Nutrition final

Biology Nutrition Health Care
Terms Definitions
pyridoxal phosphate/pyrodoxine
Food regulation
900 micrograms/day
Folic Acid
forms tetrahydrofolate
RDA for carbohydrate
Average Intake
670-1,000 mg
Average Intake
2000-3000 mg/day
Upper Limit
10 mg/day
cofactor for catalase
health rist of peppermint
Is aging fully understood? 
Water Toxicity
Overwhelms kidneys
Blurred vision
Deficiency of Chromium
None known
cell membranes
assoc w/ liver damage
milk, eggs, liver, peanuts 
What is NEAT?
Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesisanything not used for sleeping, eating, or planned working outneed >2.5 hrs per day standing/walking
essential organic compounds that humans can not synthesize
B6 roles"
glycogen breakdownsteroid hormone actionreduce homocysteine
What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
compartments, particles, or filaments that perform specialized functions within a cell
Vitamin E
15 mg/day of alpha-tecopherol
Functions of Magnesium
Activates ATP
Contributes to DNA/RNA synthesis
Potassium and Calcium absorption
Proper nerve and cardiac functions
Insulin release from pancreas
components of blood
leucocytes- wbc, immuneerythrocytes-Rbc- oxplatelets- clottingplasma
NOT vitamins or minerals.  plant compounds.
orange= beta carotene
orange-yellow= flavanoids
green= glucosinolates
white-green= allyl sulfides
we obtain nutrients from the environment and convert it to a simplified form our cells can use.
the deficiency disease that results after a few weeks to months of consuming a diet that lacks vitamins C; pinpoint sites of bleeding on the skin are an early sign
Vitamin E sources
vegetable oils, eggs, liver
What is creatine's main use
body building
Intrinsic factor
protein secreted by the stomach
Factors that are effective in regulating the body's water balance include all of the fllwing except
antidiuretic hormone
chemical bond of 2 monosaccharides; maltose, sucrose, and lactose
a neurotransmitter from nerve endings and a hormone from the adrenal gland. It is released in times of stress and is involved in hunger regulation, blood glucose regulation, and other body processes.
The increased energy requirement for the mother in the first trimester is 
Vitamin E Toxicity
Interference with Vitamin K
Food sources of Calcium
Fortified foods
Canned fish (w/bones)
Chloride (Cl) absorption location
SI and colon
Function of Copper
Component fo enzymes that consume oxygen or oxygen radicals
Regulate neurotransmitters like serotonin, tyrosine, dopamine and norepinephrine.
food frequency questionnaires
patterns of food consumption
- the provision of all substances necessary for maintaing health throuhg the ingestion of food.
Major Minerals
 • Various functions in the body
• Major Minerals
– Require >100 mg /day
– Calcium, phosphorus
• Trace Minerals
– Require < 100 mg/day
– Iron, zinc
Digestive system
One way gastro-intestinal tract and accessory organs
Consuming more food energy than is needed
Anabolic Pathway
using the energy to  build up
measure of choice for monitoring the progress of patients while in the hospital (short term changes)
TEE (normal person)=
(BMR*24hrs + PAR*time exercising) *1.10
What is the major hydrophilic antioxidant vitamin?
Vitamin C
Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?
Corn Oil
Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of
hydrogen atoms
What is the name of the cancer-treatment substance first extracted from the bark of old Pacific yew trees (and now synthesized in the laboratory)?
Which of the fllwing minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems?
Iron, Sodium, Calcium, Phosphorus
What is the difference between health and fitness?
the fluid and organelles (except the nucleus) in a cell
the process by which large ingested molecules are mechanically and chemically broken down to produce basic nutrients that can be absorbed across the wall of the GI tract
the buildup of excess fluid in extracellular spaces
the medical specialty focusing on the treatment of obesity
Upper Limit
No UL (unless have kidney disease)
Functions of Sodium
Cation in ECF
Key for retaining water
Nutrient absorption
electrical potential charge
muscle contraction
action potentials
Symptoms of severe Fe deficiency
Increased fatigue
Increased infection
poor work/exercise performance
decreased growth and cognitive development in kids
increased mortality
Gastric juice contains
HCL acid- denatures proteins, activates pepsinpepsin- enzyme to digest proteingastric lipase- enzyme to digest fatmucus- protective lining in stomach
what does B1 do?
enhances circulation, ESSENTIAL FOR CARB METABOLISM, nerve cell function and cognitive thinking (anti-neuritic)
Trace Minerals
• Trace minerals are more toxic
– Gap between need & toxic is small
• Result of supplementation
– Don’t exceed UL long term
–Look for the United States Pharmacopeia(USP)
-approved brands
Compare the structures and functions of the small and large intestines
Large intestine-
Small intestine-
Protein Quality
how close amino acid composition of dietary protein matches our bodies protein needs
Roles of niacin
cosubstrates for DH rxnssubstrates for ADP ribosylationprecursors for cyclic ADP ribose
what are some sources of flavonoids?
red winegreen teacocoa
The animal version of vitamin D is known as
Which of the fllwing does not decrease the metabolic rate?
All of the fllwing are body proteins directly involved in iron metabolism except
Chelation therapy is purported to work by ridding the body of
toxic metals
flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
formed from riboflavin. readily accepts and donates electrons and hydrogen ions.
Muscular Power
-Ability of a muscle to produce maximal force in a short period of time
- Power= work / time
-Low weight, low repetitions
- Plyometrics
-Explosive Jumping
the organ of the digestive tract and respiratory tract located at the back of the oral and nasal cavities commonly known as the throat
thyroid hormones
hormones produced by the thyroid gland that among their functions increase the rate of overall metabolism in the body
cognitive restructuring
changing ones frame of mind regarding eating for example instead of using a difficult day as an excuse to overeat, substituting other pleasures for rewards, such as a relaxing walk with a friend
Transport of Vitamin K
Lipoproteins and stored in liver.
Adequate Intake
adults = 1500 mg/day
older adults = 1200-1300 mg/day
Minimum requirement = 500mg/day
At risk for Fe deficiency
Females of childbearing age
Unsaturated fatty acids w H atoms on same side of Carbon chain
vit. b5 works with other b's to make atp
are broken down into 3 fatty acids and a glycerol
are necessary for the synthesis of call membranes
found in 2 forms
How much energy is lost as heat?
How much is trapped in phosphate bonds on ATP?
70 %
Niacin is used clinically for?
reduction of elevated blood cholesterol levels
typical day history
patient orally reports all foods and beverages consumed on a typ day
Which of the fllwing describes the process of thermogenesis?
burning of fat
synthesis of fat
generation of heat
generation of water
generation of heat
What percentage of the iron in meat is nonheme iron?
Which of the fllwing is known to speed up the passage of substances through the large intestines, thereby decreasing exposure time to carcinogens?
proton pump inhibitor
a medication that inhibits the ability of gastric cells to secrete hydrogen ions. Low doses of this class of medications are also available without prescription (e.g., omeprazole) prilosec
high quality (complete) protein
dietary proteins that contain ample amounts of all nine essential amino acids
relapse prevention
a series of strategies used to help prevent and cope with weight control lapses such as recognizing high-risk situations and deciding beforehand on appropriate responses
Transportation of Vitamin D2
Via chylomicrons in lymphatic system to CV system, where it is bound to a protein.
Promotion state of carcinogenesis
Increased cell division of altered cells
what is vitamin d used for the absorption of?
Ca and phosphorus
Excess energy is stored as ________ or ___
glycogen or fat
What are some ways of preventing obesity in adults?
Approrpriate total calories
-eating breakfast regularly
-frequent healthy small meals or snacks
-increase fruits, veg, whole grain, lowfat dairy
-focus on lower fat food
Planned physical activity
Stess management
-environmental characteristics (promote healthiness in neighborhood)
-Work environment
-Health insurance
cranberries make the urine ___ which has a strong antibacterial affect on the ____
more acidic, urinary tract
Common criterion for malnutrition
Unintentional weight loss of >10% in 6mths
The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include
confusion and depression
In a peron with a BMI of 50, what minimum number of poundcs must  be lost to obtain a measurable improvement in glucose, blood lipids, and blood pressure?
electron transport chain
a series of reactions using oxygen to convert NADH + H+ and FADH2 molecules to free NAD+ and FAD molecules w/ the donation of electrons and hydrogen ions to oxygen, yielding water and ATP
Weight gain recommendations during pregnancy are based on
weight at the time of conception
Storage of Vitamin E
Mostly in adipose, very little in muscle and liver.
Proteins impt, for, sources
Proteins are impt for building cells and tissues, maintaining bones, repairing damage, regulating metabolism. Sources: meats, nuts, seeds, dairy
Name some effects of FOOD on DRUG therapy
Drug absorption: bioavailability, effects of fat and other food components, chelation, adsorption, pHDrug distribution: albumin and binding sitesDrug metabolism: inhibition/enhancement, competition for metabolizing enzymesDrug excretion: renal resorption, pH
For nutrients below the heavy black line what is the denominator used in calculating the %DV
reference daily intake is used
Which of the fllwing components of training define the progressive overload principle?
intensity only
frequency only
frequency and flexibility only
intensity, frequency and duration only
intensity, frequency and duration only
upper body obesity
the type of obesity in which fat is stored primarily in the abdominal area; defined as a waist circumference more than 40 inches in men and more than 35 in women; closely associated with a high risk for CVD, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes AKA android obesity
two essential fattty acids- essential bc there are C=C double bonds before the 9th C- cannot be made in body
Alpha linolenic acid (omega 3)leafy greens, fatty fishLinoleic (omega 6)vegetable and nut oils
What do the ADA/ASCM and NAS recommend for protein intake for performance?
ADA/ACSM-> recommend increase for neutral to positive balanceNAS does not recommend increase due to adaptations during training.
Everything is true about garlic except
it eliminates the need for blood pressure medication
Obesity waist size: womenmen under 40 & 40 and older
1. waist>35.52. waist>40 inch3. waist >36 inches
What is a free radical?
A molecule with at least one unpaired electron
According to the American College of Sports Medicine, which of the fllwing would meet the exercise schedule to maintain an appropriate level of fitness?
20 minutes continuous activity using large muscle 3 times a week
Inadequate zinc status in older adults causes what symptoms?
Reduced immune function, reduced wound healing, and loss of taste acuity. (All OF THE ABOVE)
What does carbohydrate loading do?How do you do Modified Depletion Taper Precompetition Program?
Helpful for events lasting at least 90 minutes.D1=90 min workout at 70-75% VO2max-eat mixed 50% CHOD2-3= gradual taper time/intensity-eat mixed 50% CHOD4-5=cont gradual taper-eat mixed 70% CHOD6=complete rest-eat mixed 70% CHOD7=competition-eat pre-event meal
what is the purpose of taking echinacea
increase white blood cell count and prevent colds
Which of the fllwing may best explain the relationship between excess body fat and higher risk for cancers of the female reproductive system?
Excess body fat produces more estrogen, which may promote tumor development.
Which of the fllwing describes fat utilization during physical activity?
Fat represent the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity
What is the oxygen usage for the 3 levels of intensity?
Low -use muscle fat storesModerate 40-60% VO2max-mix of FA oxidation and glucose useHigh >60% VO2max-glycogen stores used due to limited ability to access fat stores (not enough time to oxidize)
Which of the fllwing is not among the features of fat-soluable vitamins?
Require bile for absorption
Found in the fat and oily parts of foods
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
Pose a greater risk for developing a toxicity tha
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
What type of meal and time of its ingestion promotes the most rapid repletion of glycogen stores after physical activity?
Mixed meal taken within 30 minutes
Name 3 reason that we do nutrition assessment
1) data used to plan nutritional care - appropriate referrals2) used to justify nutritional care - helps reimbursement3) used to monitor effects of nutritional care - chronic vs acute intake status, may need to adjust labs to tailor.
All of the fllwing are features of sodiium in endurance athletes except
they can easily replace sodium loss by consuming conventional sports drinks during the event
Which of the following is a feature of the body's response to engaging in physical activity?
Lower body fat is more readily lost from vigorous exercises that work primarily the hip and leg muscles
b2 sources?
IV feeding
good cholesterol
Energy Available from
Vitamin B6: AKA
Upper Limit
350 mg/day
Adequate Intake
2300 mg
Average intake
12-17 mg/day
b9 sources?
vegemite, leafy greens
RQ for carbohydrates (100%)
Vitamin E
Average Intake
2/3 RDA
Very low bone mass
Decrease non-heme iron absorption
Folic acid
all body cells, DNA
megaloblastic anemia - increased fetal demands on mom
chicken, beef, leafys, legumes 
Facultative Thermogenesis
keeping the body warm
Iodine is found where
thyroid hormones
Macro nutrient
needed in large amounts
Naturally occuring salicylates in curry, paprika, and certain teas provide the same protective effects as low dose
a coordinated muscular contraction used to propel food down the gastrointestinal tract
Vitamin E 
Daily Value
20 mg
(30 IU)
Sources of water loss
Breathing (lungs)
Fe toxicity
caused by genetic disorder that enhances absorption
pouches along large intestine, reduced by high fiber dietIf pouches become inflamed- Diverticulitis
Pantohenic acid
Fn:  cell metabolic reactions, involving fat and cholesterol.
deficiency:  unlikely
soures:  meat, grains
mechanical digestion
physical break down of food
tentative explanations by a scientist to explain a phenomenon
Carbohydrates are digested into ___________ and ultimately converted to _________
simple sugars
Vitamin B12 is also known as
B6 deficiency
rare: widely distributed in foods
What substance contain the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction?
a general term that describes substances that dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene and ether.  mostly composed of carbon and hydrogen, sm. amts. of oxygen and other elements
generally, the ability to move spontaneously. It also refers to movement of food through the GI tract

Pasteurization of milk or eggs involves the use of
Function of Vitamin K
Blood clotting
Bone health
Reduce/Protect from Inflammation
Storage of Mg
Bones and some muscle.
Potassium Deficiency
Can be life threatening
Loss of appetite
muscle cramps
increase Ca2+ excretion
men = 11mg/day
women = 8 mg/day
meets nutrition requirements of 50% in a lifestage/gender group
- the food and drink a person consumes, with regards to their nutritional qualities, composition, and effects on health.
DV 56  gm   Toxicity N/A
 Source Deficiency
constitute 50% of the diet
are a source of energy for the body
are broken down into simply sugars
complex carbs provide nondigestible materials that increase the amount of roughage
found in fresh fruits, veggies, and whole grain
What does Chemical energy do?
Power the body
What two dietary substances are interconvertable into fats?
Carbohydrates &
highest RDA from among the different age and gender groups, used in the denominator for some daily value %
Recommendation for % of fat as saturated fats
Jacki, who has a sedentary lifestyle, is 5'5" and weighs 165lb. She calculated her BMI to be 27.5. She recognizes that her body weight is unhealthy and vows to improve her eating habits and begin a regular program of physical fitness. Her goal is to achie
Approx. what % of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?
The most important organs of the immune system include all of the fllwing except
lymph nodes
thymus gland
a compound that combines w/ an inactive protein to form a catalytically action protein. aid in enzyme function
Periodization Principle
-Varying training intensity and volume for optimizing fitness goains
-Must include RECOVERY
erosion of the tissue lining, usually in the stomach or the upper small intestine. As a group these are generally referred to as peptic ulcers
During the first 6 months, the macronutrient that contributes the most kcalories to the infants diet is 
carbon skeleton
amino acid structure that remains after the amino group (-NH2) has been removed
self monitoring
tracking foods eaten and conditions affecting eating, actions are usually recorded in a diary, along with location, time, and state of mind. This is a tool to help people understand more about their eating habits
Potassium Absorption
90% of ingested K is absorbed
Percentage water in beverages, fruits and vegetables
>90% water
Symptoms of moderate Fe deficiency
Decreased work/exercise capacity
Decreased immune function
complementary proteins
two protein sources that together supply all 9 EAA'sex- beans and rice
Unsaturated fatty acids w/ H on opposite sides of carbon chain
what does niacin do?
proper circulation, healthy skin, helps with metabolism of fats-proteins-carbs, increases memory, decreases cholesterol a little
Copper (Cu)/tm
DV: 900 mcg RAE Toxicity: 8-10 mg
Sources: Liver, Cocoa, Beans, Nuts, Whole Grains, Dried Fruits
Function: Iron Metabolism, Antioxidant Enzymes, Protein Met Synthesis
• Aids in iron metabolism• Part of connective tissue protein
• Cofactor for antioxidant enzymes
• Immune system function
• Blood clotting
• Blood lipoprotein metabolism
Deficiency: • Anemia
• Decreased WBC
• Bone loss
• Inadequate growth
• Cardiovascular disease
produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder
released into small intestine
99% of all nutrient absorbtion into the blood occrs here due to the large surface areas created by intestinal villi on the inner surface
What serum protein is LEAST affected by inflammation?
Retinol-binding protein
Insoluable fiber includes...
cellulose (CH2O)- plant cell wall
non CH20 ligins -wood
effect of illness on protein requirements
up to 2g/kg/d
In fetuses Folate defiency is associated with what?
Neural tube defects
The plant version of vitamin D is known as
Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for salt?
1 teaspoon
Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition?
What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity?
adenosine triphosphate
the main energy currency for cells. ATP energy is used to promote ion pumping, enzyme activity, and muscular contraction
Reversibility Principle
Rapid loss or reversibility of fitness once training stops
-Cardiovascular vs. musculoskeletal fitness (need 3-4x a week for cardio and 1-2 for musculoskeltal)
an enzyme produced by a variety of cells; it can destroy bacteria by rupturing their cell membranes
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
bodymass index (BMI)
Weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared; a value of 25 and above indicates overweight and a value of 30 and above indicates obesity
Vitamin K
Women = 90 micrograms/day
Men = 120 micrograms/day
Food sources of Sodium
Table Salt - 10%
Processed foods - 80%
Naturally present - 10%
occurs in the nucleus, use of genetic info in DNA to make RNA
Cancer risk factors
Tobacco use, sun exposure, nutrition, environmental exposure, low activity
what does b9 work best with?
b12 and vit. c
nutritional state
the nutritional health of a person as determined by anthropometric measurements (height, weight, circumferences, and so on), biochemical measurements of nutrients or their by-products in blood and urine a clinical (physical) examination, a dietary analysis, and economic evaluation; also called nutritional status.
Vegetarians usually have dificiencies of what things
Fe, Zn, Ca, VitB12, D
Anthropometric measures for adults
BMI , waist measurementskin fold thickness
Which of the fllwing vitamins is known to deactivate histamine, a substance that causes nasal congestion?
Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Vitamin B12
Vitamin C
If a person's max heart rate is 220 beats/min, what is the safe maximum heart rate during vigorous exercise?
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
formed from vitamin niacin. readily accepts and donates electrons and hydrogen ions.
lower esophageal sphincter
a circular muscle that constricts the opening of the esophagus to the stomach. Also called the gastroesophageal sphincter
protein equilibrium
a state in which protein intake is equal to related protein losses; the person is said to be in protein balance
lean body mass
body weight minus fat storage weight equals lean body mass. This includes organs such as bone and blood and other body fluids
Transport of Vitamin E
Chylomicrons transport to liver, then incorporated into lipoproteins.
Excessive fluoride intake can lead to 
fluorsis (mottling on teeth)
vitamin k deficiencies? toxicity?
internal bleeding. flushing and sweating, toxic reaction in newborns, interferes with prescription blood thinners (coumadin and warfarin)
World Health Organization recognizes obesity as a major global health problem
in US
-30% are obese
-35% are overweight
-15% of children and adolescents are overweight
How do you assess micronutrients?
Not a good way.Serum, tissue, functional tests are sometimes helpful. Hair content is debatable.
What herb is used in most cold and flu medicine
Most common visceral protein evaluated as a part of nutritional assessment? and why?
serum albuminbecause gives an integrated picture of nutritional intake over a period of several weeks
As a general rule, what min. # of kCal per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight?
All of the fllwing factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron except
MFP factor
organic acids
ascorbic acid
calcium from milk
calcium from milk
essential nutrient
a substance that, when left out of a diet, leads to signs of poor health. the body either can't produce this nutrient or can't produce of it to meet needs. if added back into diet before permanent damage occurs, health is restored.
The reserve capacity of an organ or organ system is influenced most by?
A person's age
Food source of Vitamin E
VERY little in animal and dairy
Plant oils
wheat germ
sunflower seeds
Nutrition is involved in the treatment of many diseases such as
diabetes- simple carbsheart disease- fat, cholesterolrenal disease-protinobesity
What does vitamin A do?
prevents night blindness, aids in skin disorders, protects against infections and cancer, helps heal GI ulcers, repair epithelial tissue, utilize protein, increases immunity, helps bone and teeth formation
Whats the problem with protein supplements in strength athletes?Whats one good aspect?
Be careful of extra protein calories.Most people already eat more than RDACould cause imbalanceBUT Arginine, Lysine, and Ornithine can increase anabolic hormones
Selenium is important in which two antioxidant enzymes?
glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase
What happens after absorption of carcinogens that are produced on meats from grilling over a direct flame?
They are detoxified by the liver
thermic effect of food (TEF)
the increase in metabolism that occurs during the digesting, absorption, and metabolism of energy-yielding nutrients. This represents 5% to 10% of calories consumed
what does vitamin d deficiency lead to?
decreased appetite, burning mouth and throat, diarrhea, insomnia, visual problems, weight loss
What are 2 types of malnutrition and what are their signs?
Kwashiorkor: primary deficiency is protein-some weight loss or decreased growth, muscle wasting, edema, fatty liver, skin lesions, dry brittle hair easily pluckedMarasmus: protein and energy deficiency-severe weight loss, growth, muscle wasting-no edema, or fatty liverskin dry and thin, hair sparse and easily plucked
chamomile is commonly found in which fomr
tea, supplement capsules, liquid form, all of the above!
Why parenteral formulas are more expensive?specficis
require aas and must be sterileNO FIBER
Which of the fllwing is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
fever decreases the BMR
fasting increases the BMR
pregnancy increases the BMR
females have a higher BMR than males on a body weight basis
pregnancy increases the BMR
Diabetes is known to lead to all of the fllwing except
impaired vision
impaired circulation
increased resistance to infection
increased loss of water via the urine
increased resistance to infections
sickle cell disease (sickle cell anemia)
an illness that reults from a malformation of the red blood cell because of an incorrect structure in part of its hemoglobin protein chains. The disease can lead to episodes of severe bone and joint pain, abdominal pain, headache, convulsions, paralysis, and even death
Why should doctors counsel in nutrition?
If you don't acknowledge there is a problem pt not perceive there's a problem.Counseling increases pt motivation and confidence.Improves behaviors.Recommended by task force for obesity.
ROS are believe to play a role in the development of:
cancers, atherosclerosis, Alzheimers, and aging
Which of the fllwing is a feature of leptin?
It is ...
an enzyme
a satiety signal
usually deficient in obese people
secreated by the brain and acts on fat cells
It is a satiety signal
What is the primary reason for increased urine output in uncontrolled diabetes?
High levels of blood glucose spill into the urine drawing water with it by osmosis
What are economies of scale?
The decrease in unit cost of a product resulting from large-scale operations, as in mass production
How do you estimate protein needs for stressed adults?
0.8 g/ kg healthy0.8-1.2 g/kg mild stress1.2-1.8 g/kg moderate stress1.6-2.2 g/kg severe stress
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins
Which of the fllwing is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis in inhibited during exercise
%DV on a food label below the heavy black line represents... is higher for someone with..
the minimum value for any individual: higher for someone with a lower RDA
Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to
provide rigidity for the bones and teeth
All of the fllwing are features of the health risks associated w/ excessive body fat except
obesity is classified as a disease
obese women have elevated levels of estrogen
the risks are higher in black women that in white women
people with a BMI h
the risks are higher in black women than in white women
>3g fat/serving
Hypominerlization of enamel
Lifestyle Modification-dietary chanfes-regular exerciseMedical Intervention-drugs-surgery
allyl sulfides
onions, leeks, garlic 
Low intensity uses what?
restriction fragment lenght polymorphism- differences in lenghts of DNA between two people.. allows use to look for patterns (ID people or IDing diseases)
Build up in arteries
Vitamin A are also what?
An elevated blood glucose lever
MEOS stands for
Microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system
storage, soncentration, and later release of bile into small intestine
What are the exercise constants?
Ingredient listing
list of Ingredient by wieght-desending
minerals like sodium and potassium that help the body maintain an appropriate amt. of fluid
glucose bonded to glucose
results when starch is broken down to just two glucose molecules bonded together
role in beer and liquior industry
VitaminsFat Soluable
Vitamin AVitamin BVitamin EVitamin K
Condition resulting from vit D deficiency, especially in infancy and childhood, resulting in disturbance of normal bone formation
Number of different amino acid units
stimulates synthesis of muscle protein
physical activity
_________ is produced by adipocytes and acts in the hypothalamus.
Vit C functions
collagen-cartilage and bloodvessel walls-strong and elastic
calcium absorption up (some)
iron absorption up ( a lot)-reduces to more absorbable form
immunity up
protien digesting enzyme produced by the stomach, small intestine, and pancreas
What is a goiter?
Enlarged Thyroid Gland
Direct relationship between nuts and lower heart disease. Have good fats that lower LDL-C.
the protein portion of the visual pigment molecule
which about BO2 max is not correct?
turbinado sugar
partially refined version of raw sucrose, slight molasses flavor
Omega 3
Linolenic Acid. compose cell membranes and help prevent tissue inflammation, heart disease and formation of blood clots. We don't get enough omega 3
Substances released by the nerve to excite or inhibit further transmission
Digestion: small intenstine
divided into duodenum, jejunum, ileum
all but fibers are broken down and absorbed
villi form brush border that increases surface area for absorption into blood streaminto general circulatory system or
into lymphatic system (heart, liver)
lipids are emulsified by
bile to form micelles
skin lesions, atromatic hemarthrosis is diagnostic of what vit. definiciency
vit C
(ascorbic acid)
selenium food sources
meats, shellfish, whole grains, veggies, fruit, varies w/ soil content
When intake of alcohol exceeds _____% of kcalories, protein, fat and carb intake decreases.
Stationary blood clot that closes off a blood vessel
What is hunger
the physiological need to eat
How can bone health be measured?
By density
How many pounds of added sugar is consumed by each person annually?
water recommendation for inactive adults
1.0 ml water/kcal expended
dietary guidelines suggest
60 minutes of exercise for kids
type 2 diabetes
ketosis is not commonly seen
insulin therapy can be used but is often not required
often associated with obesity 
Omega 6
Linoleic acid. compose cell membranes and precursors reproduction and blood flow. Polyunsaturated fatty acids - liquid vegi oil, soybean, corn and safflower oil.
RDA and DV for Niacin
16mg/day men 14mg/day women20mg/dayUL=35mg/day
Major function of the Pancreas
secretes pancreatic juice (bicarbonate) that neutralizes acid in intestine
& contains proteases & lipases
higher basal metabolic rate...
associated with fever, pregnancy, stress
selenium deficiency
rarely seen, heart disease cases in China
sources of vitamin A
liver butter eggs cheese milk
lack or shortage of basic foods needed to provide the energy and nutrients that support health
portal circulation
the protion of the circulatory system that utilizes a large vein to carry nutrient-rich blood from capillaries in the intestines and portions of the stomach to the liver
Which vitamin is light-sensitive and found in milk?
Vitamin B2 Rivoflavin
Food Allergy
Adverse Reaction to normally harmless substance in food involving immune system.1-2% adults have it, 60% claims unconfirmed.
fasting hypoglycemia
low blood glucose that follows about a day of fasting
Type 1 diabetes
A disease that occurs when the pancreas is unable to produce insulin. It was formerly know as juvenile onset diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus because of its frequent diagnosis in children and adolescents
purpose of villi, microvill in small intestine
increase surface area
Long Chain Fatty Acids
Reform into triglycerides in the intestinal cells Enter lymphatic system and finally in the cirulation
Fruits and veggies consist of up to ___% of water? Meat and cheeses consist of ___% of water
95, 50
What is bone remodeling?
Maintains the integrity of bone, replaces old bone with new bone to maintain mineral balance. Involves bone reasorption and formation, and occurs predominatly during adult hood.
Type II Diabetes
Most likely with obese people, and young people. People with pre-diabetes usually have insulin resistance. Pancreas makes more insulin to get more insulin into cells, pancreas cells can get tired over time.
lactic acid is produced when
oxygen isnt available in the muscles
What is whole grain composed of?
Endosperm (white color, starchy), bran, and germ
ketogenic amino acids
acetyl CoA
used to make fats or to enter TCA cycle
How many Carbons does long chains consist of?
14 or more carbons
What are the effects of osteoporosis
Hollow/porous bones, decreases in elderly height, rheumatoid arthritis
proteins, lipids, some vitamins, some minerals, and water
Nutrients that regulate body processes
What is the difference between complete and incomplete proteins?
Complete Proteins contain ALL Essential Amino Acids
Incomplete Proteins are low in one or more essential amino acids (plant proteins)
methods for assessing body fat content
skin fold, MRI, bioelectric impendance analysis (BIA), underwater weighing
what is a sign of a deficiency in vitamin K
hemorrhagic at birth
Nonessential amino acids (NEAAs)
need not be provided by diet
can be synthesized in liver from other AAs
Hormonal cancers - breast and prostate
Avoid saturated fats - animal productsinclude unsaturated - mono and poly
What are the consequences of anorexia
-delayed puberty, stunted growth- lack of menstruation-dehydration -osteoporosis-irregular heart/heart failure-premature death
33% or advised 10-35%
what is the % of kcal as fats?
8 roles of fatty acids and triglycerides
Energy storage, hormone production, insulation, transport fat soluble vitamins
what are foods with nearly no carbs?
beef, eggs, chicken, fish, veggie oils, and butter/margarine
top and bottom opening muscles of stomach
top - cardiac sphincter
bottom - pyloric sphincter
What are the consequences of high intakes of sodium
Raised blood pressure and aggravated hypertension
How does absporption of minerals vary?
Absorption of minerals from your foods can vary depending upon their bioavailability, which is the degree to which a nutrient from foods is available for absorption.
Essential, Ideal and Obese Percentages of Body Fat
A. Men- 3%, 8-15%, 25% +     B. Women- 12%, 18-24%, 30% +
Lead in dental enamel can be used to determine environmental exposure to  to lead?
Excessive lead exposure can be seen as a pitting in tooth structure. Lead can be incorperated into the skelatal or tooth structure. Milk binds to lead.
What is the function of Magnesium?
-It is a building protein, and uses energy-assists in the operation of 300+ enzymes-directly affects metabolism of potassium, calcium and vitamin d-critical to normal heart function- bone mineralization-immune function-nerve function-muscular function
What are causes of short term weight fluctuations
§ Energy expended is > energy intake§ Changes in hydration status§ Content in digestive tract§ Minor changes in muscle and liver glycogen
Why do you breathe heavy after running or working out?
oxygen debt: need O2 to metabolize lactic acid
Diet that lowers risk of heart disease will...
Provide 20-35% total carbs from fat, 10-25 from protein and 45-65 from carbs.Emphasize healthy fats, limit unhealthy oneshigh fiber (35gM/25gF)3 servings veggies, 2 of fruitswhole grain and nuts400mg folic acidspreads with plant stanols/sterols
Why does the body use alcohol first?
It's toxic and can't be stored, so it is rapidly oxidized.
can you create a diet high in carbs by using potato chips, chocolate and french fries?
no because their percentage of fat is high
&#10;&#10;Iodine deficiency&#8211;children&#10;born with severe mental &amp; physical retardation because of mom&#8217;s lack of&#10;iodine during pregnancy &#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#8211;Most&#10;preventable form of mental retardation, can fix if iodine given in first 6&#10;months of pregnancy &#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;
style of cooking
waht are enzymes
Net Energy for maintenance
Good fiber level
25-30 g/day
Energy density
kcal / grams
163. What is erythrocyte protoporphyrin?
a. Hemoglobin precursor
Gastric distress or indigestion involving nausea, pain, burning sensations, or excessive gas:
function of gallbladder
to store bile
3 – 10 sugar units
Not recommended. Why?-May raise LDL.-Interfere with clotting.-Suppress immune function.-Mercury contamination.-Lack other beneficial nutrients in fish; iodine, selenium, protein.
what is the best cleaner
To avoid ________ contamination during pregnancy, fish consumption should not exceed 12 ounces a week.
Splenda is an artificial sweetener made of ______ with added chorines, chorine may interfere with _______ distortion because they are both halogens.  T/F
the primarily physiological drive to find and eat food mostly regulated by innate cues to eating
excludes all food of animal origin
- fat soluble- antioxidant- stabilizes cell membranes, regulates oxidative reactions, protects polyunsaturated fatty acids and Vitamin A- easily destroyed by heat and oxygen
blood sugar/dextrose - provides major energy sourcemain fuel for brain, needed for RBCs (major carb found in bloodstream)body uses this form best
is the breakdown of biochemical substances into simpler substances and occurs during physiological states of negative nitrogen balance. Starvation is an example of catabolism, when wasting of body tissues occurs.
basic foods
milk and milk products; vegetables...etc. also called whole foods.
Food Labels:Ingredient List
-All ingredients listed-Descending order of predominance by weight.
personal adaptation
adapted for the indv. needs
spiritual variable
stressors such as religious practices that impact diet. Some religions avoid meat during Easter, some prohibit caffeinated tea, coffee and alcohol, some prohibit pork, shrimp etc
Diets high in ______________________ have been shown to decrease blood levels of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains
less lipid
Niacin Functions
carb and fatty acid metabolismDNA replication and repaircell differentiation
Six Types of Nutrients
Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals and Water
NOTE: fiber may be important in preventing and treating diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
What is the most essential nutrient the body needs?
An embolus that causes sudden closure of a blood vessel.
Adults- 1/3 to 1/2 of body mass&#13;&#10;Newborns- 90% of body mass&#13;&#10;in 99% of molecules in body
The Typical North American Diet: 16% of kcals as?
Sources of Calcium
Dairy, fish, greens, blackberries, dates, orange, and rhubarb
memory cells
lymphocytes that differentiate from b cells and t cells recognize a particular antigen for an infectious disease and remain in the body after the disease is resolved to be ready to respond if the disease is encountered again later.
vit A
*precursor to rhodopsin syn; important in glycogprotein syn; regulator of epithelial differentiation*night blindness; squamous metaplasia (many places including eyes and urinary tract (recurrent stones), essential for repro
Role of Dietitian
Determines nutritional needs, plans and manages nutrional therapy, recorrds results
energy needs
about 340-450 more calories/day in second and third trimester
What nutrient is the most energy dense?
34. What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?
a. Pantothenic acid
potassium sources
all whole foods; meats, milks, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes
the site of hereditary information in the cells; DNA directs the synthesis of cell protiens
vitamin D is classified also as what?
a hormone
- measures the amount of oxygen consumed
Function of Riboflavin
Coenzyme for energy metabolism, needed for skin health and normal vision.
Obesity Genes
Genes that code for proteins involved in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, or the deposition of body fat. When they are abnormal the result is abnormal amounts of body fat.
Nutrient composition of the body differs from?
that of food
AI - adequate intakes
nutrient intakek goals for individuals; the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on intakes of healthy people in a particular life stage and gender group.
Know Your Grains
-REFINED: foods lose nutrients during processing-ENRICHED: foods have nutrients add back--Iron, Thaiamin, Riboflavin, Folate-Whole-GRAIN: products are not refined.-FORTIFIED: foods have nutrients added that were not part of the original food
How many women does gestational diabetes effect?
1 in 25
The appearance of euphoria in a person engaged in outdoor sports activities may be an early sign of
Which of the organ is responsible for the manufacturing and secretion of insulin and glucagon, as well as many digestive enzymes?
The primary source of energy for the brain and nervous system under normal conditions is what?
carbs (glucose)
an organelle bound by its own double membrane and containing chromosomes, the genetic information for cell protien synthesis and cell replication
- the point at which controls are set. - The body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls.
Function of Vit K
Synthesis of blood clotting proteins, proteins important to bone mineralization
Unsaturated (fatty acids):
an unequal number of hydrogen atoms are attached and the carbon atoms attach to each other with a double bond
What is associated with heart disease?
high levels of triglycerides
Where is Vitamin E Found?
*Vegetable oil*Seed oils*Green leafy vegs*Avocados*Wheat germ*Egg yolks*Butter
Eating disorders vs. disordered eating
-eating disorders include anorexia, bulimia
-disordered eating is NOS
Effects of leptin on skeletal muscle
leptin signaling, activates AMPK, inhibits ACC, increases fatty oxidation, decreases accumulation of fat, improves insulin sensitivity
107. Which of the following is a feature of taking high-dose supplements of vitamin A
a. They increase teratogenic risk
Species with pronounced incisors are likely to primarily eat:
1. fibrous plants (ex: grass)
2. grains
3. insects
4. meat
1. fibrous plants (ex: grass)
How much energy is provided by a gram of carbohydrates?
4 kcals
gastric by-pass diet:
small meals, low fat, high protein, no carbonated bverages, or high fiber

a restrictive/modified diet. is long-term.
What is the % of protein needed?
10-20% of daily cal
using the rda s a guidlin, adults need
.9 kg/kg ibw
Two main pathways for alcohol metabolism
ADH in cytosol (Stomach and liver)
MEOS in ER (liver only)
139. Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
a. Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K
granulated table sugar is the most common for of
sucrose which is a monosaccharide.
why people eat fast foods?
people live alone, live nonformal life style, women are working, convenience and less expensive
What is the gycemic index?
GI- refers to foods' (mainly carbs) influence on blood sugar
Studies report that folate supplements for women may lower the incidence of neural tube defects of infants when the vitamin is taken during the
month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy.
90. Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?
a. Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
What does the science of nutrition study?
-the interactions that occur between living organisms and food
T or F- Fats are saturated or unsaturated
False-*very few fats are just “saturated” or “unsaturated”, fats are a mixture of triglycerides
Quality proteins// examples of high, med, and low
provide all of the essential aa that the body relatively producesmore digestible = higher qualityHIGH= animal sourcesMID= soybeans, legumesLOW= grains/ nuts
When it says high in nutrient that means what?
20% or more of the Daily value
When chemical bonds in food are broken down, energy is released. What are four things this energy is used for?
1) Build new muscle
2) Move muscles
3) Transmit nerve impulses
4) Maintain ion balance
Which of the following is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose.
blood glucose levels that fall too low sognal the release of glucagon.
What is the RDA for Calcium for people ages\n51+?
· \n1200 mg
glucose-->pyruvate +NADH+ATP
Vitamin A
Night blindness
wavelike muscular contractions
Canola oil
b. Monounsaturated fatty acids
dental carries
most lipids are..
Sources of Vitamin B6(Pyridoxine)?
AMPK functions
whole body energy homeostasis
inhibits ATP requiring processes
stimulates catabolic processes
functions are nutrient sensor in hypothalamus
activity increases during fasting
leptin downreg in brain and upreg in body
Sodium Function
absorption of nutrientsmuscle contractionmaintains acid-base balance(+ charge in extracellular)
What synthesizes protein?
carbohydrates and fats
why do we require cobalt?
Saturated fats
o Completely saturated-only single bonds max amt of H atoms
Anorexia treatment
-stabilize physical condition
-restore nutrients
-gradual weight gain
-psychotherapy: individual, groups, family
milk fever
metabolic disorder occurring near/at time of birth from sudden drop in Ca levels
69. Among the following water-soluble vitamins, a secondary deficiency would most likely be seen for
a. Vitamin B12
pigments found in plants responsible for the color changes seen in autumn leaves.
hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha-cells in response to decreased blood glucose
Pellagra is the deficiency disease of?
t/f hemmorides = low fiber diet
Fat-storing cells. Adipocytes grow in size as they accumulate more triglycerides.
Soluble (viscous) fiber Examples:
gum, pectin, mucilage
Caclium RDA
Men and women-1200mg/dayBoys and girls-1300mg/day
beriberi reults from deficiancy of
what percent of impovershed elderly live in SWVA
Activity ThermogenesisEnergy Expenditures
20-40% of total energy expenditureFactors: Aging, Body size, EPOC
14. Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of
a. Hydrogen atoms


grains and seeds which are low in lysine and high in methionine, with legumes which are high in lysine and low in methionine is called what?
Protein Complementation
a heart disease associated with selenium deficiency
keshan disease.
the fluid and organelles in a cell
where is phosphorus located
-80% skeleton
-20% soft tissue
laboratory studies
studies that are performed under tightly controlled conditions and are designed to pinpoint causes and effects. Such studies often use animals.
docosanexanoic acid
lactose is related to milk t/f
What do greens contain that interact with a number of meds?
Bacterial Metabolism of Soluble Fiber is a Fuel source for?
bacterial cells
an organ with two main functions. Endocrine function: the making of hormones such as inculin. Exocrine: digestive enzymes.
risk factors that predict hypertension except
salt intake
Tolerable upper intake level. the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people.
OsteoperosisNutritional Therapy
• Suplements of Vitamin D (1000-2000 IU/day) & calcium (1500 mg/day individed doses)• Increase sun exposure & dairy intake• Don’t smoke or drink heavily• Reduce sodium intake• Avoid diet high in meats without fruits & veggies• Increase weight bearingexercise
Bariatrics is a field of medicine that specialized in the treatment of
Hypercatabolic (hypermetabolic) disease
due by injury, sepsis, infection results in inc metabolism, inc lipolysis, hyperglycemia, inc protein turnover & inc catabolism, inc body temperaturefirst metabolic insult, secondary PEM
an atom with an unequal number of electrons and protons. Negative ions have more electrons than protons; positive ions have more protons than electrons.
Which of the following animals would be most likely to be healthy (long-term) if it consumed a diet with no B vitamins?
A. horse
B. lion
C. cow
D. pig
E. turkey
C. cow
proteins, made by cells of the immune system, that are expressly designed to combine with and inactivate specific antigens.
The component of red blood cells that carries oxygen.
The Immune system
needs cooperation with other tissues to maintain defensesantigenwhite blood cells, phagocytes and lymphocytes
is a coenzyme in energy metabolism and rol in nerve functioning
Btwn 25 - 29.9 = overweight. BMI &gt;30 = obese. 18-24 is normal.
multifactorial disease
any disease that may be attributable to one or more of a variety of causes.
Describe enzymatic digestion
- host digestive enzymes
- microbial enzymes in foregut and hindgut
Thiamin deficiency causes polyneuritis and is due to..
heat destruction and thiaminases
Iron dextran
given to 1-7 day old piglets to prevent anemia
Which of the following as an omega-3 fat?
linoleic acid
sulfur and proteins
the body receives sulfate from the amino acids methionine and cysteine found in dietary proteins. these help build di-sulfide bridges in proteins.
Biological Value (BV)
BV% = [N retained/N absorbed] X 100
[N intake - fecal N - urine N/N intake - fecal N] X 100
What are energy yielding nutrients?
Energy yielding nutrients contain energy that the body can use. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are energy yielding nutrients.
When does peak bones mass occur
30 years of age
general characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following EXCEPT
they must be consumed daily
nutrients that regulate body processes, do not supply energy
vitamins, minerals, trace elements, water
(vitamins and minerals are micronutrients)
what is a precursor
a substance used to make another
Which of the following is a common product of anaerobic metabolism?
Lactic acid
Symptoms of Vitamin E deficiency
Red Cell hemolysis in malnourished infants
catch up growth
btwn 2-5 yo (7-10 yo maximum upper limit)
The chief form of fat in foods and in the human body.
What are general nutritional guidelines for kidney stones? (5)
Limit high oxalate foodsGet adequate calcium (not too much, not too little)Avoid high protein intakeAvoid high sodium intakeGet adequate fluids
The Glycemic Load is a Better reflection of food’s ?
effect on blood glucose
What are the two main energy-yielding nutrients in Fat(lipids).
Linoleic acid (omega-6)a-linolenic acid (omega-3)
People at higher risk for foodborne illness
-immune disorders like HIV
-liver disease
What does fatty acid mean?
Fatty Acids: Differ in chain length and degree of saturation. Different fatty acids have different characteristics and properties
the main sites in the body used for digestion and absorption of nutrients. it consits of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. also called the digestive tract.
Transfer Ribonucleic Acid (tRNA)
A form of RNA in the cytoplasm involved in gene translation
Blood Glucose Control: Role of the pancreas?
-Release of insulin
-Release of glucagon
nutrients most likely to fall short in an adolescents diet
are iron and calcium
What are the structural levels of the human body organized into (smallest to largest) ?
Atomic, Molecular, cellular, tissue, organs, organ system, organism
Worldwide, most of the livestock are found:
A. in North America
B. in Asia
C. in South America
D. in Australia
E. livestock are raised nearly everywhere
E. livestock are raised nearly everywhere
What four things make it easier to cope with lactose maldigestion?
-Determine tolerated amount
-Eat dairy with fat
-Cheese and yogurt more easily tolerated
-Lactase pills
How does transient hypertension of pregnancy affect pregnancy
Mild rise in blood pressure
No adverse effects
what happens to excess fat in the body?
it is efficiently converted to fat.
What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown?
50 to 100 grams of carbohydrates
Which of the following factors would determine the biological value of a protein?
1. Digestibility of the protein
2. Amino acid composition
3. Tertiary structure of the protein
4. How much energy was consumed with it
-if retained, it meets the needs of the animal
-high protein meets amino acid needs well
2. Amino acid composition
Why is yogurt tolerated better than milk by many lactase-deficient people?
The bacteria in yogurt helps digest the lactose
If a farm has a problem with zinc deficiency, but is feeding plenty of zinc, the most likely reason is:
1. The animals are missing the zinc transporter
2. Another mineral fed in excess is preventing zinc absorption
3. The feed contains a zinc-bindi
2. Another mineral fed in excess is preventing zinc absorption
define mastication
Phospholipids match to:
organic, Metabolizingorganic cpds
Krebs cycle
needed in small amounts&#13;&#10;impact body fxns in very small amounts&#13;&#10;&#13;&#10;regulate body processes
major extra cellular cation
1 gram = ___ milligram
Peroxyle RadicalMay promote oxidation of LDLs
Back Pain
1. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)
2. Calcium and Magnesium
3. Bromelain
4. Glucosamine sulfate
5. Cayenne cream
Iron deficency
reduced work capacitymicrocytic anemia-fatigue, pale skin, depressed immune function, impaired nerve function, impaired memory.
UL of vitamin C
200 mg,
Copper Toxicity
Tolerable Upper Intake=10mg/dayWho is at risk: Zinc suplimenters, Wilson's diseaseSymptoms: nausea, vomiting, gastricpain, liver damage, Kayser-Fleischerrings around cornea
a form of protein-energy malnutrition that is typically seen in developing countries in infants and toddlers who weaned early because of the birth of a subsequent child; fed cereal instead and had inadequate protein
the maintenance of constant internal conditions by the body's control systems.
getting food into the mouth
tools: claw/paw, lips, tongue, teeth
medically, any substance that the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and to grow; the carried of nourishment; socially, a more limited number of such substances defined as accetable by each culture.
\n Functions- fluid balance\n Sources- salt, soy sauce, processed\n foods
1. Policosanol
2. Red yeast rice
3. Garlic
4. Niacin
5. Fish oil
6. Guggul
7. Antioxidant formula
Place steth over client's epigastrium and inject 10-30 ml of air into tube and listen for whoosh. Advance 2 in. and repeat tests. secure tube by &quot;floating&quot; it in middle of nostril, so as not to press against edge of nose. attach tube to suction, feeding app, or clamp the end. secure to clients gown.
Activation of folacin-(Folic acid)
Fatty acid synthesis
Common food allergens
-peanuts and other nuts
which is the most difficult macromolecule to digest
True or False: The Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) are used for setting recommended intake values for energy.
a. Trueb. False(TRUE)
198. What is the function of renin?
a. Activates angiotensin
PEM increases risk of death from concomitant infections
cholecystokinin (CCK)
provoked by presence of fat, stimulates release of bile in the small intestine (can also work in the pancreas and liver)
polysaccharide that has a structural role providing rigidity and strength to cell walls in plants.
dietary fiber
a circular muscle surrounding and able to close a body opening.
any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients.  Nutrient of energy deficiencies are classes as forms of under-nutrition; nutrient or energy excesses are classed as forms of over-nutrition
Less than normal total body water; leads to dehydration
forms bons teeth, functions in energy transfer and buffers. In protein
what is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells
atrophic gastritis
a condition frequently seen in individuals over the age of 50 in which stomach acid secretion is low
When an individual is deprived of dietary carbohydrates for a prolonged period of time the body may make ketone bodies from fat fragments that accumulate as a result of excessive fat breakdown and this accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood is called
Optimal nutrition for athletes
-adequate energy and nutrients
-appropriate body composition
-promote recovery from training
-maintain hydration
niacin sources
meats, poultry, fish, dark green leafies, whole grain enriched breads and cereals
What describes fat-soluble vitamins?
1. Insoluble in water2. Micronutrients3. Soluble in fat
78. Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?
a. Anitoxidant agent
a blood vessel that carries blood to the heart
Macromineral toxicities and deficiencies
-Calcuim deficiency: Rickets, Calcuim tetany, Perparturient Pariesis (Milk fever)
-Phosphorus deficiencies: Pica, Rickets
-Low Calcium and Phosphorus ratios: big head and distorted snout
-Magnesium issues: calssification of soft tissues & skeletal deformities-most common with excess calcium and phosphorus, grass tetany (PEM)
extracellular fluid
fluid residing outside the cells that transports materials to and from the cells
Deficiencies of Phosphorous
&#10;&#10;Phosphorous needs are met or exceeded by&#10;almost any diet and deficiencies are unknown &#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;Soda levels/growing children &#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;&#10;
Choose a number of different foods within any?
given food group
Daily Values
nutrient standards that are printed on food labels. Based on nutrient and energy recommendations for a general 2,000 calories diet, they allow consumers to compare the nutrient and energy contents of packaged foods.
daily % energy intake values for fat, carbs, and protein
Vision problems in elderly
Can affect ability to shop/cook
Antioxidants may reduce macular degeneration
any substance or agent that tends to produce a cancer.
A study conducted in several countries where a high intake of fish and a low intake of animal fat were correlated with a low rate of death from breast cancer is an example of a(n):
a. Epidemiological studyb. Case studyc. Intervention studyd. Blind experimente. Clinical trial(A)
194. How does antidiurectic hormone function?
a. It stimulates water re-absorption by the kidneys
a group of different types of atoms bonded together in definite proportion
a single sugar used in both plant and animal tissues for energy
The condition in which the cells fail to respond to insulin as they do in health people is called?
insulin resistance
High density lipoproteins
plasma proteins that carry fat in bloodstream to tissue or to liver to be excreted.

cardioprotective- &quot;good cholesterol&quot;

1:3 ratio
quality of protein sources
high quality: meats and milk
mid quality: legumes
low quality: grains
Why do we need food?
energy, growth and maintanence (body)
How much should you feed a newborn?
8-12x per day
e. coli
from water and beef, can cause kidney failure and death
List and describe the 5 characteristics of a healthy diet
A-Adequacy- foods provide enough essential nutrient, fiber and energyB- Balance- the choices do not overemphasize one food type C- calorie control- the foods provide the amount of energy you need to maintain appropriate weightM-moderation- dont eat to much of one thingV- variety- switching what you eat gives better nutrition and avoids building up toxins.
soft liquid diet
all cream soups plus full and clear liquid diet foods, cooked cereal, cornflakes, rice, noodles, maceroni, spaghetti, white bread, crackers, melba toast, zwirback, eggs(NOT FRIED), mild cheese, cottage and cream cheese, fowl, fish, sweetbreads, tender beef, veal lamb, liver, bacon, gravy, potatoes baked mashed creamed scalloped, tender cooked whole bland vegetables, fresh lettuce, tomatos cooked fruit:applesauce ripe peaches, orange and grapefruit section without membrane
- The number of kilocalories that the body derives from a food, as contrasted with the number of kilocalories determined by calorimentry. - The number will be less than the total calories available in the food source.
high cellulose is digested by what?
microorganisms in a syboitic relationship
Special Diets - Clear liquid
Water, tea, coffee, broths, 7up, strained/clear juices and jello. Clear does not mean colorless. Relieve thirst, prevent dehydration, minimize stimulation of GI tract. Not alot of nutritional value. good after surgeries or beg. of infection.
Fat Fuel (Fatty Acid)
Majority of stored energy in the body
Fatty acids
Converted to ATP by muscle cells
Important energy source for low-moderate intensity aerobic exercise
function of phosphorous
85% combined with calcium in bones and teeth, acid/base balance, part of genetic material (dna and rna), part of phospholipids
217. Which of the following is a major function of chloride?
a. Helps maintain gastric acidity
Cholesterorl is found in...
(made by the liver) Only in foods derived from animal sources.
liquid lipids at room temperature
what oils have high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids
health benefits? problems? with consuming various lipids
replace saturated and trans fats with monunsaturated and polyunsaturated fats to lower cholesterol
Methionine dermatitis/ poor growth is due to
poor quality meats adn inadequate protein
What are the functions of Vitamin E?
Red blood cells, inhibits coagulation of the blood, cellular respiration. Antioxidant.
What are sone food rich with potassium?
whole foods, orange juice, bananas, lima beans, avocado
What are the fat soluble vitamins, what are their functions and sources?
Vitamin A- healthy skin, mucous membranes, improves night vision
carrots, squash

Vitamin D- calcium absorption
sun light, fortified milk

Vitamin E- hemoglobin synthesis
whole grains, vegetable oils

Vitamin K- clotting factors
green leafy vegs
___ - ___ % of an adult's healthy body weight is fluid.
50% to 70%
Three ways in which what you eat today can affect your health
-malnutrition: energy or nutrient intake below or above suggested
Which of the following is a characteristic of use of the drug ecstasy?
Using it regularly leads to weight loss.
How do drugs and alcohol cause weight gain?
-Alcohol: rich in calories, excess is stored as fat, and alcohol intake does not suppress appetite or fat intake&#13;&#10;-Nicotine: may inhibit the appetite and increase REE, cessation of smoking may lead to weight gain
- tRNA brings aa from the cell fluid to the mRNA- When the mRNA calls for a specific aa the tRNA with that aa attaches itself to the RNA. - Each tRNA attaches itself when called and the tRNA are binded by enzymes. - The protein strand is released and the tRNA is free to go load up on more aa.
how do you lose a pound in a week?
1 lb. of body fat ~3500 kcals. eat ~500 kcals less per day
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