Nutrition 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
indicated ketogenesis
Food source/body
not enough calories
Dietary reference intakes:EARRDAAIUL
Hypertrophy vs. Atrophy?
Daily Value
2400 mg
Normal/low bone mass
Daily Value
15 mg/day
Function of Potassium
electrolyte balance
muscle contraction
Anaerobic GLycolysis (CHO)

Intensity: High
Duration: 30sec to 2 min
Advantage- Fastest way to replenish ATP/ CP stores

Disadvantage- Inefficient and fatigue
Vitamin K toxicity
1. Initiation
2. Promotion
3. Progression
4. Metastasis
symptoms: cramps, bloating, diarrhea
muscular sac of multiple layers that contract in alternating directions
Glands in lining of stomach:
gastric glands-secrete enzyme pepsin
hydrochloric acid-very strong acid
together these allow for chemical deigestion of proteins
Fat-Soluable Vitamins
A, D, E, K
majority of food-bourne illnesses caused by
micro nutrient
needed in small amounts
long-standing, developing over time. disease process is slow and remains
what is aflatoxin
A potent carcinogen
Functions of Minerals
Component of body compounds (hemoglobin)
Transmission of Action Potentials
Body Growth & Development
Water Balance
Food sources of Cl
Some Fruits and Veggies
Table Salt
Chlorinated Water
muscular contractions moving food through GI tract
b1 deficiency?
beri-beri, GI disturbances, decreased appetite, nervousness, edema, fatigue, forgetfulness, peripheral neuropathies, constipation, weak muscles
DV: 90-120 mcg
Toxicity: • Excess vitamins A and E
– Interferes with vitamin K– May cause hemorrhage and fractures• Newborns– Routinely injected with vitamin K– Breast milk is a poor source • Toxicity unlikely; readily excretedSources:Green Veggies, Liver, Plant Oils
Function:Blood Clot Factors, Bone Metabolism Protiens
Mechanical Digestion
Physical break down of food
Two hormonal controls of weight
grhelin=hunger, stomach
leptin=fullness, adipose tissue
uncooked meat raw eggs, contaminated fruits and vegetables
Approximate injury factors for trauma, sepsis, and burns
Pernicious amenia results from deficiency of
Vitamin B12
The immune system treat foreign substances such as bacteria and toxins as
What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic?
secretory vesicles
membrane-bound vesicles produced by the Golgi apparatus; contains protein and other compounds to be secreted by the cell
gastric bypass surgery performed on the stomach to limit its volume to approximately 30 milliliters. Also referred to as stomach stapling
Functions of Carotenoids
Prevention of CVD
Cancer prevention
Age-related macular degeneration
Percentage water in jam, crackers, fats
Proteins that help body absorb Fe
component of hemoglobin- carries ox. in erythrocytesof myoglobin- ox to muscles
omegaloblastic anemia could be what?
9 or 12
Manganese (Mn)/tm
DV: 1.8-2.3 mg Toxicity:11 mg
Sources: Nuts, Oats, Beans, TeaFunction: – Cofactor in carbohydrate metabolism
– Component of superoxide dimutase – Role in bone formationDeficiency: • No deficiency symptoms observed in humans
the process by which organism obtain food and break it down
Erosion of the tissue lining, usually in the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the upper small intestine (duodenal ulcer). As a group these are generally referred to as peptic ulcers
Asorbic Acid deficiency causes
scurvy to defective collogen/connective tissue
peppermint is most effective by
aiding digestive system
Respiratory quotient
ratio of Co2/O2tells us what proportion of calories comes from fat and how much from carbs
What are other hydrophilic antioxidants?
flavonoids and flavones
The day after Thanksgiving, you and your sisters are a little hungry and want to eat leftovers before going shopping. Which of the following foods would most readily satisfy the feeling of hunger?
Turkey, Pecan Pie,
Mashed Potatoes, Noodle Casserole
A person who hasn't consumed anything except water for the past 8 hours has a blood glucose concentration of 101 mg/dL. This person would be classified as
Which of the fllwing activities depletes glycogen most quickly?
Quarter-mile run
Quarter-mile run
a compound containing much carbon and hydrogen, little oxygen, and sometimes other atoms. lipids dissolve in ether or benzene, but not in water
a measure of relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH scale is 0 to 14. A pH below 7 is acidic a pH above 7 is alkaline

Wiping a soiled counter with a cloth, then wiping a cutting board with the same cloth is an example of
a group of amino acids bonded together, from 50 to 2000 or more
DASH guideline for nuts, seeds, legumes
4-5 servings/week
Sodium excretion
Regulated by kidney
Sodium remains in blood stream
Copper absorption
Zinc and Copper compete for absorption
process of breaking down large food molecules to smaller molecules
b6 deficiency? toxicity?
anemia, convulsions, glossitis, dry skin, headaches, nausea. tox: damage to sensory nerves.
– 14 mg/day for women
– 16 mg/day for men
Toxicity: –        Upper Level is 35 mg/daySources: Milk, Mushrooms, Spinach, Liver, GrainsFunction:Coenzyme forms used in energy (fat
Deficiency: – Pellagra

– 3 D’s
addition of water to break up a molecule
animal model
study of disease in animals that duplicates human disease. This can be used to understand more about human disease
Vitamin K used for
used to make clotting factor
HMB is claimed to
lower cholesterol, increase muscle endurance, reduce muscle damge, improve aerobic performance (all of the above)
AMDR: acceptable macro-nutrient distribution range
what macronutrient recommendations are based on.
Vitamin A supplements are helpful in treating which of the following conditions?
Night blindness
Night blindness
What is the approx. daily basal metabolism of a 110lb woman?
1000 kCal
Which of the fllwing meats would be the best source of copper?
People who use diuretics are most at risk of developing imbalances of
What is the minimum amount of fluid that an athlete should drink for each pound of body weight lost during an activity?
Which of the fllwing is a common product of anaerobic metabolism?
Phosphoric acid
Hydrochloric acid
urinary system
the body system consisting of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and the ducts that carry urine. This system removes waste products from the circulatory system and regulates blood acid-base balance, overall chemical balance, and water balance in the body
Vitamin K that is made by colon bacteria and found in fish oils and meats.
DASH guideline for sweets/added sugar
5 servings / week
Iron molecules
Heme iron (found in animal sources only)
Non-heme iron (both animal and plant sources)
functions of protein
growth, repair, and maintenance of cellsenzymes- Phe-->tyrhormones- insulin, glucagonfluid and electrolyte balance- albumenenergy source- amine group taken off
what natural things interfere with vitamin d absorption?
intestinal disorders, liver/gall bladder dysfunction, antacids, mineral oil, cortisone, chole inhibitors
Iron (Fe)/tm
DV: 8 mg Toxicity:45 mg • Serious, especially for children
• Signs: – Diarrhea, constipation, nausea, abdominal pain
– Causes death due to respiratory collapse (shock) 
• Hemochromatosis
– Genetic disease
– Iron deposit that can lead to organ damage
 – May go undetected until organ damage at 50-60
Sources: Meat, Seafood, Broccoli, Peas, Bran, Enriched BreadsFunction:
(Components of Hemoglobin, Immune Function, Cognitive Dev)
• Hemoglobin in red blood cells
– Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
– High turnover, high demand for iron
• Myoglobin in muscle cells
• Brain & Immune function
• Drug-detoxification pathway • Bone healthDeficiency:
Iron deficient anemia • Most common form of anemia
• Low levels of hemoglobin andhematocrit
• Insufficient intake and stores
• Reduction in
– Production of red blood cells
– Oxygen-carrying capacity
Risks of obesity in children?
abnormal glucose intolerance (early type II diabetes)hypertension, increase blood cholesterol, fatty liver, sleep apnea, greater risk for adult obesity, SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION
staphylococcus aureus
custerd cream mayo pasta - comes from human skin, pimples, infected cuts, noses and throats
Thamin (B1)- metabolic acvities- highly concentrated in?
- cofactor for decarboxylation reactions & coenzyme for carb metabolism- muscle, and CNS
What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight men?
What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?
Pantothenic acid
Which of the fllwing is a protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues?
By what age do most people first have well-developed arterial plaque?
Muscular Strenght
-Ability of a muscle to produce max strenth 
-Strength= distance x force (weight)
-High weight, low repetitions
-85-100% max (1-5 RM)
- 1-5 repetitions x 1-3 sets
a compound that speeds the rate of a chemical process but is not altered by that process. Almost all enzymes are proteins
capillary bed
network of one cell thick vessels that create a junction between arterial and venous circulation. It is here that gas and nutrient exchange occurs between body cells and the blood
energy balance
the state in which energy intake, in the form of food and beverages, matches the energy expended, primarily through basal metabolism and physical activity
Vitamin that is known as a conditional or prohormone.
Vitamin D
Function of Manganese
similar to Cu and Zn
Found mostly in bones and metabolically active organs like liver, kidney and pancreas
Acts as coenzyme for many reactions
The food we eat undergoes 3 processes:
Digestion, Absorption, Elimination
Molybdenum (Mo)/tm
DV: 45 mg Toxicity: 2 mg
Sources: day Beans, Grains, Nuts
Function: Enzyme Action
Deficiency: • Deficiency rare– Increased heart and respiration rates– Night blindness, mental confusion– Edema, weakness, coma
How do you antropometrically assess infants/toddlers?Whats the deviation allowed to be?
Head circumference for birth-36 months. Length for birth-36 mo, height for 2-20 yo.WeightPlot these on the CDC growth charts. Deviation not more than 2 percentile above or below the 5-85 percentile marks. Growth needs to have a consistent pattern.
3 things glucose can do...
stored as glycogen (liver and muscle)
stored as triglyceride (adipose fat tissue)
used for energy
An assessment for B12 deficiency
Schilling test: determine if the patient has pernicious anemia.
What decreases thamin content
milling of grains (removes bran and germ)
Which of the following features do vitamins C and E share?
Both function as antioxidants
Both require bile for absorption
Neither participates in protein synthesis
Neither is affected by the processing of foods
Both function as antioxidants
What is the avg. lifespan of red blood cells?
Four months
What is the organic standards?
1. No synthetic fertilizers
2. No synthetic pesticides or herbicides
3. no antibiotics
4. no growth hormones
5. no GMOs
dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DEXA)
a highly accurate method of measuring body composition and bone mass and density using multiple low energy x-rays
Potassium Storage
95% of K is stored in cells and regulated by kidneys
Triglycerides are composed of
Three fatty acids( long chains of carbon atoms surrounded by H atoms)Glycerol molecule( 3 carbon alcohol that is a backbone)
What are risk factors for food-drug interactions?
polypharmacy, especially in older patientschronic diseasemalnutritioncancer and AIDSGI tract alterationsbody compositionfetus, infant, pregnant woman
Thermic Effect of Food
energy used when food is digested and absorbed 
Creatine height index is sometimes used to estimate what
Skeletal muscle mass is estimated using this.
Which of the fllwing shows the highest vitamin D activity?
25-Hydroxy vitamin D
25-Dihydroxy vitamin D
25 Dihydroxy vitamin D
In the US, iron is currently added to which of the fllwing foods?
Milk + Cheese
Breads + Cereals
PB + J
OJ + Tomato Juice
Bread and Cereals
What is VO2 Max?
Max amount of oxygen that can be consumed per unit of time.
-Increase the higher--> longer aerobic state
-"size of your engine"
-not very trainable
Food labels must contain all of these:
Statement of Identity, Nutrition Info., Net Contents, ingredients, Manufacturer's Address
what happens in protien energy malnutrition (PEM) to the immune and digestive systems?
tissues and cells dwindle in size, decreases small intestines ability to absorb nutrients.
How do you estimate energy needs?
Get RMR and multiply by Activity Factor and an additional stress factor if it exists
UL (tolerable upper intake level) TUL
maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is unlikely to impose risk of adverse health effects on most people: most attention paid to fat soluble vitamins and minerals
Which of the fllwing factors has the most influence on the body's metabolic rate?
amount of fat tissue
amount of lean body tissue
amount of lean body tissue
All of the fllwing are characteristic of the metabolic syndrome except
the risk factors act synergistically to predict the risk for coronary heart disease
gastrointestinal tract (GI tract)
the main sites in the body used for digestion and absorption of nutrients. It consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. Also called the digestive tract
1. Storage for carbodydrates2. Uses of Protein3. kcal/g for carbodydrates/protein/fat
1. Limited storage in form of glycogen2.for tissue synthesis and not stored3.4/4/9
How do you classify and define Unintentional weight loss in adults?
Significant5% in 1 month7.5% in 3 months10% in 6monthsSevere>5% in 1month>7.5% in 3 months>10% in 6months
All of the fllwing are features of high-protein diets except
they have a high satiety index
they advise dieters to not count kCal
they provide for long-term weight maintenance
they typically recommend intakes of 1200 kCal per day
They provide for long-term weight maintenance
Which of the fllwing is a characteristic of glycogen synthesis after about of strenuous training?
Glycogen repletion is enhanced most by eating foods with a high glycemic index
What are some factors to consider in using serum proteins to assess protein status?
Levels may be maintained even in protein malnutritionLevels may be decreased by inflammation even with adequate protein statusCan use markers of inflammation to assess likelihood of inflammation effect on serum proteins.
Which of the fllwing describes an association of vitamin A and vision?
Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
Which of the fllwing is a feature of zinc in nutrition?
Good food sources are whole-grain products
The RDA for protein in older adults is 
the same as younger adults percentage wise. 
Which of the fllwing is a sig. factor associated w/ interpretation of body composition values?
The values include fat + protein but not water
It is rare the sedentary, normal wt. people are overfat
It is possible that muscular people may be classif
It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overwt.
what is a healthy diet to reduce CVD risks?
A diet that is rich in legumes, fruits, veggies, and whole grains.

insoluble in water and blood
simple, compound, trigylcerides
Loss of water
no mammels birds
Long-chain fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lysophospholipids must firt be resynthesized back into trigylcerides and phospholipids in the enterocyte. These large lipids combine with cholesterol and cholesteryl esters and are then incorporated into particl
Functions of Phosphorous

balance (salts are buffers to maintain the acid-base balance in cellular

of genetic material in cell (DNA and RNA) 
in energy metabolism and release of energy 

of cell membranes (as phospholipids)

Anorexia characteristics
-absent/delayed sexual maturation
-perfectionism, "all or nothing"
-obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety
197. Among the following, which promotes constriction of blood vessels resulting in elevation of blood pressure?
a. Angiotensin
NOTE: Nutritionally, white bread, white rice, and white pasta are no match for their whole-grain counterparts. This is because the nutritional value of whole grain is greatest when all three layers of the wheat kernal - bran, germ, and endosperm - are int
Vigorous physical activity increases or decreases the rate of insulin absorption?
forms hemoglobin to carry oxygen
} Hemp oil
}Flax seed oil
heme iron
in blood, highly available
Where do humans obtain vitamin D?
Sources: Salt, Soy Sauce, Processed MeatsFunctions: Intercellular Fluid Balance
What is nutrition?
Nutrition is a SCIENCE
cis bond
hydrogens are side by side
the simultaneous change of two factors, such as the increase of weight with increasing height or the decrease of cancer incidence with increasing fiber intake. A correlation between two factors suggests that one may cause the other, but does not rule out the possibility that both may be caused by chance or by a third factor.
sources for starch
rice, potatoes, pasta, legumes
Releses energy from nutrients ex.. dairy meats green leafy veggies
How many grams in an ounce?
Polyunsaturated fatty acids:-Linoleic Acid (omega 6) -Linolenic Acid (omega 3)
Essential Fatty Acids
Alternative medicine
-used instead of conventional medicine
found in digestive tracts of birds, earthworms, and grasshoppers; temporary storage of food; located anterior to gizzard
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends a minimum of how much moderate activity most days?
30 mins.
For most adults, what is the recommnded minimum amount of fat that should be consumed, as a percentage of total energy intake?
Any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients.
sum of a cultures perception of food
a carbohydrate consisting of a single sugar unit
What is the recommended intake of sodium in adults?
function of manganese
carb metabolism, enzyme cofactor, bone formation
how to manage diabetes
control blood glucosecontrol fatnessgood eating patterns
Nutrient density:
the proportion of essential nutrients to the number of kilocalories.
Composed of C,H & O. Simple (sugars) or Complex (starches & fiber)
cell fragments that assist in the formation of blood clots and help stop bleeding
sweet and low 300 x heat stable
Anthropometric Measurements-Tests Cont
Protein metabolism-24 hour urine test-elevated levels may indicate breakdown of body tissue
fund allocation
food stamp program-17 billion dollars, 50% of all food assistance, .83 cents a meal
The fiber that is manufactured and added to foods and fiber supplements is called ___________________ .
Functional Fiber
47. What fraction of women capable of becoming pregnant ingest the RDA for folate?
a. ½
sources of zinc
protein containing foods, red meats, shellfish, whole grains, fortified cereals.
a thick fluid secreted by many cells throughout the body. it contains a compound that has both carbohydrate and protein parts. it acts as a lubricant and means of protection for cells
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Recommended amounts that meet the needs for most healthy people in the population
- an infection of the digestive tract that causes diarrhea
what is another name for fruit sugar or levulose?
-general term for all forms of the vitamin-folic acid=> better absorbed since very stable=>found in supplements and fortified foods-great sources- 1. meat, diary (animal products) very bad source2-plant foods are good-leafy greens, legumes, enriched
Disaccharides Structure:
2 sugar units bound by condensation reaction
low in fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and sodium and containing atleast 10% of the DV for vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein or fiber.
-Insulin is present, cells are not sensitive to its affects.-Some glucose is entering the cells but not enough.-Primary cause is obesity.
How alcohol affects pregnancy
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Leading cause of mental retardation
Which of the following describes the actions of a carcinogen?
Cancer-initiating substance
Which of the following is(are) consequences of chronic hunger?
a. General weakness b. Fatigue c. Stunted growthd. Iron-deficiency anemiae. All of the above(E)
food allergy
an allergic reaction to a good, caused by a reaction of the immune system,
a group of two sphincters that help control expulsion of feces from the body
protein sparing action
the actions of carbohydrate and fat in providing energy that allows protein to be used for purposes it alone can serve.
Deficiency of Vit C deficiency
Scurvy, immune depression, frequent infections, bleeding gums, rough skin, bruise easily, depression, failure of wounds to heal
separate meat and dairy, no pork no seafood or fish withoud scales and fins
jewish (kosher)
Which three hormones are responsible for producing hunger?
2) Ghrelin
3) Neuropeptide Y
*Provides guidelines for daily amounts for each food group that people should consume.*Categories include grains, vegetables, dairy, fruit, meat, and beans.
Nutrition for the skin?
Maternal health during lactation
If postpartum amenorrhea, take birth control
Breast health
Cardiac Sphincter
band of muscle at top of stomach that keeps food from backing up into esophagus
Sources of polyunsaturated fat:
corn oil, soybean oil, walnuts, flax seed, vegetable oil, fatty fish.
What two shapes, or structures do monosaccharides usually exist in?
cyclic or ring structures
- proteins attract water- Edema is swelling becauseof excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial fluid and the fluid in the body's tissue lacks protein
Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)
The amount of energy recommended by the DRIs to maintain body weight in a healthy person based on age, gender, size and activity level.
What are the two types of carbohydrates?
Complex and simple sugars
Diet Drugs - Orlistat (Xenical or Alli)
Inhibits fat digestion
Reduces absorption of fat by 30% in the small intestine
Dietary fat is deposited in the feces, with resulting side effects
Must still control fat intake
what type of omega 3 do plant sources contain
alpha-linolenic acid
88. Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
a. Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
What feed constituants or situations alter mineral absorption, cause deficiency, or cause toxicity/
-mineral absorption: high ratios of mineral
-cause deficiency: to little of a mineral
-cause toxicity: to much of a mineral
Protein metabolism
The aa are taken to the liver to be digested or released into the blood stream
Calcuim sources & use in the body
milk, shellfish, bone matrix, teeth

Heart rate, membrane permeability, Muscle contraction, Propogation of neuron impulses
As far as is known, vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes?`
Blood clotting`
Which of the following is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
Pregnancy increases the BMR
- few have proved to be effective- St. John's wort- contain substances that inhibit the uptake of serotonin and thus suppres appetite- potential risk for heart attack and seizures
What are sources of proteins? What is the difference between complete and incomplete proteins?
plant and animal foods

complete- animal foods
incomplete- generall plant (must be combined with other specific foods to be complete)

ex: beans/rice, cereal/milk, pasta/tomoatos
What are the functions of Niacin
Niacin: Part of a co-enzyme needed in energy metabolism
what is the definition of digestion
process by which foods are broken down into digestible units
Dr. Flatt presented his successful weight management experiences during his guest lecture. His weight and height were 217 lbs (98.6 kg) and 68 in (1.73 m) in 1989. While adopting healthier lifestyles, he was able to lose 38 lbs by 1990 and has maintained
a. His BMI was reduced from 33 to 27 over one year, from 1989 to 1990.b. His active lifestyle approach was increasing physical activity while maintaining similar dietary intake given his job and age.c. Maintaining healthy weight and active lifestyle helps him keep muscle size, but not muscle strength.d. a and be. a and c(A)
which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition
High doses may lower blood cholesterol
What is the bodies composition?
-total body fat
 -essential fat
 -storage fat
-fat free mass
 -body water
 -bone mineral
You formulated a diet to meet the TDN requirements of your horse, but he lost weight. Which reason below could potentially explain this?
1. the diet was poorly digested because it is high in fiber
2. there was a lot of gas energy lost during fiber d
2. there was a lot of gas energy lost during fiber digestion
Enterohepatic circulation
maximal oxygen uptake
the iron storage protein.
Examples of Micronutrients
wich is not digested
Folate deficiency
anemia, homocysteinemia, impaired neural tube defects.
calorie (kilocalorie)
Measure of heat energy.
the dietary characteristic of providing a wide selection of foods- the opposite of monotony.
Magnesium lab data:
1.3-2.1 mEq/L

1.4-1.9 mg/dL
transports zin in the blood
an enzyme that hydrolyzes peptides
PhosphorusRDA, Sources
Adults: 700mgMeat, paultry, fish, eggs,dairy, nuts, legumes, grains (more in animal products)
a physiological sensation that prompts us to eat
the large, primary artery that conducts blood from the heart to the body's smaller arteries
Liver glycogen will release glucose into the bloodstream when blood glucose levels get low.
the indigestible parts of plant foods, largely nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by resident bacteria of the colon. Fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages and the non polysaccharide lignin.
\n Functions- cell, fluid balance, nerve\n impulses\n Food sources- potatoes, beans, OJ milk\n Well absorbed , Can cause cardiac arrest
Cardiovascular Disease
1. Garlic
2.Coenzyme Q10
3. Fish oil
4. Policosanol
5. Hawthorn
6. Magnesium
Encourage autonomy. In which order would they like their food. If blind set up as "o'clock". Push fluids. hand washing and oral hygiene before meal. % of fluid and food eaten.
-Improves metabolism.
-Reduces inflammation and maintains water balance.
Nutrition concerns in childhood
Malnutrition and hunger
Chronic disease
Childhood obesity
DHA and EPA form which prostagandins
True or False: A protein’s quality is influenced by the protein’s digestibility and the protein’s amino acid composition.
At any given time, approximately what percentage of all US adults are attempting to lose weight?

The hyperthalamus is the part of brain that controls feeling of hunger, thirst, and desire.  T/F 

In addition to enzzymes, the pancreatic juice contains ________________ which is basic or alkaline-- opposite of the stomach's acid
sodium bicarbonate
a hormone made from cholesterol. Cholesterol is needed for the synthesis of this molecule. This molecule is important for reproduction, energy metabolism, calcium homeostasis, and electrolyte balance.
steroid hormone
beriberi is from a deficiency of what?
what is special about protein?
it has nitrogen
Very-Low-Calorie Diets (VLCD)?
-modified fasts
-may be used under medical supervision
-not recommended for typical individual who wants to lose 10-20 pounds
helps delay gastric emptying time so satiety is increased
by chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in highest amounts in most foods
too little folate?
macrocytic anemiaheart diesease from elevated homocysteineneural tube defects in unborn babies
Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose and can often be controlled by dietary changes.t/f
Other food contaminants
-glass, metal, objects
-misuse of cleaning agents
-insects, dirt, hair
vitamin e functions
antioxidant.. pretects membranes and cell walls
Body Composition During Aging
• Lose bone, decrease muscle/lean body mass and increased body fat• Good nutrition and exercise can minimize this-muscle mass in thighs- compare old and young people-bone loss = bone vertebrae shrinking
A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine
a. Folate
which b vitamin is easily destroyed by microwave cooking?
a lipid and protien combination that covers nerve fibers
kjeldahl method
sample is chemically digested, N is released as ammonia, Ammonia causes color change
people who eat foods of both plant and animal origin, including animal flesh.
What is the best source of phosphorous?
Animal protein
Use energy density as a guide to?
Food choices
processed foods
foods usbjected to any process, such as miling, alteration of texture, addition of additives, cooking, or other. Depending on the starting material and the process, a processed food may or may not be nutritious.
Phospholipids - which make up an important part of the barrier function of the skin.
Vitamin C
what is the first organ to recieve starches absorbed from intestine
a disorder in which the bones become increasingly porous, brittle, and subject to fracture, owing to loss of calcium and other mineral components, sometimes resulting in pain, decreased height, and skeletal deformities: common in older persons, primarily
True or False: “trans fat free” on a food label means having 0 g of trans fat and 0 g of saturated fat per serving.
a. True b. False(FALSE)
246. The outer hard shell of bone is called
a. Cortical bone
a compound that speeds the rate of a chemical reaction but is not altered by the reaction. Almost all enzymes are protiens (some are made of genetic material)
What is the most saturated fat?
lard and animal fat
Calcium (at least 800 mg)

bone and tooth formation
blood clotting
nerve transmission
muscle contraction
what is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain
doubly labeled water
a form of indirect calorimetry that measures total daily energy expenditure through the rate of carbon dioxide production.
Vitamin D for elderly
Needed for bone health, calcium balance
Reduced skin synthesis and activation
Higher needs
2-40-140 rule
dont leave food at 40-140 degrees for longer than two hours
Identify the toxicity problems for this Vitamin-Vit K
Vitamin K- Interference with anti-clotting medication (inhibits the anti-clotting agents), jaundice
A decrease or loss in blood flow to the brain that results from a blood clot or other change in arteries in the brain. This in turn causes the death of brain tissue.  Also called a cerebrovascular accident.
- only known in developed nations- may be genetic component to eating disorders
move out of body. all that junk at the bottom.
which of the following can be used to guage the amount of a person's abdominal fat
Waist circumference
unsaturated: 2. pufa
less than one double bond and liquid at room temp.sunflower, soybean, safaflower
What term defines the condition of infant tooth deterioration resulting from chronic exposure to carbohydrate-rich fluids from a bottle?
Nursing bottle tooth decay
Fat free must have ___ g of fat or less per serving.
0.5 g
What type of molecule is most likely to enter a cell by diffusion?
1. large water-soluble nutrients
2. small fat-soluble nutrients
3. large fat-soluble nutrients
4. small water-soluble nutrients
2. small fat-soluble nutrients
if something is fermentable it is what?
readily digested by choloric bacteria
which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C
Broccoli (the greener the better)
Anaerobic energy systems:Lactic acid energy system
-breakdown of glucose to lactic acid (lactate)
-rise in acidity triggers muscle fatigue
Why is whole grain better? What does it contain? What are good examples?
whole-grain: provide more magnesium, zinc, B6, vit E, chromium, fiber ex. brown rice, oatmeal, popcorn
What is the purpose of water in the body?
to keep cells alive
What are the two functions of proteins?
1) Energy yielding
2) Building blocks for bones, muscles, blood cells, enzymes and immune factors
What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid?
1. Protects brain2. Acts as shock absorber
- Limiting amino acid means that the essential aa found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis in the body. - essential amino acids are not absorbed
Why do cats require vitamin D?
Vit D is not synthesized in cats exposed to sunlight because alternate pathways deplete the skin of important precursor molecules. Thus, cats require a preformed source
What is the biggest danger from the volcanic ash?
danger from inhaling fumes is fluoride too much turns into acid and may be fatal
There is some evidence that biotin can improve hoof health in cows. This suggests that...
1. Biotin is not important for other body functions
2. Biotin production in the rumen is inadequate for maximal health
3. Ruminal microbes do not synthesize bioti
2. Biotin production in the rumen is inadequate for maximal health
Why do we need to ingest essential and non essential amino acids?
Why do we need to ingest essential and non-essential amino acids? In order to make the required proteins, the cells need a full array of amino acids. If a nonessential amino acid (that is, ones the cell can make:) is unavailable from food, the cell synthesizes it and continues attaching amino acids to the protein strands being manufactured. If the diet fails to provide enough essential amino acids (ones that it can’t make), the cells
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