Nutrition exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Vitamin A
requiring oxygen
vitamin b1=?
thiamine pyrophosphate
creatine causes
muscle growth
?kcal/g for ethanol
Decreases blood Calcium
Upper Limit
3.6 grams/day
Transport of Fe
DV: 30 mcg
Toxicity: N/A
Cheese, EggYolks, Cauliflower, Peanut Butter, Liver
Function: • Co-enzyme
– Metabolism of carbohydrate and fat– Helps breakdown certain amino acids
Deficiency: —rare
– Scaly, inflamed skin– Changes in tongue, lips– Decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting
BMI for overweight person
Provitamin A Carotenoids
Alpha Carotene
Calcium content in spinach/rhubarb
Consequences of hemachromatosis
darkened skin
DV: 15 mg
Toxicity:1000 (mg)
– Inhibit vitamin K metabolism andanticoagulants
– Possible hemorrhage – Muscle weakness, headaches, nausea
Sources: Plant Oils, Greens, Fruits, Nuts, Fortified CerealsFunction:Antioxidant, Prevent A, Fatty acid Breakdown
Deficiency: – Breakdown of cell membranes
– Hemolysis – Nerve degeneration
oxidative decarboxylatoin of keto acids
counterregulatory hormones
glucocorticoids and adrenergic horomones - cause an increase in protein breakdown, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis
For maximum benefits, cardiorespiratory endurance episodes should be sustained for at least
20 minutes
blood protein (immunoglobulin) that binds foreign proteins found in the body. This helps to prevent and control infections
Vitamin A
Daily Value (DV)
1000 micrograms
Symptoms of Sodium Deficiency
Muscle cramps
Fe food sources
enriched baked goods
Vitamin E
fat solubleprimarily antioxprotects PUSFprotects LDLsources: veg. oils, nuts, seeds, wheat germtoo much can interfere w/ anitcoagulants
Vitamin K
Fn: blood clotting, bone development
sources: leafy greens, sml amt in meats, milk, fortified stuff
deficiency: not usual in humans, poor wound healing, clotting 
we obtain nutrients from the enviroment and convert it to a simplified form our cells can use.
Essential nutrients ______ be made from any raw materials
Deficiencies of fat-soluable vitamins from
malabsorption syndromes
lipase inhibitors
results from defiency of vitamin C
Approx. what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight for at least one year?
What terms describes factors that enhance the development of cancer after it has been initiated?
generally refers to a decreased oxygrn-carrying capacity of the blood. this can be caused by many factors, such as iron deficiency or blood loss.
fat-digesting enzyme produced by the salivary glands, stomach, and pancreas
Does gender contribute to individual differences in the way people react to foodborne pathogens? 
How carotenoids are transported in body.
At risk for Water deficiency
older adults
__________digestion of fats occurs in the mouth or stomach
weighed or measured food records
most precise
Vitamin D
Absorbtion of calcium and phosphorus and bone mineralization. 
Deficiency: Rickets
sources: milk, sunlight, yeast, fish liver oil
DV: 5-15 mcg
Toxicity: 50 (mcg) – Over-absorption of calcium (hypercalcemia),
increase calcium excretion– Calcium deposits in organs and blood vessels– Growth retardation Sources:Sun, Fortified Milk & Cereals, Fish Oil
Function: Ca, P absorption, Bone Calcium
Deficiency: Rickets is the result of low vitamin D– Breastfed infants with little sun exposure• Osteomalacia (soft bones)– Rickets-like disease in adults
– Bones lose minerals and become porous
mixture of food, stomach acid, and enzymes that moves through the digestive system
mucous lining to protect stomach tissue
Deficiencys of B3 cause
pellagra (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia)
what is a symptom of caffeine withdrawal
food diary
ONLY prosepctive approach for dietary assessment
Niacin in high doses can cause...
acute flushin
Vitamine E varieties
tocopherols (saturated side chains) and tocotrienols (three double bonds in the side chain)
A person seeking good source of vitamin A would select all of the fllwing except
sweet potatoes
What mineral is part of vitamin B12?
a class of simple sugars, glucose, fructose, and galactose,
a cell organelle that destroys toxic products within the cell
salivary amylase
a starch-digesting enzyme produced by salivary glands
Some teens decide to consume a vegetarian diet. Which nutrient is most likely to be deficient in a vegetarian diet?  
the amount of nutrient stored within the body that can be mobilized when needed
this term encompasses the ability of humans to regulate body temperature within narrow limits (thermoregulation). Two visible examples of thermogenesis are fidgeting and shivering when cold
Percentage of body Calcium held in bones and teeth.
Effects of copper deficiency
increased blood cholesterol
blood vessel damage
Free radicals are produced by:
PollutionUV lighttoxic substances
b6 deficiency? toxicity?
anemia, convulsions, glossitis, dry skin, headaches, nausea
Define "vitamin"
General Functions?
Dietary Sources?
Vitamin: a vital organic dietary substance required in very small quantities
- fucntion as coenzymes or parts of enzymes
- meat, milk, plant oils, citrus fruits, tomatoes, vegetables, cereals
B-6 (pyridoxine)
DV: 1.3-1.7 mg
Toxicity: 100 mg • Toxicity potential
– > 200 mg/day can lead to irreversible nervedamage – Upper Level set at 100 mg/day
 Source: Animal foods, Organ Meats, Oysters, Clams, Fortified CerealFunction:
Coenzyme of Folate Metabolism, Nerve Function
• Coenzyme forms– Metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, & protein– Synthesize
• nonessential amino acids• neurotransmitters
• hemoglobin and
– Role in homocysteine metabolism

- Alcohol increases vitamin B-6 destruction Deficiency:
—rare– Scaly, inflamed skin– Changes in tongue, lips– Decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting
economic assessment
estimation of the ability of the person to purchase, transport, and cook food. The person's weekly budget for food purchases is also a key factor to consider
Major Minerals
Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, Mg, S
thermic effect as of % of calories ingested
Which of the fllwing is freq. affected by deficiencies of the B Vitamins?
Hair and nails
What is the oxygen carrying protein of muscle cells?
What percentage of people with type 2 diabetes are obese?
What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supple of ATP?
Creatine phosphate
The components of fitness include all of the fllwing except
bone fragility
cardiovasucular endurance
bone fragility
In the immediate postexercise period, what type of diet enhances muscle protein synthesis?
Carbohydrate plus protein
the process by which plants use energy from the sun to produce energy-yielding compounds, such as glucose
a group of tissues designed to perform a specific function- for example, the heart, which contains muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and so on
set point
often refers to the close regulation of body weight. It is not known what cells control this set point or how it functions in weight regulation. There is evidence, however, that mechanism exist that help regulate weight
Symptoms of Rickets
Weak, brittle bones
Bow leg and protruding belly
Adequate Intake
male = 15 cups/day
female = 11 cups/day
Vitamins are
organic molecules that assist in body processes
AMDR for fat
20-35% calories should be from fat
Phoshporus (P)
DV: 700 mg
Toxicity: 3-4 gm • Problem for individuals with inefficient
kidney function
• Phosphate ions bind calcium
– Chronic imbalance may lead to bone loss
Sources: Dairy, Processed Food, Fish, Soft Drinks, Baked Foods, MeatFunction: -Major Ion of Intracellular Fluid, Bone and Tooth, Metabolic 
Deficiency: Deficiency unlikely
discretionary calories
the calories allowed in a diet after the person has met overall nutrition needs. This generally small amount of calories gives individuals the flexibility to consume some foods and beverages that may contain alcohol (e.g., beer and wine) added sugars (e.g., soft drinks, candy, and desserts), or added fats that are part of moderate- or high fat foods (e.g., many snack foods)
not a benefit of ephedra
keeps skin, hair, nails healthy
RDA: reference dietary allowance
specific for different populations and covers more than 97% of that population.EAR + 2 SDs
Why might vitamin C supplements be beneficial in treating the common cold?
They deactivate histamine
What is the classification of a person who is 6'4" tall and 202 lbs?
Healthy weight
What type of anemia results from iron deficiency?
Microcytic hypochromic
a waxy lipid found in all body cells; it has a structure containing multiple chemicalrings (steroid structure). found only in foods that contain animal products.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
the sit of hereditary information in cells; DNA directs the synthesis of cell proteins
The most common food(s) implicated in cases of Salmonella food-borne infection is (are):

eggs and chicken
limiting amino acids
the essential amino acid in lowest concentration in a food or diet relative to body needs
adjustable gastric banding
a restrictive procedure in which the opening from the esophagus to the stomach is reduced by a hallow gastric band
Sodium and Chloride content of table salt
40% sodium
60% chloride
Water soluble vitamins
dissolve in water, excess is excreted and cannot be stored, BC
sources of vitamin k?
dark green veggies and black strap molasses
Chemical energy powers the body
-Nutrients are oxidized inside cells to make ATP
-ATP is the main energy "currency" in a cell
-Proteins, carbohydrates, and fats are the main sources of dietary calores
---a gram of fat has more than twice as many calories as a gram of carbohydrate or protein
What are some barriers to lifestyle counseling by physicians?
Time, training, expertise, reimbursement, personal health behaviors, personal health status
Pernicious anemia
inability to make IF: leads to a B12 deficiency, poor absorption
Food allergies
often to eggs, peanuts, and milk. can be life threatening. Immune response
If you lose the ability to absorb B12, about what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop?
Three years
Which of the fllwing regulates the level of calcium in the blood?
Dietary intake calcium
Glucagon & epinephrine
Dietary intake phosphorus
Parathyroid hormone & calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone & calcitonin
cardiovascular (heart) disease
a general term that refers to any disease of the heart and circulatory system. this disease is characterized by the deposition of fatty material in the blood vessels (hardening of the arteries), which in turn can lead to organ damage and death; also termed coronary heart disease (CHD), because the vessels of the heart are the primary sites of the disease.
nonessential amino acids
amino acids that can be synthesized by a healthy body in sufficient amounts; there are 11 nonessential amino acids. These are also called dispensable amino acids
Absorption of Vitamin K
80% absorbed via chylomicrons in small intestines and lymphatic system.
10% of menaquinones made in colon are absorbed.
all C's have a Hlack H atoms in one regionlack H atoms in multiple places
toxicity of vitamin A?
most toxic. ab pain, amenorrhea, GI disturbances, hair loss, pruritis, joint pain, hydrocephaly, scales on lips and corners of mouth.
What are the risks for obese adults?
coronary heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, type II diabetes, cancer, gyno problems, sleep apnea, asthma, osteoarthritis, liver dz, gall bladder dz, surgical risk, depression, quality of life, depression, discrimination, psychological effects, premature death.
What is represented by the Food pyramid?
grains, vegetables, fruits, oils, meat/beans, milk (dairy)
A smaller type of anemia is produced when there is a deficience of either
Vitamin 12 or Folate
All of the fllwing are properties of electrolytes except they
attract water
are charged particles
carry electrical current
include fat/water soluble particles
include fat/water soluble particles
Factors that increase Fe absorption
high demand for RBC's
low body stores of Fe
heme iron in food
Vitamin C intake
Gastric acidity
3 Definations of Energy Intake
1. Energy needs (kcals) met by food intake2. Appropriate amount and type of food match energy needs3. Ability to consume food and use it efficietly
What is C-reactive protein?What can it help to determine?
CRP is inflammatory biomarkerCan help determine when hypermetabolic phase of acute inflammation goes down
If absorption mechanisms are damaged how long does long does B12 store last?
3-6 months (anemia can appear that fast)
All of the fllwing are features of vitamin K in nutrition except
gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults
The avg daily loss of water via the kidneys, lungs, feces and skin is approximately
1.5 to 2.5 liters
How retinoids are transported in body.
Bound to retinal binding proteins in lymphatic system.
Name ways of doing protein status from most common to least, their half lives, and their specificity.
Serum albumin - chronic protein status-18-20 days, low specificitySerum transferrin - iron protein-8-9 days, low specificity increases with depleted iron storesSerum prealbumin (transthyretin)-monitor Tx effect-2-3 days, used a lot, may be decreased by renal or zinc insufficiency.Serum retinol-binding prot-12 hours, affected by Vit A status
Inadequate intake of folate results in the following:1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
1. serum folate drops2. RBC folate drops3. hypersegmented neutrophils4. MCV increases5. Hb drops
What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme?
Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism
Which of the fllwing is a feature of specfic ergogenic aids?
Caffeine may enhance short-term, high-intensity performance by releasing fatty acids o blood for a fuel source
What is the Farm Bill?
- $300 billion over next 5 years (60 billion/yr)
-Crop support, food stamps, school lunches

Benefits: Food stamps, WIC, food safety programs. Crop Insurance (weather, pests, market price

1) Selective: only to those comodity crops: corn, cotton, wheat, soy and rice (84%)

2.) Incentivized overproduction: Results in loss in number who farm. Less than 2% of people in US are growing food for 98% of population, larger farmers
What are indicators of risk for obesity?
> Rapid weight gain after age 40 (1-2lb per year on average)> rapid increase BMI before age of 5 in kids? increase in BMI percentile > 2 curves for kids.
Which of the fllwing is a feature of ghrelin?
It stimulates appetite and energy storage
Which of the fllwing is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise
Vit B12 is involved in what bodily processes?
1. the demetylation of of 5-MTHF: 2. conversion of methylmalonic acid to succinyl CoA
The role of diet for people with diabetes includes all of the fllwing except
the glycemic effect of foods should be a primary consideration
Which of the fllwing has been shown to improve absorption of iron from iron supplements?
Taking them on an empty stomach rather than with meals
Sucrose (glucose+fructose)
Maltose ( 2 glucose)
Lactose (glu+galac)
Unsaturated bond
BMI categories...
18.5-24.9= normal
>30= obese
-CNS stimulant, diuretic
-decreases fatigue
-increases insulin resistance
-fatal dose 3-10 g
-Olympic illegal dose = 6-8 cups coffee preevent 
Functions of Biotin
carboxylation reactions-pyruvate+CO2=oxoalcetate
physiological need to eat...
mouth->esophagus->stomach->large intestine->small intestine->rectum->anus
GI track flow
are monosaccharides and disaccharides simple or complex sugars??
Vit D intake
up to 50-5ug/day50-70-10ug/day>70-15ug/day
cell drinking
engulfs & swallows liquids ;)
Bariatric surgery is sometimes recommended for people with a BMI of ____ or greater.
complete proteins
(high-quality) proteins that containall of the 9 essential amino acids
States of nutritional health:adequate nutrients to support normal metabolic functions
Wieght control
technique to control good wieght
Norwalk-like viruses
onset: 1-2 days
duration: 1-3 days
symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
foods: seafood
contamination: human feces contaminating shellfish 
major monosaccaride found in the body
aka: dextrose
six carbon(c6h1206)
found in blood and table sugar(in which its bonded to fructose)
The biochemical activity that occurs in cells, releasing energy from nutrients or using energy to create other substances such as protiens.
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
Fluid outside the cell
contribute vitamin E and essential fatty acids
Pellagra and 3 D's (dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia) are findings in deficiency of what nutrient
weight in kg/(height in m)^2orweight in lbs/(height in inches)^2 X 703
major fuel for exercise
stored in liver and muscle
muscle glycogen-only release for exercise
not other glucose needs
characteristics of a healthy diet:food choices differ from day to day
Factors that Affect Food Choices
Health Status
Forms in response to allergens, promotes immuno response. Upon second appearance, body sees antibodies and secrete histimines. Exposure to allergens can cause anaphylactic shock.Infants and children get this more.
one of the carotenoids; an orange pigmetn and vitamin A precursor found in plants
since 1990s the body type
D because thinner
do sugars and sugar alcohols provide calories?
The feeling of being satisfied after consuming food.
Essential Hypertension
High BP with an unknown cause
vegan diets
monitor for B12 deficiencies (only found in animal sources), possibly iron and calcium deficiencies
5-7 months babies eat
fruits veggies teething crackers
estimation of REE
BW (kg) x 30-35 kcals
3 parts of the small intestine
__________ fat is deposited around the waist in the ab region and is associated with higher incidence of heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke and diabetes.
Blood clot that breaks loose (occurs in veins) Goes to heart, lungs, brain
What is leptin
a hormone that supresses eating
dietary assessment
typical food choices, recall of previous day's food; record of day's food intake
Heart disease
Narrowing of blood vessels, inadequate circulation to all parts of heart. Almost always due to to a narrowing of arteries leading to heart due to plaque (deposits of cholesterol, fats, calcium and cell materials). Risk for men and women alike. Diabetes, obesity, high blood tri./ increased age strong risk factors for heart disease in women. Increases substantially after menopause around 50. Due to decrease in estrogen and HDL-C which increases LDL. Almost always have higher HDL premenopause.
Substances in food that the body needs to grow, repair itself and supply energy
alcohol causes inflammation of what?
intestines, pancreas, and stomach
substances in plant food that are not digested by the processes that take place in stomach and small intestines
add bulk to feces
those found naturally in foods: dietary fiber 
lower which vitamin if on blood thinners?
vitamin K
Soft bones; occurs in adults; bone is not mineralized
these vitamins stay the same during preg.
Vitamin D
best beverage for fluid replacement in activity
cool water
elderly options to prevent osteo.
medications, weight beating exercise
uses in body of vitamin A
epithelial tissues
bone growth
essential amino acids
(complete) nine of the basic nitrogen-containing building blocks of protein that must be obtained from foods to ensure health
_____ is needed to combat oxidative damage created during exercise
Vitamin E
What is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world?
Vitamin D
Gastric bypass
Shrinks stomach to small pouch (2-4 tbls.). Average weight loss of 100lbs. Most will maintain 50% weight loss for 5 years after surgery.
trace mineral
type of mineral needed in amounts that are less than 100 mg
does the current nutrition label reflect how much fiber is "functional fiber"?
nope, just total fiber
Total parenteral nutrition
Nutrition provided in a special liquid mixture through the vein for pt's that cannot digest/absorb food through the digestive tract
energy boosts by ___ 1st semester
& _____ 2nd semester
340 Kcal
452 kcal 
caves stomach - milk in order to make cheese- made a genetical version (saves cows) is identical, but cleaner so is not label
High leptin levels results in
stimulated mechanisms that increase energy expenditure and decrease food intake AND inhibits pathways that promote food intake
What are electrolytes
When salts dissolve in water they separate into ions called electrolytes.
mouth and salivary glands
chewing beings, moisten food with saliva, lubrication with mucus, release of starch-digesting (amylase) enzymes, initiation of swallowing relex
2 main reasons for nutritional misinformation
Personal convictions and profit
if shape of protein is altered then what happens
function is altered
Nutrients that provide energy
CARBS have 4kcal of energy, provide energy. FATS 9kcal, provides and stores energy. PROTIENS, 4kcal, promotes growth and maintenance.
A unit of energy needed to burn up the food you eat. calories are not bad
Two sources of cholesterol
Liver and other cells throughout your bodyDigestive Track(together can build up in your bloodstream)
Why does osteoporosis increase with aging?
-Vit. D production decreases-Calcium absorption decreases-other hormonal changes-lack of estrogen
-Good source: 10-19% of the DV per serving-High, “rich in”, or “excellent source”: 20% or more of the DV per serving-Light:A serving providing 1/3 fewer calories of half of fat than regular productA serving of low-calorie, low-fat
other (label terms)
What is Hypertension? What are the symptoms? Causes?
Hypertension: High Blood Pressure
Symptoms: No symptoms- must be checked regurarly
Causes that can't be controlled: Family history, aging process, race
Causes that can be controlled: Dietary lifestyle, weight and physical activity level
Describe the major factors that influence body temperature.
○ Metabolism § Energy utilized by the body to exist § Will vary from person to person § 5 kcal/L O2 consumed per min § 70-80% of energy produced is wasted○ Conduction § Transfer of heat to/from the body by contact with an object or surface○ Convection § Transfer of heat to/from the surrounding fluid medium (air or water)○ Radiation § Transfer of energy between the body and other objects via electromagnetic wave activity○ Evaporation § Not the same as sweat § Transfer of heat energy from the body to surrounding air by heating sweat to water vapor § 1 liter of sweat that evaporates □ = 0.58 kcal loss § Sweat that does not evaporate does not cause any heat loss
are alternative or nutritive sweeteners sweeter?
alternative are sweeter on a per-gram basis
How do you get Vitamin D?
exposure to UV rays: cholesterol derivative->Choleocalciferol-fatty fish, cod liver oil
effect of alcohol on exercising body
impairs temp regulation, acts as diuretic
What is soft water?
Has a high concentration of sodium. Makes more bubbles with less soap. aggravates hypertension. Also dissolves contaminant metals from pipes (lead)
•Poor diet and sedentary lifestyles are risk factors for chronic disease (29% of all deaths)•Disease of the heart•Cancer (22%)•Cerebrovascular disease (about 79%)•Diabetes (39%)
Over nutrition contribes to chronic diseases such as...
Body uses energy from food to...
fuel muscular activity, growth, tissue repair, maintenance, process nutrients,
what is a good source of fiber?
whole grains(bran layers form the outer covering of all grains)
resting heart rate for adults
70 beats per minute but lower for active people
What are some good sources of potassium?
most fruits and veggies, bananas, spinach, cantaloupe, almonds, lima beans, avocado, honeydew melon, backed potato, salmon, orange juice (is inside all living cells)
Health Status Factors that Affect Food Choice (SHECG)
Age, gender, physical restrictions due to disease, declining taste sensitivity
• What is hypohydration? What are the benefits and potential problems of this practice?
○ Used to describe voluntary efforts to reduce body water levels § Why? □ Make a weight class □ Speed with lower weight (jockeys) § 1 liter of water = 1 kg
Broccoli is a good source of potassium?
Milk is the #1 source of potassium
What are the benefits and guidelines for regular physical activity
-reduces risk of chronic disease (30 min of moderate intensity to benefit)-helps manage body weight (60 min of moderate intensity for benefit)-sustain weight loss (60-90 min of moderate activity)
What are the Recommended Dietary Allowances
A guide to plan meals with the 19 essential nuitrents to stay healthy
Why is the oils and fats group the smallest in MyPyramid?
because they providee very little nutrients and a lot of calories
What is the difference between fat -and water- soluble vitamins? Which is more toxic?
FAT Soluble need dietary fat to be properly absorbed
WATER Soluble are absorbed with water
FAT Soluble vitamins are more TOXIC
What are some of the physical sensations that tell you when and when not to eat?
1) nerves in the GI tract that sense volume/pressure2) levels of circulating nutrients3) neurotransmitters4) changes in liver metabolism5) hormonal signals6) psychological factors
FAT =9 CAL PER GRAM SO THE 30%1000/9=33%
underweight (BMI)
Enhance Ca Excretion
Niacin functions
nutrient metabolism
Iron RDA
Men 8mg/dayWomen18mg/daySources:Meat, Shellfish, Legumes, green leaf, dried fruit,enriched grains.
___ is excessive eating.
-aka hyperalimentation
-infused into central line
-hypertonic solution
-used for patients with difficulty absorbing nutrients, persistant nausea and vomiting, need for complete bowel rest
cholesterol is not used for__________
Calcium Function
maintain bone health
transmission of nerve impulses
muscle contraction
proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process.
% of KY adults overweight/obese?&#13;&#10;
waht iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream
Preconception substance use
Eliminate before pregnancy
Approximately what percentage of the lipids in foods are triglycerides?
It's an emulsifier. (Useful in foods)
glucose molecules that are bonded together in highly branched arrangments. linear portion of this molecule contains alpha-1,4 glycosidic bond, alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds occur at branched points. [much more abundanct than amylose]
The Hormone ___ decreases blood sugar.
Vitamin D- nickname and role
&#10;&#10;&#8226;The sunshine&#10;vitamin: different than other nutrient because the body can synthesize from&#10;sunlight&#10;&#10;&#8226;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#8226;Role: one of the&#10;many nutrients that maintains blood calcium and phosphorous levels, which&#10;maintains bone integrity &#10;&#10;&#8226;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#8226;Also involved in&#10;maintaining function of the brain, heart, skin, pancreas and immune system. &#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;
Functions of Glucagon-Net effect: raises?
blood glucose
Folic acid deficiency
-glossitis, diarrhea, macrocytic anemia, birth defects (spina bifida)
-pregnant women usually take supplement
beta carotene is converted to
vitamn a
thiamin sources
meats (pork) legumes, whole grains
Composition MethodAir Displacement (bod pod)
QuickExpensive, Less accurate thanunderwater weighing orDEXA
138. In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
a. Blood clotting
maternal death
dramatically increases risk of both neonatal and postnatal mortality
a substance that can grasp the positive ions of a mineral.
the space between one neuron and another neuron
non-protein nitrogen
-usually urea
-converted to NH3 in the rumen, then used by bacteria to create amino acids
chemicals that are released at the end of a nerve cell when a nerve impulse arrives there. Inhibit or excite.
does a roasted turkey contain cholesterol
yes sir
Surgical client problems with nutrition:
-anesthesia stops/decreases peristalsis
-auscultate for bowel sounds
- place on progressive diet- begin with ice chips/ clear liquids &amp; progress as tolerated (to prove they're able to use peristalsis)
-hunger is a good indication to start food back- don't have to auscultate bowel sounds to give ice chips/clear liquids
Glucose and Galactose: Active absorption using?
a sodium pump
medically, any substance that the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and to grow; the carried of nourishment; socially, a more limited number of such substances defined as accetable by each culture.
the merging and blancing of five physical and psychologic demsions of health: physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual
didease most common today inculde all
except tuberculosis
any of a class of extracellular proteins abundant in higher animals, esp. in the skin, bone, cartilage, tendon, and teeth, forming strong insoluble fibers and serving as connective tissue between cells, yielding gelatin when denatured by boiling.
bad fats produced by , hydrogenation of oils
trans fats
A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed
35 inches
used to measure energy content 1 cal= heat required to raise 1 gram water, 1 degree C)
a fatty acid containing no carbon-carbon double bonds
Small and Large intestine
functions: similar to monogastric intestine
partitioned foods
foods composed of parts of whole foods, such as butter (from milk), sugar (from beets or cane), or corn oil. Partitioned foods are generally overused and prvide few nutrients with many calories.
What are essential nutrients?
Without essential nutrients, your body can develop deficiencies.
digestion of sucrose
enzyme, SUCRASE, digests to glucose and fructose
hemo golbin and rbc count asses what status?
Sources of Iron
Beef, oysters, fish, greens, beans, dates, prunes, raisins, bran, oats, corn syrup, eggs, peanuts
complement proteins
a family of about twenty different blood proteins made mostly by the liver that can work together to kill bacteria and can also mark invaders for killing by phagocytes
Simple Carbs Ex
Fruits, milk, table sugars, candy, syrups, soft drinks
Nursing Care: Tube Feeding
-High risk of aspiration
-Keep HOB elevated semi-fowlers at all times for continuous feedings
-Observe/Report: N/V, resp. distress, abdominal distention or fever
-Keep pt NPO or as ordered
-Tube site care, keep tube secured and free of kinks
-Before starting feedings CHECK TUBE IS IN THE STOMACH
Two essential fatty acids in the diet:
Omega 6,
Omega 3
vitamin A and protein synthesis
helps cell differentiation, helps epithelial cells (protects) and help maintain epithelial cells of the mucous membranes.
Triglycerides match to:
Sat. fats, unsat. fats, and trans fat.
problems associated with binge drinking
accidents, injuries, std's, academic problems
Vitamin A's role in eyesight
-most familiar-important to perception of the light at the retina and maintenance of a healthy, clear corneaThe eye&#8217;s perception of light results in a bleaching of the&#10;eye&#8217;s pigment rhodopsin, which destroys a little vitamin A every time, needs to be&#10;replenished constantly &#10;&#10;&#10;-light blindness if not enough vit. a
During the first few days of a fast, what energy source provides about 90% of the GLUCOSE needed to fuesl the body
dual PEG/J tube
-double lumen allows stomach to be drained while still feeding jejunum
low fat milk not give infants before
2 years old
The majority of the body's fluid is found where?
Within the cell
Starch is a what?
A carbohydrate made of many glucose molecules linked in straight or branching chains. The bonds that hold the glucose molecules together can be broken by human digestive systems.
What is a monosaccharide
A simple sugar containing 2-6 carbon atoms
what are the triglyceride components?
glycereol with 3 fatty acids attached
Adequate Intakes is set for some?
vitamins, choline, some minerals, essential fatty acids, fiber
functions of vitamin K
coenzyme that assists in the synthesis of a number of proteins that are involved in blood coagulation.
What is the substance that puts the "burn" in your muscles when you work out?
Lactic acid (lactate)
How what is the caloric value of alcohol
7 cal per gram
at the beginning of the small intestine, the chyme bypasses the opening from the common bile duct, which is dripping with fluids into the small intestine from 2 organs outside the GI tract. They are:
the gallbladder and the pancreas
- the amount of nitrogen consumed as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted in a given period of time- indicator of protein turnover- + Nitrogen balance- makes more protein than breaks it down- this should occur in growing children and pregnant women. - Negative nitrogen balance- breaks down more protein than is coming in- occurs in starvation or severe stress
Bacterial Metabolism of Soluble Fiber is Absorbed into?
the blood stream and yield energy
What are the 3 types of distinct animal diet?
carnivore - GO MEAT!
Requirements of organic animal products include:
a. Animals feed must be 100% organic and not contain antibiotics and hormones b. Animals must be provided with low-stress habitats that reduce impact of manure c. Animals must be fed with locally grown products d. a and b e. a, b, and c(D)
The four types of muscles in the intestine are:
longitudinal, circular, sphincter, and mucosal.
Vitamin K 65-80 mcg
s/s of excess:
hemolytic anemia &amp; liver damage w/ synthetic vitamin K
Draw or describe the complete Glycolysis Pathway (from glucose to ATP)
Glucose is split into 2 pyruvates (aerobic, creates some ATP)
Pyruvates to acetyl CoA (anaerobic)
Citric acid cycle (anaerobic)
Electron transport chain (creates most ATP)

To avoid extreme shifts in

blood glucose level, you should do what?
Small, frequent meals lo in simple carbs and
high in protein and fiber are recommended.
Too much clogs blood vessels and can lead to high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke.
Cholesterol levels are determined by diet and genetics
Why would a ruminant need more storage volume than a monogastric?
1. Fibrous feeds must be retained longer for digestion
2. ruminants only eat at night
3. to allow for proper mixing
4. ruminants are bigger animals
1. Fibrous feeds must be retained longer for digestion
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a saturated fatty acid?
a. no double bondsb. liquid at room temperaturec. includes coconut oil and palm oil d. typically of animal origine. typical food sources include butter and lard(B)
when you swallow a mouthful of food it passes through the:
pharynx, a short tube that is shared by both the digestive system and the respiratory system.
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