Nutrition 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
b1 toxicity?
none!!!
1 Cal=?kJ=?kcal
1Cal=4.2=1
Ultratrace Minerals
Nickel
Vanadium
Boron
Silicon
Arsenic
Ascorbic Acid
C antioxidant
 
AMDR for: CarbProteinsFat
45-65%20-35%10-35%
Vitamin K
RDA
NO RDA
Phosphorous
Adequate Intake
700 mg/day
Anions in ICF
PO4-
SO4-
Fat- kcal
9 kcal/gm
Calcium Functions
bones and teeth
nuerotransmitter
muscle contraction
blood clotting
2nd messanger signaling
endocrine gland
a hormone-producing gland
Potassium food sources
FOOD SOURCES:
Fruits
Vegetables
Milk
Grain
Meat
Dry beans
Function of selenium
FUNCTIONS:
Antioxidant
thyroid metabolism
glutathionin peroxidase
GERD is
Gastroesophageal reflux diseasepersistent heartburn
salivary glands
function in chemical digestion
contains amylase(enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates)
Goiter is caused by
iodine deficiency
Calories per gram for: proteinCarbsFat
4kcal/g4kcal/g9kcal/g
Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches
2%
Aerobic Glycolysis (CHO)


Aerobic
Intensity: low- moderate
Duration: 2 min to 2 hrs (depending on how much glycogen)
Advantage

-Efficient (if oxygen present)
Disadvantage

-Less fast
Vitamin E Deficiency
Rare:
Hemolytic anemia
Nervous system damage
 
Phosphorous
Average Intake
950 - 1650 mg/day
Sterols
lipids containing multiple carbon rings
RDA
- "recommended daily allowance", the minimum quantity recommended of a food item which should be ingested daily
Mineral Interactions
Fiber-Mineral
– Phytic & oxalic acid
– High fiber candecrease absorptionof iron, zinc, others
– Yeast can breakbonds
• Mineral-Mineral
– Competition forabsorption
– Size competition
• Mineral-Vitamin
– C enhances iron– D enhances Ca
malnutrition
failing health that results from long-standing dietary practices that do not coincide with nutritional needs
Vitamin A helps with
reproductive maintenance
visual pigment
acne/psoriasis treatment
Shigella
bloody mucusy diarrhea - humen intestinal tract
Pernicious anemia treatment
High doses orally injections
Among the fllwing, which promotes constriction of blood vessels resulting in elevation of blood pressure?
 
Phytates
Angiotensin
Aldosterone
Carbonic Acid
Angiotensin
ketosis
condition of having a high concentration of ketone bodies
Cardiovascular Fitness
Fitness of 
-heart and lungs
-Aerobic (requires oxygen)
XC skining, running, cycling, swimming, etc
 
Components
-VO2max
-Locate Threshold 
lysosome
a cellular organelle that contains digestive enzymes for use inside the cell for turnover of cell parts
Absorption of Vitamin E
20-70% of intake
Magnesium deficiency symptoms
Irregular heart beat
weakness
muscle spasm
Increased risk of osteoporosis
 
Manganese food sources
FOOD SOURCES:
Whole grain cereals
nuts
legumes
tea
Phospholipids
soluble in H2OGlycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids, phosphate
name the kinds of vitamins
synthetic, natural, protein-bound
Chromium (Cr)/tm
DV: 25-35 mcg Toxicity: N/A
Sources: Egg Yolks, Whole Grains, Pork, Nuts, Mushrooms, Beer Function: Insulin Action
• Enhances insulin action
– Role in Type 2 diabetes?
Deficiency: • Low intake:
– Impaired glucose tolerance– Elevated blood cholesterol and
triglycerides
Vitamins
organic nutrients that often act as coenzymes in reactants
dietary assessment
estimation of typical food choices relying mostly on the recounting of one's usual intake or a record of one's previous days' intake
What do ligins do?
bind cholesterol (bile salts)
How do you convert mM to mg/DL
XmM=X*20-10%
Vitamin B12 is part of
FAD and FMN
Anthropometric measures for children
Weight and heightmidarm circumference
Which of the following is classified as a conditionally essential nutrient?
 
PABA
Choline
Inositol
Ubiquinone
Choline
What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells?
Folate
The diseases most common today include all of the following except
 
cancer
diabetes
tuberculosis
heart disease
tuberculosis
Iron deficiency in children is likely to result from a diet that overemphasizes
milk
What is Cardiovascular Fitness
- VO2max lactate threshold
erythropoeitin
a hormone secreted mostly by the kidneys that enhances red blood cell synthesis and stimulates red blood cell release from bone marrow
urethra
tube that transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
buffers
compounds that cause a solution to resist changes in acid-base conditions
air displacement
a method for estimating body composition that makes use of the volume of space taken up by a body inside a small chamber
Calcium content in dairy products, soy milk and tofu
30-32%
Percentage water in potatoes, chicken and steak
50-75% water
Symptoms of Early Fe deficiency
No apparent symptoms
DRI
average daily value, not daily value. For healthy people in the US
Function of phospholipids
component of cell membraneslipid transport as part of lipoproteinsemulsifier
what does b5 do?
anti-stress, makes adrenal hormones and ACH production, helps produce/transport/release E from fats, fuels cholesterol synthesis, important component of CoA, enhances stamina
Selenium (Se)/tm
DV: 55  mcg
Toxicity:400 mcg • Garlicky breath• Hair loss
• Nausea, vomiting
• Weakness• Rashes
• Cirrhosis of the liver
Sources: Meats, Eggs, Fish, Seafood, Whole Grains
 Function:(Antioxidant)
– Co-factor for glutathione peroxidase – Protects the heart and other cells from oxidative damage  – Works together with vitamin E  • Thyroid hormone metabolism Deficiency: • Muscle pain 
• Muscle wasting 
• Weakness
 • Deterioration of heart muscle
glycogen
the form of glucose stored in the body
control group
participants in an experiment who are not given the treatment being tested
Kcal
amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1L of water by 1 degree celcius
 
fungi; mold
fuzzy colonies, most dont cause food borne ilnesses
General causes of nutritional inadequacies
Inadequate Intake and absorptiondecreased utilizationsincreased lossesincreased requirements
Hypercatabolic state
often sick or injured people enter this state, where the counterregulatory hormones rise
Which of the following compounds is known to function as a hormone?
 
Vitamin D
Vitamin K
Phylloquinone
Alpha-tocopherol
Vitamin D
Where is the majority of the body's magnesium found?
Bones
oxidative phosphoraylation
process by which energy derived from oxidation of the NADH + H+ and FADH2 is transferred to ADP + P to form ATP
Lipolysis Exercise duration and Exercise Intensity


Excercise duration (CHO availability) greater than 30 min
Exercise Intensity- oxygen availability less than 50% VO2max
anus
last portion of the GI tract; serves as an outlet for that organ
immune system
the body system consisting of white blood cells, lymph glands and vessels, and various other body tissues. The immune system provides defense against foreign invaders, primarily due to the action of various types of white blood cells
peptide bond
a chemical bond formed between amino acids in a protein
At Risk for Vitamin E Deficiency
Premies
Fat malabsorption
Low-fat diets
Smokers
Factors that decrease Ca absorption
Rapid intestinal motility
Increased fiber, phosphorous, polyphenols in teas, phytic acid
Decreased Vitamin D
Menopause, aging
Achlorhydria
Oxalate
Initiation State of Carcinogenesis
Exposure of cell to carcinogen
Three types of lipids in foods:
Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Sterols
what does vitamin d do?
bone growth, prohormone, increased immunity, tyroid function
Essential amino acids
the convertion of most amino acids into other amino acids to meet our needs, but 8 cannot be made and therefore must be consumed
What is etiology of obesity
> genetics (50-70% disposition)> behavioral factors (energy intake, physical activity, sedentary behavior)> environmental factors (toxic or obesogenic environment)--> portion sizes, easy access to food, sedentary lifestyle
Total Energy Expenditure
total of all calories expended during the course of one 24 hour day
General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except
 
they must be consumed daily
toxic levels in the body are rarely found
they are absorbed directly into the blood
excesses are eliminated from the kidneys
they must be consumed daily
What is prothrombin?
A protein needed for blood clot formation
What is ayurveda?
A Hindu system for enhancing the body's ability to prevent illness and to heal itself
All of the fllwing dietary substances are known to adversly affect calcium balance except
 
a high fiber diet
lactose in diet
phytic acid in the diet
phosphorus in the diet 3 times of calcium
lactose in diet
What are the periodization cycles?
1.) Base: General Preparation
2.) Build: Specific Preparation
3.) Competition: Race
4.) Transition: Recovery
ileocecal sphincter
the ring of smooth muscle between the end of the small intestine and the large intestine
complementary proteins
two food protein sources that make up for each other's inadequate supply of specific essential amino acids; together they yield a sufficient among of all nine and, so provide high quality (complete) protein for the diet
resting metabolism
the amount of calories the body uses when the person has not eaten in 4 hours and is resting (e.g. 15 to 30 min) and awake in a warm, quiet environment. It is roughly 6% higher than basal metabolism due to the less strict criteria for the test; often referred to as resting metabolic rate (RMR)
Absorption of Vitamin D2
80% incorporated into micelles and absorbed in SI
Factors that increase non-heme Fe absorption
Vitamin C
Citric Acid
Lactic Acid
Heme iron
Ulcerative colitis- cure, place, continuous, sym?
curable, large intestine, is continuous, not bloody
what is the differences between infectious diseases and chronic diseases and number of deaths in developed countries?
infectious diseases: bacteria, virus, and parasites
 
chronic diseases: degeneration of bodily organs
Name some conditions associated with increased risk of malnutrition
cancer, diarrhea, vomiting, dysphagia, bowel resection, COPD, organ transplant, decubitus ulcers.
cranberry extract is used to treat and prevent
urinary tract infection
How is BMR normalized
dividing it by the height squared normalizes this
What is a chief function of the B vitamins?
Coenzyme participation
 
Which of the fllwing is a symptom of potassium deficiency?
 
Extreme thirst
Muscle weakness
Profound sweating
Lowered blood pressure
Muscle weakness
All of the fllwing are recognized symptoms of zinc deficiency except
 
anemia
altered taste acuity
impaired vision in dim light
increased susceptibility to infection
increased susceptibility to infection
White Blood Cells
one of the formed elements of the circulating blood system; also called leukocytes. White blood cells are able to squeeze through intracellular spaces and migrate. They phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as detoxify proteins that may result from allergic reactions, cellular injury, and other immune system cells
indirect calorimetry
a method to measure energy use by the body by measuring oxygen uptake. Formulas are then use to convert this gas exchange value into energy use
Factors that decrease Zn absorption
phytic acid and fiber
excessive zinc intake
high non-heme iron intake
good zinc status
 
goals of healthy people 2010:
1. increase quality of life2. eliminate health disparities
What are some resources for nutrition counseling?
MyPyramid online tracking stuffDietary Guidelines Consumer BrochureCDC consumer infoState and local health departmentAmerican heart assoc, american diabetes assoc, Drug companies (check for bias first)
Who is at risk for B12 defiency?
Strict vegetarian and vegans.Elderly are at most risk (achlorydria)
What term is given to the condition of a female athlete who has an eating disorder and develops amenorrhea and osteoporosis?
female athlete triad
All of the fllwing are characteristics of copper in nutrition except
 
deficiancy is rare
legumes are a rich source
absorption from foods is poor
absorption is reduced by ingestion of zinc supplements
absorption from foods is poor


Which of the following will help prevent foodborne illnesses?


a) thoroughly cooking hamburger, chicken and eggs.
b) storing food properly.
c) preventing cross-contamination.
d) All answer choices are correct
2 types of Fe found in foods
Heme- easily absorbed, animal-based foods, part of hemo- and myo- globinNon-Heme- Not easily absorbed, plant and animal based foods
These four dietary factors have been associated with increased risk of cancer?
dietary fat, alcohol, excess calories, low intake of fruits
How to establish appropriate adult weight goal?
-even 5-10% may give health benefits so start slowly-do not starve-0.5 to 1.0lb per week for BMI 27-35-1.0 to 2.0lb per week for BMI>35
Atherosclerosis and ROS relationship:what do they form
due to the oxidation of LDL and its subsequent uptake by macrophages to form foam cells.
There is some evidence for benefits from vitamin E supplements in all of the following groups except
 
premature infants
people with intermittent claudication
women with fibrocystic breast disease
people with problems of sexual impotence
people with problems of sexual impotence
Zinc is known to play an important role in all of the fllwing functions except
 
wound healing
synthesis of retinal
production of sperm
oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids
oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids
What food would be appropriate for a 5 month old infant?
Iron-fortified infant rice cereal
Does eating during event help?How to do it?
only helpful if event lasts longer than 1hour. stabilizes blood glucose and may spare glycogen stores. 30-60g/hr CHO in frequent small portionsports drinks or other food.
Which of the fllwing is a characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa?
Binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting
Which of the fllwing are features of physical activity and exercise?
Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned
What do you eat post event?How do you increase anabolic hormone profile?
1-1.85g CHO/kg/hr for first 5 hours-right away then hourly5-9g protein/100gCHO promotes anabolic hormone profile
Which of the fllwing is characteristic of the tocopherols?
They are usually found in foods high in  polyunsaturated fats
Which of the fllwing defines the association between nutrition and chronic disease?
Diet can influence the time of onset of some chronic diseases
What are the fat requirements for performance?
20-35% of kcals for day. Not good to be above 35% because still need glucose to prime.Not good to be below 20% because you can increase capacity to oxidize fat by increasing intake.
How can water loss from the body be quickly estimated at the end of a physical activity?
Take the difference in body weight (lbs) before and after the event and multiply by 2 to determine cups of water loss
At least ?% of the elderly consume less than RDA for vitamin and minerals
50% consume less than RDA due to a decreased consumption of food
MyPyramid
Indigestible polysaccharides
Fiber
Hypertension
High blood pressure.
Pathogens
-bacteria, viruses, parasites
anaphylaxis
rapid, severe allergic reaction
Iodine sources:
iodized salt
seafood
food additives
weight recommdenation for obese
15lbs
cause--> death children under 5neonatal causes
37%
Selection
sight, sound, smell, touch, taste
learned aversions
heimlich manuer is used for
choking
Energy Yielding Nutrients: CHO?
4 kcal/g
Dietary Reference Intakes
-Establishing Energy Recommendations-Average daily energy intake to maintain energy balance and good health-Margin of Error
negative nitrogen balance indicates
catabolic phase
Selenium
Selenium is considered essential for human health. It is a constituent of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase isolated from human red blood cells. Selenium deficiency is rare and occurs in endemic deficiencies, e.g. Keshan disease and in patients on TPN (total parenteral nutrition) without selenium supplementation.


Cellulose is important in human nutrition because it does what?
NOREPINEPHRINE
definition
a neurotransmitter from nerve endings and a hormone from the adrenal gland. it is released in times of stress and is involved in hunger regulation, blood glucose regulation and other body processes
LDL
'bad' cholesterol, high fraction is cholesterol and deliver cholesterol to cells
Ribosome
An organelle associated with the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, involved in gene translation
ingestion and digestion
usually coupled in braekdown
Lipids:
are the most calorie-dense nutrient, providing 9 kcal/g. Fats are composed of triglycerides and fatty acids
lungs
the body's organs of gas exchange.
Notable Nutrients
-Vitamins: A,C,E, (and D)-Minerals: calcium, magnesium and potassium-Typical American diet requires increased intake of veggies, fruits, whole grain, and milk (and a decrease in reined grains , fat and sugar)+Legumes may be considered a veggie or meat alternative
FAT.
PROCESS FATS. JUNK FOOD, FRIED FOOD.
minerals
required for bone and teeth formation, nerve and muscle function, fluid and electrolyte balance
(Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Iodine, Sodium and Potassium)
A normal-weight woman should gain approximately ________ during pregnancy.
25-35 lbs
211. Which of the following does not service as a major regulator of fluid balance in the body?
a. Calcium
Low-Density-Lipoproteins (LDL)
Primary transporter of cholesterol to cells in the body. Some of us have too much LDL in our bodies. "Bad Cholesterol"
ATOM
definition
smallest combining unit of an element such as Iron or Calcium. Atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons.
a condition called _______ occurs when ketone production exceeds the rate of ketone use, resulting in the accumilation of ketones in the blood. This happens when energy intake is very low or when the diet provides insufficient amounts of carbohydrates
ketosis
To prevent birth defects of the neural tubes, a woman should consume sufficient amounts of?
folate
Maltose
A disaccharide composed of two glucose units; sometimes known as malt sugar
what makes up the bakcbone of gylcerol?
fat
No further starch digestion occurs in the
stomach
Psychologic factors
stress, depression, anxiety may cause people to eat more or less.
passive immunity
the condition of having circulating antibodies to protect you from a disease. used in immune defense but cannot be replaced by the host. Example: aquirred by infants in breast milk
kcal/day for a 6 month old child
700
Lacto-ovo vegetarians
vegetarians who eat dairy and eggs
8-40 weeks
fetus, lungs develop last, critical period continue with CNS and lungs,
Gastrointestinal Fluid Exchange
Water and electrolytes are secreted through the GI tract down to the duodenum. Fluids are reabsorbed from the jejunum to the colon. Only about 100ml of water per day is lost in the feces.
digestion
the process by which foods are broken down into their component molecules either mechanically or chemically
aldosterone
a hormone from the adrenal glands that signals the kidneys to retain more sodium
NOTE: Like chain length, the number of double bonds influences the physical nature of the fatty acid. SFAs have straight, unbending structures that stack neatly together. Unsaturated fats can bend and therefore are more disorganized.
 
 
 
Desending
Ingredients on a food label are listed in  ________
order of predominance by weight.
HUNGER
- the painful sensation caused by a lack of food that initiates food-seeking behavior.
Nitrogen balance
The amount of nitrogen excreted vs. nitrogen absorbed
Gastric Bypass
A surgical procedure to treat morbid obesity that both reduces the size of the stomach and bypasses a portion of the small intestine.
On a per-kcalorie basis, which of lthe following foodsw is riches in vitamin B6
Vegetables
adipose tissue
the body's fat tissue, consisting of masses of fat storing cells and blood vessels to nourish them.
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the range of dietary carbohydrate intake as a percentage of energy intake?
45-65% Dietary Intake
What are 2 factors that effect plants from not yielding the most vitamins they can?
Soil
Sunlight
vitamin a sources
deep yellow and orange veggies.. (carrots) leafy greens, orange fruits, egg yolks, liver, fortified milk
What is the primary reason we sweat?
Regulates Body Temperature

The parts of grains that contribute to the nutrition of whole grain breads and cereals are which ones?
endosperm germ bran
the impact of different foods on the magnitude and duration of the rise in blood glucose after a meal is called ______.
glycemic response
UNCOUPLING PROTEINS
- energy is released as heat- these proteins may influence the storing or expending of energy with different efficiencies or in different types of fat.
______ is the antioxidant found in red wine that may confer health benefits, Another food where this antioxidant is found is _____
Resveratoral: peanuts
How many grams/day do we need of Vitamins?
300 mg/d
Protein Synthesis Breakdown
Proteins are broken down into amino acids

Amino acids are then transaminated=the amine group is removed
Very low-Density Lipoproteins (VLDLs)
Lipoproteins that carry fats and cholesterol to body cells and are made of the largest porportions of cholesterol.
Vitamin A toxicosis
From excess liver intake or vitamin supplements. Causes bony ossification of extremities and the axial skeleton.
Magnesium RDA and sources
Males (19-30) = 400 mgFemales (19-30) = 310 mgMales (>30) = 420 mgFemales (>30) = 320 mgSources:nuts, legumes, grains, green leafy vegetables, seafood, dairy, chocolate, hard water, coffee, tea, cocoa
Which of the following defines a moderate level of alcohol intake per day for a average-sized woman?
up to 1 drink
Which condition would be the hardest for microbes to find without the host animal?
 
1. ready supply of nutrients
2. oxygen depleted environment
3. warm environment
4. moist environment
2. oxygen depleted environment
Enriched or Fortified Foods
foods to which nutrients have been added
Causes for Lower basal metabolic rate are.
aging, fasting, sleep, hypothryoidism
Sodium & Chloride sources & use in the body
Table salt
Maintain normal osmolarity, water balance, essential in nerve & muscle function, electrolytes
in the body trans fatty acids act much like
saturated fats
Which of the following is(are) NOT the area of ongoing debate for genetically engineered foods?
a. environment b. human healthc. food securityd. socio-economic concernse. concentrated animal feeding operation(E)
12. All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition except
a. Recommended intakes are stated in “equivalents”
 
3 servings of begetables 
2 servings of fruit
The slogan 5 a day refers to 
How is fat deposited in the body?
-hypertrophy (excessive growth) of adipose cells
-hyperplasia (abnormal increase) of adipose cells
-increase in number of adipose cells
Continuous v. Bolus feedings
-continuous run on gravity or by pump; often during the night and discontinued a few hours before meals
-bolus feedings are given around meal times, can be given in long or short period of time
food sources of mg
dairy, black eyed peas, soy milk, bran cereal, green leafy vegetables
96. Which of the following describes an event in the visual response process?
a. Light energy strikes the retina and excites pigments to release retinal
where does most protein digestion & absorption occur?
in the small intestine & stomach
What does Vitamin B is necessary for?
*Necessary part of many metobolic reactions*
Describe the function and location of the organ-large intestine
large intestine - reabsorbs water and minerals. passes waste, bacteria and anything else to rectum
What is made in the output of body water balance?
-feces and evaportaion with breathing
-insensible perspiration
-urinary output
What are the food sources of vit b12
vit. B12- meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, eggs, and all other animal products.
What is the main energy yielding Carbohydrate? What is it's function?
Glucose, to supply fuel for the brain and other cells, as well as prevent ketosis and the muscle loss that would occur if protein were used to synthesize carbohydrate.
What are the two types of vitamins?
fat soluble- (A and D, etc) stored in body's fat, high potential for toxicity, less susceptible to break down than water soluble

water soluble- (B and C), can't be stored in body fat, lower risk of toxicity, some minute storage in liver
List\na function and a food source of zinc, magnesium and iodine.
\n Zinc\n \n Function- enzyme\n systems, sexual maturation, growth, wound healing, protein metabolism,\n immune system \n Food source- beef,\n oysters, liver, eggs\n \n Magnesium\n \n Function- Bones and\n muscle, nerve impulses\n Food Source\n \n Iodine\n \n Function- thyroid\n hormones, overall metabolism\n Food Source- fish,\n seafood, iodized salt\n
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