intestine but ____ _____ like ___, _____, and ___ are left intact.
plant fibers
cellulose
hemicelluose
lignin
pancreas
a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes a digestive fluid into the intestine through one or more ducts and also secretes the hormone insulin.
Pyloric Sphincter
band of muscle that regulates the passage of chyme moving from stomach to small intestine
Where is fructose and galactose converted into glucose
In the liver
causes of neonatal death
tetanus 7%
____ also flows into the duodenum. The liver continuously produces ____, which is then concentrated and stored in the gallbladder.
bile
lipoprotein with major function involving delivery of cholesterol
LDL - low-density lipoprotein
A vitamin that serves as an anitoxidant is?
vitamin E
animal protein sources
beef, poultry, milk, cheese, white bread (plant souce- flour)
Lipids are _______________
Organic nutrients that are insoluble in water
sodium-controlled diet
usually 2400mg/day to as low as 500mg/day in renal failure

used to treat hypertension, fluid restrictions, CVD

is a restrictive/modified diet, is long-term
which of the following contains the LEAST amount of fiber
white rice
calorie
amount of heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree celcius
hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and renal calculi in adults
Although Vit B6 (pyridimine) deficiency is rare, some state predispose:
4 steps to keeping food safe
-clean
-separate (no cross-contamination)
-cook
-chill
genetic modification
transfer animal or microbe genes into plants
Folate food sources
green leafy veggies, orange juice or citrus, legumes, fortified grains
Energy-yielding nutrients
The nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use.
roles of small intestine
duodenum: 1st 1-2ft, entry for pancreatic and billiary (gall bladder) secretions
jejunum: primary site of nutrient absorption, some enzyme secretion
illeum: similar role as jejunum, less absorption (complex proteins)
FASTING
- The body draws on its glycogen and fat stores for energy- When glycogen is depleated then the body breaks down protein to aa to synthesize glucose for the brain. The liver also converts fats to ketone bodies.
What the input of body water balance?
-beverages
-water in foods
-metabolic water
To Taste the sweetness of carbs broken down with salivary amylase one would?
prolong chewing
nutraceutical
a temr that has no lega or scientific meaning, but is sometimes used to refer to fodos, nutrients or dietary supplements believe to have medicinal effects. Often used to sell unnecessary or unproved supplements.
Amino acids are joined by a what bond?
Peptide bond
Parenteral Nutrition
mode of feeding that doesn't use the GI tract-instead provide nutrition by intravenous delivery of nutrient solutions
Which is the major source of trans fats in the U.S.?
a. salad dressingb. potato chipsc. margarined. commercial cakes, cookies, and other bakery itemse. milk and dairy products(D)
93. As far as is known, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following process?
a. Blood clotting
Across tissues, what mechanism(s) does insulin use to regulate glucose metabolism?
 
1. Altered transcription
2. Change in cellular location of proteins
3. Change in protein activity
4. All of the above
4. All of the above
High Fructose Corm Syrup
A commercial sweetener used in many foods, including soft drinks.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans Key recommendations (9)?
-Adequate nutrient intake within calorie needs
-Weight management
-Physical activity
-Specific food groups to encourage
-Fats
-Carbohydrates
-Sodium and potassium
-Alcoholic beverages
-Food safety
High
20% or more of the Daily Value for a gien nutrient per serving; "rich in" "excellent source"
Vitamin and mineral needs during childhood
Feed a variety of foods
Which of the following is NOT true about degenerative diseases?
a. Chronic, irreversible diseases characterized by degeneration of body organsb. Multi-factorial causesc. Can not be transmitted from one person to anotherd. Leading causes of death and illness in developing nations e. Examples are heart diseases, diabetes, and cancer.(D)
Fats include all of the following compounds except which one?
contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
HYPERTROPHIC OBESITY
- due to an increase in the size of the cells
Calcium (at least 800 mg)

s/s of excess:
renal calculi in susceptible people
Include lipids that the body use to make hormones, create cell membranes, & assist in absorption of vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Essential Fatty Acids(good fats).
Effects of soluble and non soluble fiber
soluble: delay stomach emptying, lower blood cholesterol by binding to bile acids
 
insoluble: accelerate transit of chyme through the intestine, increase fecal weight thereby diluting fecal mutagens and preventing their contact with the intestina mucosa

A calorie is a what?
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1 degree Celsius.
What are some calorie-dense foods to recommend to a cancer patient?
Puddings, tapioca, custard, ice cream, yogurt, cheese, smoothies, peanuts and nutbutters, non-fat dry milk to boost recipes
What minerals may atheletes also need to increase intake and why?
Thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and chromium needs
May also be higher (role in metabolism or sweat)
Which of the following does not describe a function of fat?
Is an essential constituent of body tissues
what is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption
it attaches to the vitamin thereby allowing absorption from the intestines
140. Which of the following is a feature of osteocalcin?
a. It requires vitamin K to bind to bone-forming minerals
In your opinion, what should be done to fight hunger in the world?
Rations - solve both obesity and malnutrition.
What is the USDA food guide equivalent for 1 cup veggies
1 cup vegetables: 1 cup raw or cooked vegetables, 1 cup legumes, 1 cup vegetable juice, 2 cups leafy greens
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Term:
Definition:
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