Nutrition 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
O2+QH
O2`+Q`+2H+
Pellagra
Niacin Deficiency
Trace Minerals
Iron
Zinc
Copper
Manganese
Iodine
Selenium
Chromium
Fluoride
Molebdinum
Malnourishment
Missing essential nutrients
Vitamin B2 AKA
Riboflavin
anaerobic
not requiring oxygen
Phosphorous
Daily Value
1,000 mg/day
Cations in ECF
Na+
Ca2+
estimated food records
estimated
Water-Soluable Vitamins
B-vitamins, Vitamin C
Lipolysis (fat)


Aerobic
Intensity: low
Duration: 30 min
Advantage: Unlimited supply
Disadvantage: slow
Water Deficiency
Triggers Thirst Mechanism
Dehydration
Fe
Upper limit
45 mg/day
causes hemachromatosis
Vitamin C
water solubleantioxidantregenerates oxidized Eprevents scurvyenhances immune sys.too much- nosebleeds, nauseatoo little- bleeding gums, loose teeth
Pancreatic Juice
protease(helps break down protein)
Lipase(helps break down lipids)
Amylase(helps break down sugar)
What is Vitamin A from?
b-carotene
paraites
Giardia; beaver fever diarrheal illness; waterborne ilnesses in intestines of infected animals and humans
BMI for severely obese person
>40
Specificity Principle
-Specific training= specific adaptions
-Mode, intensity, duration
 
-Examples
-MODE: Swimming vs running
-Intensity: duration or stength vs endurance
-Dirt vs. pavement running
- time of day
Vitamin D Storage Site
Fat tissues
DASH guideline for veggie
4-5 servings/day
__________transport free fatty acids to the mucosal cells of the stomach
Micelles
normal dose of vitamin E?
400 IU
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
A,D,K,E
• Fat-soluble vitamins
Not readily excreted (except vitamin K)
Can accumulate in the body
Absorbed along with fat

Carriers in the bloodstream – In lipoproteins

Storage in the liver & adipose tissue
Most is absorbed if there is enough fat
Fat malabsorption – May cause deficiency
biochemical assessment
measurement of biochemical functions (e.g., concentrations of nutrient by-products or enzyme activities in the blood or urine) related to a nutrient's function
Obesity definition
over 20% excess body fat
clostridium botulinum
dub vision, paralysis, speaking swallowing difficulties, breathting death; improperly canned foods
Adolescence is characterized by what?
intense anabolism
Biotin can be synthesized by
intestinal bacteria
The excessive thirst common in diabetes is known as
polydipsia
Health: Absence of Disease
- Nutrition
-Lifestyle
-Physical Activity
 
urea
nitrogenous waste product of protein metabolism; major source of nitrogen in the urine
Vitamin E loss is sensitive to...
Oxygen
Heat
Light
Metal
Percent of retinoids that are absorbed.
70-90%
Sulfur 
RDA
No RDA, AI or UL set
Function of Chromium
FUNCTIONS:
May enhance insulin function
Part of carb and lipid metabolism
Beta carotene
carotid- fat solublepre-cursor of retinolprevents oxidation in cell membranes, LDLsprotect skin and eyestoo much- orange skin
what goodies does vitamin A have?
carotenoids, betatene
Mineral Bioavailability
   
• Degree of absorption
• Presence of binders and fiber
– Animal products are better absorbed
– Plants depend on mineral content of soil
• Refinement lowers mineral content
– More refined = less mineral content
– Enriched = puts it back
nutrients
substances that provide energy and materials needed for metabolic activities
theory
an explanation for a phenomenon that has numerous lines of evidence to support it
"Brown Adipose Tissue"
Where?
What?
Why?
Where- babies and hybernating animals
What- lots of mitochondria and TG(FA)
Why- heat generation
peppermint helps treat
irritable bowl syndrome, skinny itches
elderly have a high probability for what
malnutrition
Healthy eating Index
Assesses nutrition compliance for populations
The known health risks for being underweight include all of the following except
 
diabetes
infertility in women
giving birth to unhealthy infants
increased cancer-induced wasting
diabetes
Clinically severy obesity is also known as
morbid obesity
Presently, HIV is known to be transmitted by direct contact with contaminated body fluids from all of the fllwing sources except
 
saliva
blood
semen
vaginal secretions
saliva
Common terms that describe the body's accumulation of excess iron include all of the fllwing except
 
iron overload
hemosiderosis
hemoglobinemia
hemochromatosis
hemoglobinemia
ATP facts
-resting ATP level ~8mmol/kg wet weight (3-4x higher in DW)-higher in FT vs ST muscle (ft burns atp faster so needs more atp)-ex can increase demand 100 fold and exhaust supplies in 2-3 seconds of H.I. Ex-20-25% drop during prolonged max ex-drop of 20% can impair performance
neuron
the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon
lactoovovegetarian
a person who consumes plant products, dairy products, and eggs
food insecurity
a condition of anxiety regarding running out of either food or money to buy more food
Storage of Phosphorous
Bone, excess excreted by kidney
Food sources of Molybdenum (Mo)
FOOD SOURCE:
plant based
Minerals needed include
sodium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium
who has b1 deficiency?
alcoholics, people on antibiotics, sulfa-drugs, oral contraceptives, people who have high carb diets
Sodium (Na)
DV: 1500 mg Toxicity: 2300 mg
Sources: Table Salt, Processed Foods, Condiments, Soups, ChipsFunction: Major + Ion of Extracellular Fluid, Nerve Impluse, Water Balance
• Table salt (NaCl): 40% sodium, 60% chloride – 95% of ingested sodium is absorbed
• Positive ion in extracellular fluid
– Muscle contraction
– Conduction of nerve impulses
• Key for retaining body water
– Aldosterone regulates sodium balance
– Excretion regulated by the kidneys
• Aids in nutrient absorption
Deficiency: Deficiency is rare
• Excessive perspiration
– Losing 2-3% of body weight
• Signs of deficiency:
– Muscle cramp, nausea, vomiting,dizziness, shock, coma
digestion
break down of food molecules into a form of cells can use (often into the molecules building blocks.)
epidemiology
the study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
Changes To the Food Pyramid
added moderate alcohol
vitamin supplements
What herb can be used to relieve indigestion
peppermint
Upper limit
%DV for total or saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium, there is no RDA for these nutrients
what parameters does estimating BMR depend on
heightweight age gender
On a per-kCal basis, which of the fllwing foods is richest in vitamin B6?
 
Meats
Fruits
Legumes
Vegetables
Fruits
Of the fllwing, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deficiency?
Antibiotic therapy
How much calcium would typ. be absorbed by a normal adult w/ a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?
250 mg
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent
hypertension
calorie
-amount of heat energy to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water from 14.5 to 15.5 celsisu-calories are measured in kilo calories (1 Calorie = 1000 calories)Carbs ~ 4 Cal/gramProtein ~ 4 Cal/gramFat ~ 9 Cal/gram
mitochondria
the main sites of energy production in a cell. They also contain the pathway for oxidizing fat for fuel, among other metabolic pathways
epithelial tissue
the surface cells that line the outside of the body and all external passages within it
preterm
an infant born before 37 weeks of gestation; also referred to as premature
Vitamin E
Upper Limit
1000 mg (natural sources)
1100 IU (synthetic)
Chloride Deficiency
RARE:
May be caused by high salt intake and persistent vomiting
Copper deficiency
RARE:
Can be found in premies and malnourished infants
Menkes disease
Digestion of fats begins in the _______
small intestine
what interfere with vitamin a absorption?
antibiotics, laxitives, cholesterol meds
cellular level
this means that un order for your cells to get the nutrients they need, you must go through the process of digestion.
What do strength atheletes need in terms of proteins, why?What do endurance athletes need in terms of proteins, why?
Strength>1.6-1.7g/kg to gain>1.2-1.4g/kg to maintainRight after workout to stimulate anabolismEndurance>1.2-1.4g/kgNeed more a.a. for oxidation due to high energy needs and support of damaged tissue.
Achlorhydriawhat does it affect?
reduced output of stomahch: prevents release of B12 from conjugated protein and hence decreases its availability
Indirect calorimetry
measurement of O2 and Co2 to measure RMR or BMR
For almost all people who use the equations for calculating Estimated Energy Requirements, the actual values fall within a range of plus or minus
320-400 kCal
All of the fllwing are mild symptoms of dehydration except
 
thrist
fatigue
weakness
spastic muscles
spastic muscles
What min. level of body wt. loss as water impairs a person's physical performance?
3-4%
Overload Principle
Greater than normal stress on the body is required for training
 
Examples
-Strength gains
-LT improvement
lymphatic system
a system of vessels and lymph that accepts fluid surrounding cells and large particles, such as products of fat absorption. Lymph eventually passes into the bloodstream from the lymphatic system
essential amino acids
the amino acids that cannot be synthesized by humans in sufficient amounts or at all and therefore must be included in the diet; there are nine essential amino acids. These are also called indispensable amino acids
underwater weighing
a method of estimating total body fat by weighing the individual on a standard scale and then weighing him or her again submerged in water. The difference between the two weights is used to estimate total body volume
Enzymatic Conversion of Carotenoids
Carotenoids split into two molecules of retinoids: retinal and retinoic acid
Progression stage of carcinogenesis
uncontrolled growth and formation of tumors
mutual supplementation
using 2 incomplete proteins to make a complete protein
Potassium (K)
 Positive ion in intracelluar fluid
DV: 4700 mg Toxicity: N\A
Sources: Spinach, Sqyash, Bananas, Orange Juice, Milk, Meat, GrainsFunction:
Major + Ion of Intracellular Fluid, Nerve Impluse, Water Bal– Fluid balance – Nerve impulse transmission
-Associated with lowering blood pressure  
Deficiency:
– Muscle cramps, confusion, constipation, irregular heart beat, heart failure  
Describe the adult restricted calorie diet
500-1000 calorie reduction (0.5-1.0lb per week)25-30% from fat15-25% proteinVit/min supplement needed if ...>1200kcal/day women>1800kcal/day men
what is not a side effect of valerian
c. liver damage
For weight loss to occur you need a deficit of what?
3500 kcal/lb
Blood smear of a folate deficient person
hypochromic and macrocytic RBCshypersegmented neutrophils
The drug sibutramine reduces appetite by afecting
serotonin utilization in the brain
What is the best predictor for risk of a stroke?
Blood Pressure
gene expression
Use of DNA information on a gene to produce a protein. Thought to be a major determination of cell development
lower body obesity
the type of obesity in which fat storage is a primarily located in the buttocks and thigh area. Also known as gynoid or gynecoid obesity
Effects of 4% water loss
Decrease in muscle strength and endurance
Fat-composed of, kcal, function, found in
Composed of lipids (molecules that are insoluble in water)9kcal.gm, source of energy during rest/low intensity exercise, found in butter, margarine, veg. oil
What is the minimum hydration level for athletes?Sources?What to do for water weight loss?
12 cups/day females16 cups/day males20% foods80% beverages1lb of H2O loss needs 2 cups + 1 cup replaced.
Modest Weight gains effects on apipocytes
changes there size not there number
These may be detected as a first sign of severe protein malnutrition
Hb and Hct
If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier cuz she has
more muscle
In weight training, muscle endurance can best be emphasized by combining a
high number of repetitions with lighter weight
Wear and Tear Hypothesis
Aging is a result of an accumulation of cellular damage 
gene expression
the process of using a gene to make a protein
what are some major risk factors for cvd?
high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, physical activity, and smoking.
name some examples of drug action altered by foods
MAOIs and pressor agentsCaffeine and stimulantswarfarin and Vit KSt. John's Wort and anti-depressants
Basal metabolic rate: varies with, ?what is a major determinant
energy needed to carry out fundamental metabolic functions (very specific condition)varies with age and between sexes: Lean body mass is a major determinant
Why are vitamin E deficiencies rarely observed in human beings?
The vitamin is widespread in foods
In weight training, muscle strength can best be emphasized by combining a
low number of repetition with heavy weight
To supply the developing fetus with the calcium req. for teeth and bones, pregnant women should
continue to consume the calcium recommended for non-pregnant women because calcium absorption increases during pregnancy which will provide for the fetus.
3 ways that nutritional deficiencies affect immunity?
1. makes it easier for microbes to invade and grow in your body
 
2. allows a secondary infection to develop or a relapse of a previous infection
 
3. slows your recovery from infection
What are 2 measures of biochemical assessment?
Static- nutrient or metabolites in the blood, but not always helpful due to homeostatic regulation.Functional - test body processes that depend on specific nutrients.
What is the primary factor that differentiates bulimia nervosa from binge eating?
Purging is rarely practiced in binge eating disorder
Which of the fllwing is a property of conditioned muscles?
They can store more glycogen
What is the best form of exercise for management for obesity?
Combo of aerobic and resistance exercise Aerobic- burns calories and increases CV/resp fitnessResistance- maintain/increase lean body mass, maintain RMR, maintain/increase bone density
What is the function of intrinsic in Vitamin B12 absorption?
It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines.
Which of the fllwing practices is not believed to be protective for all of the fllwing: heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer?
 
consuming fiber-rich foods, drinking alcohol only in moderation, engaging in regular physical exercise, consumi
consuming fat within the range of 20-35% of total energy
What are the carb requirements to enhance performance?
45-65% of kcal but close to 65% for endurance training. 5-10g/kg or closer to 10 for endurance
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
It participates in synthesis of bone proteins
Why is it ok to use BMI for adults?Who is it not useful for?Define the BMI classes
24.9 correlated with risk of chronic diseasecorrelated with percent body fat (not count muscle mass)BUT not as useful for athletes due to their increased lean mass.UnderweightNormal 18.5-24.9Over 25.0-29.9Obese class I 30-34.9Obese class II 35-39.9Obese class III >40
B6
pyridoxine
Chloride


–major
negative ion 

–couples
w/ sodium outside cells 
–couples
w/ potassium inside cells 
–contributes
to acid-base balance 
–part
of stomach’s HCl acid to digest protein





METABOLIC PATHWAYS
metabolic pathways
sucrose is a
disaccharide
lipids that contain carbohydrates
glycolipids
Calcium/ Phosphorous
2:1 or 1:1
Pantothenic Acid
Function:
Active form:
Food sources:
RDA
DRI
AI
EAR
UL
Deficiencies:
Enzymes:
Coenzymes:
180. Approximately how much water (lbs) is found in a 134-lb person?
a. 80
NOTE: Phospholipids have active enzymes important for energy metabolism, blood clotting, and cell turnover. Phospholipids act as carriers of hydrophobic substances in the body.
the RDA for carbs is..
130
Aspartame : 180-200x sweeter than?
sucrose
Symptoms of diabetes:
-Frequent urination.-Excessive thirst.-Rapid, unexplained weight loss (type I). Gradual weight gain with type II.-Extreme hunger, craving sweets.-Fatigue-Blurred vision, sudden visual changes.-Slow wound healing.
n of determine
need for assistance
In the absence of carbohydrate, ______________ are produced from body fat as an alternative fuel for the brain.
ketones

The

villi are absorption fingers of intestine. T/F
True
WATER
definition
The universal solvent; chemically H2O. The body is composed of about 60% water. Water (fluid) needs are about 9 (women) or 13 (men) cups per day; needs are greater if one excersizes heavily.
plant sterols
reduce cholesterol in human body
norepinephrine
a compounds related to epinephrine that helps elicit the stress response.
galactose
component of milk sugarbody converts glucose to galactose in mammary tissue during lactation
Lipid emulsions:
provide supplemental kilocalories and prevent essential fatty acid deficiencies. Administer these emulsions through a separate peripheral line, through the central line by Y-connector tubing or as an admixture to the PN solution.
Name the six major nutrients
Carbohydrates, Lipids,Protein
Vitamins, Minerals & Water
Types of fatty acids
Polyunsaturated FA’s (PUFA):-Plants and fish.Effects on health:-Decrease all cholesterol, good and bad.
Carbohydrates
majory nutrient used for energy support during exercise. Comes from curculating blood glucose and glycogen stored in muscles and liver
signs of good nutrition
-shiny hair
-bright eyes
-clear skin
-appropriate body weight & development
-regular BM
-alert
Diets rich in ________ are associated with maintaining healthy blood pressure levels.
Potassium
A person who regularly consumes fish such as shark, king mackerel and swordfish is at risk of ingesting potentially toxic amounts of
mercury
Riboflavin Deficiencies
dry cracked lipsinflammation of mucus membranes of mouth
dietary supplements
pills, liquids, or powders that contain purified nutrients
to minimize muscle loss assciated with gluconeogenesis, the body also uses an alternative energy source (instead of glucose) called _____. They are formed from fatty acids when there is a relative absence of glucose.
ketones
A soy protein diet is low in?
iron
water is an essential fluid..true or false?
true
good alternative to fish oil
flax seed oil
Reducing hunger and enhancing satiety:
Adherence to dietary changes improves?
with enhanced satiety
GI
Gallstones block bile flow and cause impaired lipid digestion. Liver affects metabolic processes. Pancreas affects glucose metabolism or fat digestion.
too much vitamin k?
no know side effects
soluble fiber
digested by bacteria in colon.beans and oatspromotes satietycitrus, fruits, berries, food stays in stomache longer.lower cholestoral lower blood glucosehigher satiety.
Nutrition DX
identification and labeling an actual occurance, risk of, or potential for developing a nutritional problem that deitics professionals are respons. for treating independently
complete protein
animals and soy-has all essential amino acids, egg white=perfect
What macronutrient is NOT broken down chemically in the stomach?
Carbohydrates
36. The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include
a. Confusion and depression
hematocrit
measurement of the volume of the red blood cells packed by centrifuge in a given volume of blood.
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
definition
 
the surface cells that line the outside of the body and all external passages within it
What sense has the strongest effect on what people eat?
smell.
LEPTIN
- a protein produced by fat cells under direction of the ob gene that decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure- If a person lacks leptin they will gain more weight
Sources of Riboflavin
milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, meat, liver, dark leafy greens, whole-grain or enriched bread
Behavior Modification
A process used to gradually and permanently change habitual behavior
(Behavior ABCs – Antecedents that lead to Behaviors which have Consequences)
What you eat provides materials to function based on?
gene code
fat cells
cells that specialize in the storage of fat and form the fat tissue. Fat cells also produce enzymes that metabolize fat and hormones involved in appetite and energy balance.
TYPE II
Non insulin dependent-> 90% of all cases.-Caused by Insulin Resistance.-Most people obese.
Where does the US rank in childhood obesity?
2nd
When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury and peptic ulcers?
Niacin
The majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the ______________________ .
Small Intestines
maternal nutrition status
every cm increase in maternal MUAC lowers the risk of mortality by 12%
RECEPTOR
definition
a site in a cell at which compounds bind. cells that contain receptors for a specific compound are partially controlled by that compound
PYRUVATE
- When the body needs energy fast it goes through an anaerobic pathway. In this case pyruvate is converted into lactic acid. - When the body has enough oxygen it goes through an aerobic pathway and the pyruvate breaks down into acetyl CoA. The acetyl CoA will either make ATP or make fat.
Sources of Vit K
Created in digestion tractDark leafy greensveggie oils
Polyunsaturated (fatty acids):
have two or more double carbon bonds.
What have high levels of cholesterol been associated with?
coronary artery disease
VItamin B6 (Pyridoxine) important in _____?
The metabolism of proteins.
Food safety and sanitation
-thaw food safely
-good, clean cutting board
-cooking and refrigeration
-store food safely
When to verify tube placement
Before each intermittent feeding and at regular intervals (e.g. at least once per shift) for continuous feedings.
26. Which of the following overt side effect(s) is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid?
a. Painful, tingling, itching sensation
When the nitrogen portion is split off from an amino acid, the residue is:
a keto acid
What is a control group?
-group of participants in an experiments that is identical to the experimental group except that not experimental treatement is used
-used as basis of comparison
medical nutrition therapy:
is prescribed for an individual by a physician or (when delegated by MD) by the dietitian or certified diatary educator in some states for disease control
How much energy does water yield?
None, it is a micronutrient
What is the function of duodenal juice?
neutralize acid from stomach
Acetyl CoA enters one krebs cycle by chemically binding to a substance the called ____________,forming
 
________________.
Oxaloacetic Acid, citric acid
98. Which of the following describes the primary function of vitamin in bone health?
a. It assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
How does vitamin E influence meat quality?
1. It greatly increases muscle growth
2. Promotes marbling
3. It causes myoglobin breakdown
4. It prevents tissue oxidation
4. It prevents tissue oxidation
List\n2 substances that decrease the absorption of iron and 2 that increase the\nabsorption.
\n Decrease absorption\n \n Tea, coffee, egg yolk,\n antacids, fiber, cereals, chocolate, \n \n Increase absorption\n \n Vitamin c and meat\n
UL - tolerable upper intake level
the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to psoe no risk of toxicity to almost all healthy individuals of a particular life stage and gender group.
Which of the following foods is most often the cause of allergies?
Eggs, peanuts, and milk
An important function of fat in the body is to
protect vital organs against shock
HEART DISEASE RELATED TO PROTEIN
- if the protein arginine is absent the risk of heart disease increases. Arginine is a protective factor for heart disease because it slws the progression of atherosclerosis.
what are examples of foods high on glycemic index
mashed potatoes, simple sugars (glucose).
Describe a monosat. fat (what it looks like, where it comes from)
Monounsaturated Fatty Acid- one double bond of carbon -looks kind of like this \/\/\_/\/\/\/\/ (remember that the horizontal bond is a double bond) - olive oil and canola oil
Why is iron low in renal failure patients?
Because the kidneys produce less erythropoietin, which causes fewer RBCs, which means less iron. Treat with erythropoietin and iron supplementation.


What is the set point theory?
Your body has a set range that it wants to keep your weight at.
In the typical American deit, what percent of total kcals are carbohydrates?
50%, 50% of which come from simple sugars
Bone loss and most common types of bone
fractures in women 




spinal vertebrae- 55 to 75 years, can happen from bending lifting or spontaneously, bone weakens and collapseship- most serious, 70 years or olderwrist or forearm fractures- usually 50 years or older
What is the biggest advantage of breastfeeding?
· \nMother’s uterus shrinks faster\n\n· \nNutritionally superior to any alternative
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Term:
Definition:
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