Nutrition Exam 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Work
obesity bmi
30-39.9
What is Hypercatabolism?








 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 










Hypercatabolism:
breakdown of nutrient/energy stores and tissue due to trauma, burn, disease,
etc. Specifically, nitrogen losses, electrolyte losses


Folate
Function:
Active form:
Food sources:
RDA
DRI
AI
EAR
UL
Deficiencies:
Enzymes:
Coenzymes:
small polymer
peptide or protein
insulates body, cushions organs
fat
e of determine
eating poorly
Zinc
Source: Meat, Poultry Sea FoodFunction: Enzyme Function
Rumination process
regurgitation, liquid swallowed, remastication, resalivation, reswallowing
Concerns for Vegetarians
CalciumIronZincVit B 12
Monosaccharides are absorbed in?
Small Intestine
average american
too much omega 6
most important non essential AA
glutamine
What are phytochemicals
Phytochemicals are potential regulators of health. Many act as antioxidants that protect DNA and other cellular compounds from oxidative damage, some interact with genes to regulate protein synthesis, some mimic proteins, and others alter the blood chemistry.
Zinc Function
assists +100 enzyme systemsgene regulationgrowthsexual maturation
LYSOSOME
definition
a cellular organelle that contains digestive enzymes for use inside the cell for turnover of cell parts
Ca deficiency
young:
 rickets - failure of cartilage to ossify (stay soft)
adult:
osteomalacia - decreased mineral content of bone and increased nonmineralized matrix
osteoprosis - greater osteoclast activity leads to bone weakening
RDA of protein
8g/kg of body weight
how much fiber per day?
20-35 grams
Desirable Nutrition: Adequate blood levels of?
iron-related compounds
nutrients
components of food that are indespencable to the body's functioning. they provide energy, serve as a building material, help maintian or repair boyd parts, and support growth. The nutrients include water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
glucagon
secreted when blood glucose is lowstimulates liver to break down glycogin to glucoseassists with breakdown of body proteins to amino acids for making glucose
vitamin c
a white, crystalline, water-soluble vitamin, C6H8O6, occurring naturally in citrus fruits, green vegetables, etc., and often produced synthetically, essential for normal metabolism: used in the prevention and treatment of scurvy, and in wound-healing and
DE (digestible energy)
Gross energy minus fecal energy
Retinoic Acid Excess
Retinoic AcidHigh incidences of spontaneous abortion and birth defects have been observed in pregnant women taking excess retinoic acid for treatment of acne. Retinoids are teratogenic during the first trimester. Birth defects include craniofacial abnormalities, congenital heart disease, and central nervous system disorders. Thus, vitamin A supplementation must be absolutely avoided during pregnancy.
141. Of the following, which would most readily induce a vitamin K deifiency?
a. Anibiotic therapy
This type of vegetarian consumes only plant products.
Vegan
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT
definition
In nutritional terms, a substance that, when left out of a diet, leads to signs of poor health. The body either can't produce this nutrient or can't produce enough of it to meet its needs. Then, if added back to a diet before permanent damage occurs , the affected aspects of health are restored.
Hormone secreted by mucosal cells in the antrum of the stomach that stimulates the parietal cells to produce hydrochloric acid:
Gastrin
What is the recommended intake of phosphorus in adults?
700mg/daily
Physical s/s of malnutrition
hair dull,brittle.dry. falls outswollen glands neck and cheeksdry, rough, spotty skin taht may have a sandpaper feelpoor or delayed wound healing or soresthin appearance w/lack of subcutaneous fatmuscle wasting(decreased size and strength)edema of the lower extremitesweakened hand graspdepressed moodabnormal HR, rhythm, BPenlarged liver or spleenloss of balance and coordination
Dr. John snow
Father of epidemiologyTracked cholera cases-found that the pump/well was causing cholera
Assessing the Current Diet: conclusions (4)?
-Lacking nutrients
-Energy balance
-Sodium intake
-Fruit and vegetable intake
What is HDL?
good cholesterol that carries cholesterol from cells to the liver so it can be broken down and eliminated from the body
AMDR stands for what?
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range.
Health risk with obesity
Type 2 diabetes

Heart Disease/Hypertension

Metabolic Syndrome
beriberi
a disease of the peripheral nerves caused by a deficiency of vitamin B1, characterized by pain in and paralysis of the extremities, and severe emaciation or swelling of the body.
GLA is precursor, and it inhibits platelet aggregation, and has vasodilatory properties
PGE-1
Symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency
Night blindnessKeratomalaciaDry scaly skinBlindnessDepressed immunityAlopecia
nutrition
scientific study of of food and how good nourishes the body/ influences health
milliequivalents, Meq
the concentration of electrolytes in a volume of solution. meq are a useful measure when considering ions because the number of charges reveals characteristicsa bout the solution that are not evident when the concentration is expressed in terms of weight.
essential fatty acid that has 18 carbons, 3 cis double bonds, and is an omega-3 fatty acid
linolenic acid
A deficiency of what mineral is a leading cause of mental retardation worldwide?
iodine
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
- most variable component of energy expenditure
Protein structure
string of aa, essential aa and non-essential aa
water soluble vitamins:
Vitamin C
Bitamin B Complex (Thiamin)
Riboflavin
Niacin
B6 (pyridoxine)
Folate
B 12
what is a normal range for blood glucose
70-110mg/dL
How many servings of breads, cereals, rice, and pasta should you have?

a. 6-11
b. 3-5
c. 2-4
d. none of the above
a. 6-11
enzymes are what?
catalysts that break substances apart, bind, or transport.
Why athletes need fat
fuel source for endurance activities
choosing supplements
make sure they're complete, USP on label means tested for purity and dont have fillers
What is the primary dietary source of vitamin D for humans?
Milk
macronutrient energy sources
carbs (sugars & starches) 4 kcal/g fats 9 kcal/g**above: primary energy sources**protein 4 kcal/g alcohol-another NRG source 7 kcal/g
a mixed high fiber diet provides the best protection from constipation. Chronic constipation may lead to a more serious condition called _____.
diverticular disease
REHABILITATION FOR PEM
- hydrate onself- eat small amounts of food- once the person is used to eating food then they should add protein back in.
How well absorbed is Calcium?
\n Not well absorbed…under\n 30%
Planning menus with MyPyramid: Range of nutrients and energy content is measured?
within a food group
essential nutrients
the nutrients the body cannot make for itself from other raw materials; nutrients that must be obtained from food to prevent deficiencies.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans:Adequate Nutrients w/in Energy Needs
-Nutrient-Dense foods from all food group-Limit food detrimental to health-Meet energy needs by consuming a balance diet
Aerobic Exercise
form of exercide that can be sustained at a necessary level of intensity to provide aerobic benifits (swiming, jogging)
Which of the following statements is/are true about body cells?
a. Cells require energy, nutrients, and oxygen.b. Not all cells contain a complete set of genes.c. Nutrients and genes within the cells interact with each other.d. a and ce. a, b, and c(D)
161. What is the chief function of hemosiderin?
a. Stores excess body iron
Complete breakdown of glucose by aerobic oxidation leads to the production of:
 
A. carbon dioxide
B. water
C. energy (ATP)
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
What are "chronic diseases" that are affected by nutrition?
1. Heart Disease/Hypertension2. Cancers3. Diabetes Mellitus4. Strokes
Using MyPyramid: Choose whole grain varieties of?
bread, cereal, rice, and pasta
AMDR - acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges
values for carbohydrate, fat, and protein expressed as percentages of total daily caloric intake ; ranges of intakes set for the energy yielding nutrients that are sufficient to provide adequate total energy and nutrients while reducing the risk of chronic diseases.
Vitamin B12 for infants
Vegan mothers who breastfeed may need to feed baby supplements
A nutritious (optimal) diet:
a. maximizes health and longevityb. prevents nutrient deficienciesc. decreases risks for chronic diseasesd. is composed of foods that are available, safe and palatablee. All of the above(E)
146. Which is a free radical?
a. A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
People who lack alot of fruits and veg have a greater chance of suffering what?
muscular distrophy and blindness
Nitrogen Balance - Neutral, +, -
PRO 
 
neutral = PRO intake OK, in balance
positive = PRO intake > PRO excretion; inc N

certain growth perods in kids
neutral - PRO intake < PRO excretion; dec N

trauma, burns
brown adipose tissue
a type of adipose tissue that has more mitochondria than white adipose tissue and can increase energy expenditure by uncoupling oxidation from ATP production. It is found in significant amounts in animals and newborn humans.
iron and factors that inhibit absorption
phytates and fibers, calcium and phosphorous in milk precede it, tannins in tea and coffee, antacids
191. Which of the following is a characteristic of caffeine intake and water balance?
a. Habitual consumers of caffeine lose almost no more fluid from the body when ingesting noncaffeinated beverages
Questions to consider for risk assessment
is the client at nutritional risk because of health problems or intake?does the client's weight indicate a health risk?has the client experienced significant weight change?do meds or nutritional supplements warrant a closer look for impact on nutrition or food interactions?does the client look malnourished?social factors?lab values?
- Help reduce stickiness in the blood.
-Controls blood cholesterol & fat levels.
Which of the following is a property of dietary lipids?
Omega-3 fatty acis are always unsaturated
The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) ‘94:
FDA must prove this “food” is?
unsafe before it can be pulled from the shelf
What are the functions of Vitamin A?
Growth & repair of body tissues, bone formations and vision.
What is low birth rate in infants? What are some possible problems?
Less than 5.5 pounds at birth
Problems with blood glucose control, temperature regulation, and growth and devlopment
What are 2 ways that the American food pyramid is skewed from being "healthy"?
Too much meat
Too much fats and oils
What nutrients should increase during\npregnancy?
· \nCalories\n\n· \nVitamin D\n\n· \nFolate\n\n· \nIron
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Term:
Definition:
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