Nutrition Exam 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Monosaccharides? (4)
Increase Hematocrit
Increases dehydration
-fear of fat
CONDITIONALLY essential amino acids
Nutritional Screning:
Self-reported check-list (inexpensive)

Calculation of BMI (inexpensive, more objective than self-reported check list)

Limited anthropometric data (somewhat more expensive, not a good way to estimate- done by pinching fat. not good to use on children)

*screening especially useful for very young and the elderly
coenzyme in energy metabolism
Triglycerides is another name for
What is produced during photosynthesis?
where are cylomicrons synthesized?
intestinal cells
Sucralose: _______x sweeter than sucrose?
Chemical Composition
-Organic: Carbon-Hydrogen or Carbon-Carbon-Inorganic: No Carbon
responsibility of monitoring pesticide use in crops-sets tolerance level
Proteins that induce chemical changes to speed up body processes are called ?
Saccharin and a acesulfame potassium are sweeter than sugar, can be cooked with and are safe for diabetics.  T/F 
To prevent microbial contamination, enteral formulas should not hang in an open delivery system for longer than:
8 hours
Phospholipids are mostly found:
in cell membranes
- 3 amino acids linked together
move through system and catabolism. mouth, esophagus, stomach
organic substances present in small amounts in foods that are essential to normal metabolism
bacteria, viruses or other organisms invisible to the eye.
Dietary Guidelines:Fat
-Limit saturate fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fats.-choose monosaturate and polyunsaturated fat sources-Choose lean, low-fat or fat-free foods.
struct vegetarians, who not only exclude all forms of meat from the diet but also exclude dairy and eggs
lipids that are SOLID at room temperature
What are probiotics?
Live-Microorganisms thought to be healthy for host organsim (Lactic acid bacteria)
48. Research has shown that the risk of neural tube defects is lowed by taking supplements of
a. Folate
Reducing saturated fat and trans fats in the diet can be helpful in the reduction in blood levels of this type of lipoproteins.
a compound secreted into the bloodstream by one type of cell that acts to control the function of another type of cell.
for example: certain cells in the pancreas produce insulin, which in turn acts on muscle and other types of cells to promote uptake of nutrients from the blood.
NOTE: foods with high glycemic index cause a rapid and large surge in blood glucose levels.
An individual with a problem with excessive alcohol ingestion may develop a deficienct of?
The indigestible parts of plant foods, largely nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by resident bacteria of the colon.  Fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, mucilag
Period where PRO, Ca, P important?
1-5 y.o.
Are needed in? (volume)
Needed in tiny amounts
The healthier foods are not the cheapest. People w/limited income may not be able to afford meat and fresh veggies. People w/money may buy more proteins and fats. Smaller local groc stores may be more expensive than the larger chains.
decreased ability to respond to an antigen and resolve an infection
Systolic BP >139mm Hg
Diastolic BP >89 mm Hg
the cause or contributing risk factors are identifiable factors directly leading to the stated problem
manufacturers must prove
safety, effectiveness, and detectable in finalfood product
Pantothenic Acid (B5)
Pantothenic Acid is converted to coenzyme A and is especially involved in fatty acid oxidation and oxidation of mitochondria (e.g. the formation of acetyl CoA). Therefore, supplementation with vitamin B-complex should be considered in settings of nutrient deficiency like the following: 1. alcoholism, 2. conditions of stress such as heavy exercise, or, 3. increased energy needs associated with severe burns or trauma.
183. In the body, water that resides between cells is known as
a. Interstitial fluid
a hormone produced by the liver that regulates iron balance
an organelle in the cytoplasm composed of a network of canals running through the cytoplasm. part of the ER contains ribosomes
the making of glucose from a non carbohydrate source.
- loss of calcium- results in soft, flexible, brittle, and deformed bones- progressive weakness- pain in pelvis, lower back, and legs
Function of Folate
Coenzyme needed for new cell synthesis
Subcutaneous Fat
Adipose tissue that is located under the skin.
when energy-yielding nutrients are comsumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat
Fat, carbohydrate, and protein
exchange system
a diet planning tool that organizes foods with respect to their nutrient contents and calorie amounts. Food on any single exchange list can be used interchangeably.
Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases
-Persist over time-Cluster-Tobacco Alcohol Use-Diet & Activity Patterns
What are the 4 factor categories that cause eating disorders?
b12 sources
animal foods olny!!! milk eggs poultry fish
What food is a source of complete proteins?

Sixth main classes of nutrients includes 3 that provides calories and therefore distribute energy, these 3 are called what?
Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat
a rating system known as the ______ ______ is used to classify foods according to their relative glycemic response.
glycemic index
- uncoils when it denatures and loses its shape and function- Caused by: heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents.
benefits of vegetarian
low BP, cholesterol, risk of heart diseaseMaintain weight
Fresh fruits and vegetables, fish, meats, and poultry are not required to?
have Nutrition Facts label
2 g Na-
DAT- diet as tolerated
NAS- no added salt
2 g Na- 2 gram sodium
ADA- American Diabetic Ass.
PO- by mouth
NPO- nothing by mouth
FF- force fluids
Breaking a double bond on a fatty acid carbon chain and saturating it with hydrogen.
A deficiency in arachidonic acid and linoleic acid will cause what clinical signs?
Severe skin disease
how metformin works
stim AMPK in liver and muscle but decreases it in brain
this will inhibit gluconeogenesis but would function to decrease appetite in the brain
258. What is the incidence of bone fractures in African American women in comparison with Caucasian women?
a. One half as much
What advantage does foregut fermentation offer vs. hindgut?
1. less risk of digestive upset
2. improved stomach utilization
3. less gas production
4. improved absorption of microbial protein, vitamins
4. improved absorption of microbial protein, vitamins
what is used to produce alcohol?
yeast fermentation of a carb
an acid that is essential to the body but can not be produced by the body
linoleic oil
What are micronutrients? What are the three?
micronutrients regulate body processes
vitamins, minerals, water
which nutrients in excess can leat to storage of fat
fat, carbs, protein
Which of the following is(are) healthy options in the dining halls?
a. Use microwaves for steaming vegetables from the salad barb. Low-fat yogurt and cottage cheesec. Equal, NutraSweet, and Splendad. b and ce. a, b, and c(E)
100. Why does vitamin A status depend on the person’s protein status?
a. Transportation of the vitamin within the body requires sufficient protein to synthesize retinol-binding protein
name the accessory organs to the alimentary canal
salivary glands, pancrease, liver, galbladder
What are some consequences of exceess body fat?
diabetes, gallstones, high blood pressure, arthritis
Slow administration of tube feedings...
-at room temperature, help limit GI intolerance
WIC-special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children
up to age 5, vouchers for groceries, specific quality, quantity, suitability (proteins, calcium, iron, vit. a and c) nutrition education, referrals to health services, only 60% of elegible use it
31. Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and ask if he should follow the prescribe
a. Be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease
How does the structure of the small intestine aid absorption?
-biocarbonate from the pancrease neutralizes stomach acid, and pancreatic and intestinal enzynmes digest cab, fat and protein
Vitamin A aids in what?
Aids in the functioning and repair of skin cells.
What is the best treatment for lactose intolerance?
Treatment: Limited quantities of milk are okay, especially when eaten with other foods. Yogurt and cheese are usually okay too. Treated with over the counter enzyme pills and drops.
How well absorbed is\nphosphorus?
· \nVery well
What are the goals of the DGA?
Goals of the DGA: Eat fewer calories, Be more active, Make wiser food choices, Meet nutrient needs, Follow recommended eating patterns (USDA food guide and the DASH diet)-To promote health and reduce risk of major chronic diseases through diet and physical activity
DFEs in an individuals diet(dietary folate equivlants)
ug of dfe provided in diet=ug of food folate per day+(1.7 x ug of synthetic)
What is the purpose of the RDA?

a. Estimate amounts of required nutrients to improve long term health and well-being of Americans by reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

b.Establish maximum levels of safe tolerance

c. Focus on amounts of nutrients ne
c. Focus on the amounts of nutrients necessary to prevent deficiency diseases.

All other answers are the purpose of the DRI.
Why should you avoid alcohol during pregnancy?
· \nIncreases the risk of brain damage and\nretardation
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