Nutrition 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Polyunsaturated
peristaltic contraction
esophagus
Pregnancy and Folate
RDA-600mcg/day
Allergy vs. Allergin
heating a protein causes
denaturing
RDAs
Recommended Dietary Allowances: average daily nutrient intake that meets needs of 97-98% of healthy people in given life stage/gender.
antioxidants
protect against free radicals
PLANT CELLS STORE GLUCOSE AS
STARCH
increases high density lipo..lowers low density lipo..
niacin
Reactions of Thiamin
Decarboxylation "transition reaction"pyruvate changes to acetly-CoA by TPP
most abundant mineral in body
calcium
What is RDA?
Recommended Dietary Allowances
proportionality
USDA's New Food Guide Pyramid:different widths of the food group bands
How to calculate glycemic load
Proteins
Helps maintain body cells and tissue-makes amino acids
visceral fat
fat stored in the abdomen
type two diabetes-insulin dependent?
non insulent dependent
Carbohydrate
A category of macronutrients that includes energy-yeilding nutrients such as starches and sugars, as well as non-energy-yeilding nutrients such as fiber. 4 kcal per gram
Kayser-fleischer ring
Greenish yellow pigmented ring encircling the cornea...copper deposits
diverticulosis
pockets in intestines/GI track from unuse (lack of fiber) in which food is trapped and can reabsorb into blood tissue, or diverticuli (pockets) wioll explode and contaminate blood
maintains volume of fluid in cells
sodium
water soluble vitamins
B vitamins and C
Denaturing
cooking gently or moderate to low
 
helps to uncoil protein molecule to increase sufrace area for enzyme action
enzyme
component that speeds up a reaction
Name some vitamins
grain, milk, fruits, veggies
Liposuction
$3000 (depending on fat). Thighs, hips, arms, back, chin can be partially removed.
colostrum
nutrient rich milk produced in the first few days after delivery
 
supplement labels do not include
safety and guarantee
hyperclycemia
high blood glucose-125 mg per 100 ml 
Hyperkalemia
elevated levels of potassium in the blood
How do you see?
opsin binds 11-cis retinal->rhodopsin->LIGHT->11-cis is now 11-trans form->rhodopsin splits->opsin&11-transform change back to 11-cis
Digestion: liver
converts galactose and fructose to glucose
releases nutrients for cellular use or stores them
essential nutrient
-the body needs these nutrients
-if you do not ingest these, you will develop a deficiency
-the body cannot make these nutrients for itself
 
4 sets od DRI's
RDA (recommended daily allowance)
 
AI - (adequate intake)
 
EAR - (estimated avg. requirements)
 
UL - (tolerable upper intake level)
what is enteral nutrition?
through the gastrointestinal system
coenzymes do what?
help enzymes do their jobs
Diglyceride
Two fatty acids attached to a glycerol
digestive system
performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes
How many amino acids do you have?
20
YOU ARE LACTOSE INTOLERANT IF YOU DONT HAVE ANY
LACTASE
leading types of cancer
men- 1. Prostate 2.lung 3.colo-rectal
 
women- 1.breast 2.lung 3.colo-rectal
aerobic exercise does all but
C decrease strobe/stroke volume
what is sucrose made up of?
glucose and fructose
trans configuration of trans fatty acids
HC=C H
process by which food is moved along GI tract
peristalsis
Starch
The storage form of carbs found in plants.
Colon cancer
diets high in fiber help colon cancerDilutes harmful substancesBind to bilebinds to other carcinogens
what diet would a client with allergies need?
nonallergenic diet
How many Carbons does medium chains consist of?
6-12 Carbons
Symptoms of dehydration
3% decrease in dehydration, decrease muscle performance
 
rapid weight losss
dark, concentrated urine
small amounts of urine
elevated hearte rate, headaches, dizziness
 
two hours prior to exercise
500 ml approx. 16 oz.
 
Immediately before
4-6 oz
 
During exercise
16-32 oz per hour
 
After exercise 16 oz per pound lost
•Carbohydrates•Lipids •Protein •Minerals•Vitamins •Water
six classes of nurtients
FUNCTIONS OF: Selenium, Chromium
Selenium:
Regulation of thyroid hormones, plays an antioxidant role, may help figh cancer
Chromium:
Helps Insulin in the body, may reduce pre-diabetes
HOW MANY CALORIES ARE IN 21 LBS OF FAT?
7000
epithellal
cells on the surface of teh skin and mucous memberane
Micromineral
A mineral required by the body in an amount less that 100 mg per day.
What are absorptive cells?
fats are repackaged into cholymicrons and sent to the lympathic system
Type 2
A disease that occurs when the insulin produced by the pancreas does not appear to function. It was formerly known as adult onset diabetes or non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
ways to asses fatness
dual ray absorption, air displacement, underwater weighing=limited reliability
Omega-3 Fatty Acid
Primarily found in fish oilPresent in fatty fish
T or F- Magnesium is easily peeled and washed away during processing
True
Where do you find complete proteins?
Animal Sources and Soy
servings per container
listing of the number of calories in one package or container
explain why ketosis is bad
it results from inefficient metabolism of fat, which means that a diet is not proper(usually not enough carbs)
fats dont break down completely and instead form ketone bodies-disturs doy's normal acid-base balance and leads to other health issues
 
What do antioxidants do?
serve to reduce free radicals; which in return may reduce CVD chances
set point theory is...
body tends to maintain certain weight by own internal cues
Retinal Equivalents (REs) for vit A
 
balances out different potency levels of forms
not lost in cooking but in wilting
What are the symptoms of iodine deficiency
During pregnancy= cretinism (retardation); goiter
What does Vitamin D do?
Regulates blood calcium levels, works with PTH and calcitonin. Stimulates osteoclast. Stored in liver and fat-tissues and is required for calcium and phosphorous absorption.
what are some foods with incomplete proteins?
legumes, veggies, fruits, grains
Health concerns for vegetarian diets
a. must combine plant sources to produce complementary proteins     b. deficiencies - b12, vitamin D, EPA, DHA
Refined food are good sources of traces minerals?
T/F
True
Generally refined food provide higher levels of trace mnerals than unrefined food
Digestion: excretion
2% of CHO, 5% of lipids and 8% of proteins are unneeded and therefore excreted
metabolic wastes (carbon dioxide, water, nitrogenous products of protein metabolism) excreted through sweat (water, Na, K, Cl)
through kidneys (nitrogen, water-soluble nutrients, water)
lungs (CO2, water)
how are continuous feedings administered?
administered over a 24hr period using a fushion pump that guarantees a constant flow
What are the consequences of bulimia nervosa
-binge purge as coping mechanism-irregular menstrual cycles
How does Hypercalcemia happen?
When you consume too much Vitamin D and it causes weakness, loss of appetite, constipation, vomitting, and formation of calcium deposits in soft tissues.
• Water intake is from what forms?
§ Fluid ingestion§ Solid food ingestion§ Generated within cells during metabolism
how is high-fructose corn syrup made?
by treating cornstarch with acid and enzymes
Body weight regulation determines
1) how much food you eat2) how much energy you expend3) how efficiently body fat is stored
What types of things hinder iron absorption
tea, coffee, calcium and phosporus, phytates tanning beds and fiber.
What are the major minerals? What are the trace minerals?
Major Minerals: Sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphurus, magnesium, sulfur.

Trace Minerals: Iron, zinc, selenium, fluoride, chromium, copper, manganese, and molybdenum
which is true regarding max heart rate?
B max heart rate declines with age
USDA recommendations (for 2,000 cal diet): vegetables
2.5 cups daily, choosing from all five subgroups several times a week (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, other vegetables)
Explain the benefits and guidelines of regular physical activity
-30 minutes of moderate intensity a day-60 minutes of moderate intensity a day ---helps to manage body weight-60-90 minutes ---sustains weight loss
What are the primary energy storage tissues in the body?
- Liver: Glycogen is a small percent of the mass- Skeletal Muscle: Limited, yet significant stores of fat and CHO, 22% protein, 1-2% CHO, - Adipose tissue: 86% of mass is stored fat
* Most important Chronic Feeding Studies
2 years in 2 species - to determine highest dose that has no effect / 100 = no effect dose ( does not apply to a carcinogen)
human fat stores are in two major locations:
1.)under the skin over the hips, upper arms, and thighs
 
2.) in the abdomen 
What happens when you have long term food deprivation to body protein
Body protein is broken down to amino acids and then converted to glucose (gluconeogenesis)
Glycogen
animal starch
Butter
Saturated fatty acids
Arthritis
RX
1.Glucosamine sulfate
2. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)
3. Fish oil
4. Betaine HCL
5. Bromelain
SodiumFunctions
Fluid ballanceMuscle contractionnerve transmisionMajor Cation in Extracellular Fluid
What does catalase require?
iron
transferrin
transport protein for ferritin
Natures smallest rotary motor
Atp synthase
Riboflavin Functions
oxidationreduction reactions for metabolism of carbs and fats
Starch 
Glycogen 
Fiber.
 
The 3 complex carbohydrates are
Nutrition

basic human need throughout life cycle
sum of all interactions bt an organism and food it consumes
GI
Disease processes can affect digestion, absorption, metabolism and excretion. Nausea, vomiting diarrhea affect appetite and nutrtional intake
Neural tube defects
Spina bifida, anencephaly
MUN
metabolite that indicates high level ruminally digestible protein
37. What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism?
a. Vitamin B6
folate sources:
legumes, vegetables, fortified grain products
Note: glucose and galactose look identical. However, the hydroxyl groups on carbon 4 face in opposite directions. Minor structural differences affect digestion, absorption, and physiological functions.
 
 
 
0
Recommended intake of trans fatty acids.
the combination of insulin resistance,hyperinsulinemia, obesity, hypertension, elevated LDL and triglycerides, and reduced HDL that is frequently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is called?
syndrome X
Social Factors that Influence Diet


–Family
or cultural traditions

–Holidays
and celebrations 
–Easy
access to high-fat foods 
–Less
physically active lifestyles 
–Societal
expectations of the “perfect” body





Fasting hypoglycemiais Leads to?
overproduction of insulin
Esophagostomy
-used for ambulatory clients with mouth/throat pathology
-feeding done without removing clothing
-located above the clavicle, to one side of the trachea
combination of HBP, proteniuria, edema signals
precclampsia
biotin
coenzyme in energy metabolism, glcogen synthesis and fat metabolism
Bariatric SurgeryPostoperative complications
Pulmonary embolism, leaks, infection, possibly deathRates of complications similar to gallbladder removaland hip replacementsRisk of complication = 4.3%Risk of death = 0.3% (more likely in morbidly obese)
233. Approximately how many people in the United States are afflicted with osteoporosis?
a. 50 million
3 infectious diseases killing malnourished children
diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria
metallothionein
a sulfur rich protein that avidly binds with and transports such metals as zinc.
NEURON
definition
 
the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. consists of a cell body; dendrites and an axon
phytate phosphorus
-non-ruminants about 1/3 of the phosphorus in grain is digested and utilized
-2/3 phosphorus is in the form of phytate phosphorus
Daily Values
nutrient standards that are printed on food labels. Based on nutrient and energy recommendations for a general 2,000 calories diet, they allow consumers to compare the nutrient and energy contents of packaged foods.
are you going to ace this exam?
YEAHHHH
dysphagia diet
thickened diet provided for clients with difficulty swalling

ex. buttermilk consistency, pudding consistency, etc.
How to decrease glycemic load: Maintain?
healthy weight
peristalsis
the wavelike muscular squeezing of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine that pushes their contents along.
registered dietitian RD
professional trianed in dietetics. bases on completing a bachelor of science degreee from an approved programa
what is the storage form for glucose
glycogen
osmosis
the tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.
Name essential amino acids
 
PVT TIM HALL
phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, histadine, arginine, leucine, lysine
What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes and excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?
4 lbs
PUFA's (polyunsaturated FA's)
Multiple double bondsFatty acids with double bonds at n-3 or n-6 considered essential (enzymes can only insert dbl bonds @ n-9 or higher// do not have enzymes that add at n-3 or n-6). essential FA's: linoleic and a-linoleic omega 6 (n-6) omega 3 (n-3) oils high in PUFA liquid @ room T associated w/ lower plasma LDL (n-3 also dec HDL...overall lower total plasma cholesterol)
CHOLECYSTOKININ (CCK)
definition
a hormone that participates in enzyme release from the pancreas, bile release from the gallbladder, and hunger regulation.
Benefits of fermentation
nutrients are not completely broken down, nutrients unavailable to the host animal can be metabolized by bacteria
energy
the capacity to do work. The energy in food is chemical energy; it can be converted to mechanical, electrical, heat or other forms of energy in the body. Food energy is measured in calories.
what is the typical intake of sodium?
4700 mg/day
absorption
move into body for cell use. small intestine.
2 incomplete protiens combined to make a complete protien ( rice and beens, lentil and rice)
combination protein
TPN
10-50% dextrose in water, plus AA and vitamins. 1000 ml of 5% contains 50g of sugar. 1 liter has <200 calories. Start gradually to prevent hyperglycemia. All that sugar is playground for bacteria.
t cells
lymphocytes that mature in the thymus gland and are several varieties including helper t cells and cytotoxice t cells
Complete Protein Ex.
Meat, fish, poultry eggs, and milk
Soybeans (only plant complete protein)
Nutritional hypokalemia is due to
inadequate potassium and over-acidification
fat soluble vitamins
do not dissolve in water
stored in body
vitamins A, D, E, K
What is protein?
The building blocks for growth and maintenance of body tissures, muscle, bones, and teeth.
performed vitamin A
dietary vitamin A in its active form
which has more cholesterol? an egg or peanut butter?
an EGG
calorie control
control of energy intake; a feature of a sound diet plan
What does a healthful weight change require


–Gradual
change in energy intake

–Regular
and appropriate physical exercise

–Application
of behavior modification techniques





when consumed in excess, all of lthe following can be converted to body fat and stored EXCEPT
vitamin C
Small-bore feeding tubes
-flexible, used when tube feeding for short period of time
-8-10 Fr
foods do not provide more energy than processed foods
high fiber
Inorganic nutrients
Minerals and water. Do not contain carbon.
The majority of our body's fluoride is stored in the ___________________ ..
Teeth and Bones
After the first day or so of fasting, most of the body’s stores of ________ are depleted.
Fatty Acids
Bread 15g 
Milk 12g
Fruit 15g
Vegetables 5g
According to the exchange system list the carbohydrate content for 1 serving of each of the following.
What are nutritional guidelines for pulmonary stress?
1. Choose calorie-dense foods2. Save
liquids for in between meals because they make you feel full and may decrease
appetite







 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 













MyPyramid – A Menu-Planning represents: ?
proportion of foods recommended to achieve a healthy diet
cytotoxic t cells
actived t cells that kill infected body cells
Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP)
-analyze hazards in food industry
What does quality proteins mean?
Quality Proteins: Provide enough of all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that the body requires. More digestible=higher quality. Cook with moist heat, instead of frying
the breakdown of food into nutrients requires secretions from five different organs:
salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, liver and small intestine.
What is a double-blind study?
-an experiment in which neither the study participants nr the researchers know who is in a control or an experimental group
Serving sizes Vegetables:
1 cup raw, cooked, or juice; 2 cups raw leafy greens
Describe digestion in the stomach
- chewing
- secretion of saliva (humans - 2 quarts/day; cattle 40-50 gallons/day)
What foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?
Olive oil and Canola Oil
Why do runners often eat high-carb meals the night before a copetition?
 
1. encourages glycogen storage in muscle
2. plasma glucose will be elevated in the morning
3. Amylose is absorbed and can be used during the race
4. carbs are yummy!
 1. encourages glycogen storage in muscle
How would you need to increase a patient's fiber intake?
slowly, to decrease bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea (increase fluid intake should accompany increased fiber intake
Which one is better for you low density lipoproteins or high density? Why?
HDL
Less fat and more protein
current recommendations for diets for healthy individuals
(approx 15% from pt rest from carbs (55%)
A, C and E have positive effects on the skin's health.
Name two catorgories of vitamins?
What is the major advantage of the villi structures in the small intestine?
 
1. much greater surface area for absorption
2. if a few get torn off, there are plenty more
3. they stick out to catch the nutrients as they float by
1. much greater surface area for absorption
• Why breast milk is so good for babies and what it provides
o Breast milk excels as a source of nutrients for the young infant• With the exception of vitamin D, breast milk provides all the nutrients a healthy baby needs for the first 6 months of lifeo Breast milk also conveys immune factors• Protect an infant against infection• Inform its body about the outside environment
You need to add 4lbs of protein to a mixture. You have soybean meal that is 90% DM and 50% crude protein on a dry matter basis. How much SBM (as-fed) do you need to add?
 
1. 1.8lbs
2. 2lbs
3. 4.4lbs
4. 8lbs
5. 8.8lbs
0.9lb DM/1.0lb AF  X  0.5lb CP/1.0lb DM
#  X  0.45lb CP/1.00lb AF = 4lb CP
# = 8.8lb AF
5. 8.8lbs
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