nutrition Exam -Minerals Flashcards

Terms Definitions
whats hemochromattosis
iron toxicity
Phosphorus deficiency?
Dietary deficiency rarely occurs.
Oxygen-holding protein in muscle cells.
Myoglobin
The iron-containing portion of the hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules.
Heme
The iron-containing portion of the hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules.
Heme
whats daily value of Phosphorus
1000 mg
what % of sodium gets absorbed?
95
what % of potassium is absorbed?
90
What is the second most abundant mineral?
Phosphorus
Menstruating women need ____ times as much as iron as men do.
1.5
_____ _______ are essential mineral nutrients found in the human body in amounts less than 5 grams.
Trace minerals
What is the second most abundant mineral?
Phosphorus
Major minerals are essential nutrients found in the human body in amounts larger than __ _____. Humans need more of these in the diet than trace minerals.
5 grams
hormone that signals kidneys to retain sodium and water
aldosterone
In _________, bones are the main storage area and can be tapped to maintain a constant blood level whenever dietary intake falls too low.
Magnesium (Mg)
Heme iron is found in what?
Meat, poultry, fish
A crystal of bones and teeth, formed when fluoride displaces the "hydroxy" portion of hydroxyapatite. This resists beings dissolved back in body fluid.
Fluorapatite
For sodium (Na), the tolerable upper limit is set at ______ mg a day. The DRI recommendation is approximately ______ mg a day.
2300, 1500.
Sodium deficiency?
No- No known human diets lack sodium.
Heme iron is found in what?
Meat, poultry, fish
Magnesium deficiency?
Unlikely but can occur with inadequate intake, vomiting, diarrhea, alcoholism, or protein malnutrition
The condition of having depleted iron stores, which, at the extreme, causes iron-deficiency anemia.
Iron deficiency
The chief crystal of bone, formed from calcium and phosphorus.
Hydroxyapatite
what nutrient do young women need more than men?
iron
what is the only trace mineral talked about in class?
iron
Only a small amount of iron in our diet is needed-
10-15%
A reduction of the bone mass of older persons in which the bones become porous and fragile.
Osteoporosis
List calcium sources.
Dairy products, fish with bones (i.e. sardines), dark green leafy vegetables, broccoli, tofu
A reduction of the bone mass of older persons in which the bones become porous and fragile.
Osteoporosis
What is the function of Magnesium (Mg)?
-Bone mineralization
-Muscle relaxation (works with Calcium- promotes contraction)
-Needed for the release and use of energy from energy-yielding nutrients
what does DASH stand for?
Dietary approach to stop hypertension
The sodium content of the diet of most North Americans is _______ of the amount needed in the body
more
75% of the salt we intake comes from ________ _____.
processed foods
What is the function of phosphorus?
-Part of DNA
-Cell membranes
-Bones and teeth
-Part of energy metabolism
whats the primary factor for determining iron absorption
the body's need for iron
What is the function of phosphorus?
-Part of DNA-Cell membranes-Bones and teeth-Part of energy metabolism
If you don't get enough calcium-
the body quietly increases the absorption of CA from the intestines and prevents its loss from kidneys concentrations.
What are examples of processed foods which contain sodium (Na)?
-Dry soup mixes (prepared)
-Smoked & cured meats
-Fast foods & TV dinners
-Canned soups
-Canned pasta
-Hot dogs
-Cheeses
Salt sensitivity occurs more strongly in people with ____, ____, _____, _____ ____ ___, and also in ___________.
diabetes, HTN, kidney disease, niggas, and also in those whose parents had high blood pressure and anyone over 50.
what are the functions of iron?
hemoglobin in RBCs, myoglobin in muscle cells, part of enzymes
What is the function of Iron(Fe)?
Makes up part of hemoglobin and myoglobin.
What are the sources of Magnesium (Mg)?
Nuts, legumes, whole grains, DGLV, seafood, dairy
The following are extremely high sources in sodium:
soy sauce, MSG, dry soup mixes, bouillon cubes, flavoring/seasoning packets (usually found in things like boxed rice dishes, ramen, noodle packages)
What are some characteristics of Calcium?
-Most abundant mineral in the human body
-Storage = our bones which can serve as a bank that can release calcium to the body fluids
-Bone is not inert- minerals of bones are in constant flux
What are the deficiencies (not rare) of calcium?
1. Inadequate growth in children.
2. Osteoporosis
What are the sources of Magnesium (Mg)?
Nuts, legumes, whole grains, DGLV, seafood, dairy
What are examples of LOW Sodium (Na) sources?
Fresh fruit and vegetables, eggs prepared without Na, grains cooked without Na, non processed meat (i.e. no hot dogs, deli slices, sausage), meat cut directly from animal, most dairy products.
What are the Iron (Fe) DRI recommended intake for men, women 18-50, and women 51+?
Men: 8 mg/dayWomen (19-50 yr): 18 mg/dayWomen (51+): 8 mg/day
What are causes of elevated blood pressure?
Stress, Na, lack of exercise, having too much body fat, poor diet, genetics.
The relationship between salt intakes and blood pressure is direct-
the more salt a person eats, the higher the blood pressure goes.
what are the 2 functions of sodium?
fluid balance and conduction of nerve impulses
What are the 3 negative health effects of too much salt intake?
1. Excretion of salt from our urine as soon as enough water is drunk.2. May contribute to cardiovascular diseases3. Hypertension, stroke, heart disease
What are the Iron (Fe) DRI recommended intake for men, women 18-50, and women 51+?
Men: 8 mg/day
Women (19-50 yr): 18 mg/day
Women (51+): 8 mg/day
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