Nutrition 27 Flashcards

Terms Definitions








denaturation of proteins-








 to digest into the circulatory system. with stomach acid. dangers: high fevers. heat can denature proteins
Carbs Function
Energy
HDL
high density lipoprotein

good
tissues --> liver for catabolism and excretion
inc HDL/LDL = red total chol = red risk
Precursor for tyrosine
Phenylalanine
Water
Inorganic, Non-Energy Yielding, Essential
High-Fiber Diets have Intestinal?
blockages
Amylase
digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes starch; released in mouth and small intestine
Poly-unsaturated fats make cell membranes how?
RNA
-found in nucleus and cytoplasm
-mRNA: messenger RNA, encode genes
-tRNA: transfer RNA, delivers amino acids
What is NEAT?
-Non-exercise activity thermogenesis/activities of dail living
-parking far away and walking to the building, taking the stairs instead of the elevator, etc.
Fructose: Facilitated diffusion using?
a carrier
two monosaccharides becoe one disaccharide in
condensation
Villi
fingerlike projections that line small intestine, increases surface area for absorption
253. The strongest predictor for loss of bone density is a person’s
a. Age
Lacto-Ovo
Plant Products + Dairy + Eggs
NOTE: many public health agencies suggest that we limit our intake of trans fatty acids. This is b/c studies show that some of them increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. (recommended intake is
Peristalsis
Movement that propels material along the GI tract
iodide deficiency
thyroid gland enlarges (goiter), cretinism, stunting of fetal growth an mental development if mom has decreased intake
Nutrition in Science
verifiable: can prove/show/ obviousReproducible: Do it over and overObjective measurements: exact measurements.
For Estimate Energy Requirements Maintenance of health weight is?
best guideline
sphincter
a circular muscle surrounding, and able to close, a body opening.
Marasmus
widespread deficiency of almost all nutrients (proteins and calories)
vitamin c
a white, crystalline, water-soluble vitamin, C6H8O6, occurring naturally in citrus fruits, green vegetables, etc., and often produced synthetically, essential for normal metabolism: used in the prevention and treatment of scurvy, and in wound-healing and
pancreas
secretes main enzymes to digest carbs and proteins
Riboflavin function
as prosthetic groups of flavoproteins, riboflavin derived FAD and FMN catalyze redox reactions.
stomach's secretion
gastric juice: acidic liquid, contains hydrochloric acid, pepsin and other compounds
chlorophyll
green pigment of plants which absorbs light and transfers the energy to other molecules thereby initiating photosynthesis.
In critically ill patients with major trauma, sepsis, and inflammation, nitrogen balance is likely to be:
negative
ATPase-driven transport
moves nutrients up the concentration gradient, most important nutrient pump in the body
soluble fibers
food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy or gel-like characteristics to foods. an example is pectin from fruit, which is used to thicken jellies. Soluble fibers are indigestible by human enzymes but may be broken down to absorbable products by bacteria in the digestive tracts.`
___ reflects diabetes control over the past two to three months, rather thanjust prior to the test.
glycated hemoglobin
apple-shaped fat patterning
-upper body-•Increased risk for chronic diseases







Planning menus with MyPyramid: all foods (or food groups) supply?
some nutrients
heartburn
a burning sensation in the chest, caused by backflow of stomach juices into esophagus
- Help insulin work.
Sources of Omega 6?
energy needs during pregnancy increase by
300 calories/day
macronutrient
any of the nutritional components of the diet that are required in relatively large amounts: protein, carbohydrate, fat, and the macrominerals.
nasoenteric tube
Purpose: Tube feedings and meds to clts unable to eat by mouth or swallow a sufficient diet without aspirating food or fluids into the lungs. *Used for clients at risk for aspiration a.m.b.
-decreased LOC
-poor cough or gag reflexes
-endotracheal intubation
-recent extubation
-inability to cooperate with procedure
-restlessness or agitation
Describe the function and location of the organ-rectum
rectum -storage
proportion of deaths caused by ____ and _____ are much higher in Africa
malaria; HIV/AIDs
the esophagus has a ____ muscle at each end. during a swallow the upper esophageal sphincter opens.
sphincter
NOTE: If humans do not consume enough of the essential fatty acids, their skin can become irritated and flaky, gastrointestinal problems can occur, and immune function can become impaired. As a result, infections are common and wound healing may be restri
Describe fat-soluble vitamins?
they are stored extensively in tissues
functions of vitamin c
antioxidant, immune functions, iron absorption, synthesis of collagen
Molybdenum
Functions- strengthens\n steel cofactor for enzymes\n Sources- legumes,\n cereals, liver\n\n\n
B12 (cobalamin) sources:
only animal and fortified foods:

organ meats
meat
seafood
as a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to assure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight
1200
Positive nitrogen balance
-intake is greater than output
-new tissues are being made (recovery, training, pregnancy, childhood growth)
Vit E (alpha tocopherol)
*antioxidant; maintenance of cell membranes, probably by modulation of lipid peroxidation*possible neuro dys (tocopherol - to bring forth life)
How to stay hydrated
-fluids before, during, after exercise
-water for 60 min or less
-sports drinks for more than 60 min
gestational diabetes
screening at 24-28weeks, 1/3 moms will have type 2 diabeteslater, big baby
What are chylomicrons?
Chylomicrons (mostly fat) are made in GI tract (small intestinal cells) and deliver fat, and are neutral for the risk of CVD.
 
B-complex Vitamins: Thiamin (Vitamin B1)
 
 

This coenzyme  is required for carbohydrate metabolism and to metabolize some fatty acids. Enriched foods, whole grains, and pork are good sources
 
Dry matter % equation
(total lbs - lbs water)/total lbs
or
lbs dry matter/total lbs
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
- focus on healthy eating and activity habits, not on weight losses or gains- Adopt reasonable expectations about health and fitness goals and about how long it will take to achieve them. - Make nutritional adequacy a high priority- Learn, practice, and follow a healthful eating plan for the rest of your life. - Participate in some form of physical activity regualrly. - Adopt permanent lifestyle changes to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
What is the BMI of a normal weight person?
18.5-25.9
Health Claims on Food Labels: Cardiovascular disease (6)?
-Saturated fat
-Cholesterol
-Fruits & vegetables
-Fiber
-Soy protein
-Fish oils
-Plant stanols and sterols
functional foods
a term that reflects an attempt to define as a group the foods known to possess nutrients or nonnutrients that might lend protection against disease. However, all nutritious foods can support health in some ways.
lower protein synthesis means
missing amino acid, inadequate energy intake, incomplete protein
personal adaptations-disease
how does the disease affect the body and its normal metabolic function
When excess glucose is consumed compared to energy needs, which of the following will happen to the excess glucose?
a. Excretedb. Converted and stored as fatc. Converted and stored as proteind. Stays in stomache. Stays in bloodstream(B)
how much water do we really need each day
1-2 liters
Calcium tetany (milk fever)
-low blood Ca
-inability to move due to inadequate calcium to allow for muscle contraction
Most common Lab for nutrition assessment
serum albumin levelnormal 3.5-5.5 (g/dl)
Rating Your Current Diet: Identify?
deficiencies and excesses; try to correct with healthy food choices
resistant starch
the fraction of starch in a food that is digested slowly, or not at all, by human enzymes
How does malnutrition affect early pregnancy
May prevent full placenta development
Which of the following is NOT a contributing factor to the development of osteoporosis?
a. geneticsb. advanced agec. lack of physical activityd. water intakee. b and d(D)

The digestive system is primarily responsible for which action?
For the ingestion of food, the digestion and absorption of nutrients and the elimination of food residues; includes the gastroinstestinal tract as well as a number of acessory organs.
KIDNEY DISEASE RELATED TO PROTEIN
- Can't handle high protein intake because of ammonia.
B12 (cobalamin) s/s of deficiency:
pernicious anemia due to lack of intrinsic factor or alcoholism
Nonessential amino acids because they can be synthesized by the body and don't have to be in our diet.
(Grade A type)-Proteins may consist of:
Treatment of starvation - "refeeding syndrome"
developement of low phosphate, low K, Loew Mg which can cause confusion, cardiac arrythmia, and death
MUFA's (mono-unsaturated FA's)
At least 12 C long, one double bond at n-7 or n-9 (NOT ESSENTIAL) e.g., oleic acid (C18:1, n-9 cis) high [ ] in olive and canola oils NOT associated w/ inc plasma LDL or decreased HDL (neutral role)
Ways to reduce fat in diet
reduce sat fat/ trans fatmake most fats from nuts, fish, and veg oilchange cooking ingredients and techniquesfat substitutes
Functions of GI organs- other
The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach. From its exocrine portion it secretes (1) digestive enzymes and (2) a fluid rich in HCO3- ions to neutralize the acid from stomach. The liver secretes bile. Bile contains HCO3- ions and bile salts to solubilize fats. Bile reaches the gall bladder through hepatic ducts and is stored in the gall bladder between meals. During a meal, bile is secreted from the gland by smooth muscle contraction and reaches the duodenum portion of the small intestine by the common bile duct.
65. Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?
a. It is efficiently recycled by the body
what is meant by the biovailability of a vitamin in food
the amount absorved and subsequently used by the body
178. What is the primary function of the thyroid hormones?
a. Control the rate of oxygen use by cells
What percentage of fat do cats prefer?
20-25%. Animal fat is prefered over plant fats and oils.
What is the USDA food guide equivalent for 1 oz. grain
1oz. grain: 1 slice bread, ½ cup cooked rice/pasta or cereal, 1 oz. uncooked pasta or rice, 1 cup ready-to-go-cereal, 3 cups popped popcorn, 1/2 cup dense cereal
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