Nutrition Final 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Niacin
Pellagra
9 kcal/g
lipids
Glucose 
Fructose 
Galactose
The monosaccharides are?
fat in mouth
lipase
proteins with carbohydrates attached
glycoproteins
Flouride


•occurs naturally in the
body as calcium fluoride 

•


• is found primarily in
bones & teeth

•


•inhibits cavities by
building the tooth matrix- combines with calcium and phosphorous to protect
teeth from bacteria 

•


•acts directly on the
plaque bacteria 





Binge-eating disorder treatment
-psychotherapy
-long-term support
-antidepressants
225. What is calcodulin?
a. A calcium-binding protein
intestinal enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose into glucose and galactose
lactase
Normal Body Mass Index(BMI) range
18.4-24.9
coensyme that lowers cholesterol. found in meats whole grains dairy
niacin
-Simple sugars-Starches -(Complex Carbs)-Fiber
Simple Sugars?
limited in legumes
lle and lys
four steps to food safety
1. Clean2. Separate3. Cook 4. Chill
Sodium
Sources: Salt, Soy Sauce, Processed MeatsFunction: Extracellular Fluid Balance
Scientific Method
1)Observe a phenomenon2)Formulate an hypothesis (educated guess)3)Perform an experiment to test the hypothesis 4)Replicate the findings of an experiment by independent experimenters5)No study is ever perfect6)One study is never enough7)Peer review of results
1 Calorie = ....
1,000 calories
1,000 kilocalories
capillaries
minute, weblike blood vessels that connect arteries to veins and permit transfer of materials between blood and tissues.
Hyperhydration?
Greater than normal total body water
long term external nutrition with a
gastrostomy
True or False:
Lipids dissolve in water
False
Symptoms cont.
-Hyperglycemia > 126 mg/dl fasting.-Glucose in the urine.-Ketosis
Helpful herbs
-St. John's wort
-milk thistle
-ginkgo biloba
-saw palmetto
-cranberry
Large Intestine (Colon)
egestion (removal of waste), reabsorption of excess water, vitamin K and B produced by bacteria
Polypeptides are strings of ____________________ amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
10 or more
Which of the following describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells?
Metabolism
Experimental and control group
Used in conducting research.Experimental: gets the active ingredient/substance being studied.Control gets placebo.
legumes
beans, peas, and lentils that provide protein, vitamins, minerals, and fiber while contributing little fat
NOTE: because most cells use glucose for energy, the body turns to glycogen during periods of limited glucose availability, such as fasting and strenuous exercise.
What works with insulin to control blood glucose levels?
chromium
function of selenium
co-factor for antioxidant enzymes, works together with vitamin E, aids in cancer prevention
Essential fatty acids
linoleic acidomega 3 and 6(Eicosanoids)
Nutrients:
are the elements necessary for body processes and function
Cholesterol
fatlike substance prod by body and found in animal procuts. Most synthesized in liver. Needed to create bile acids and synthesize steroid hormones.
plasma
the fluid portion of the bloodncessary to maintain blood volume so that the blood can flow easily
acesulfame potasium
sunett, sweet one, 200x heat stable
Erogenic Aids
tendency to increase work output; various substances that increase work or exercise capasity and output
deficiency of mg
poor bone mineralization, convulsions, confusion, muscle contraction
In which trimester of pregnancy is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens?
1st
165. What type of anemia results from iron deficiency?
a. Microcytic hypochromic
sources of phosphorus
all animal tissues (meat, fish poultry, eggs, milk)
UMAMI
definition
a brothy, meaty, savory flavor in some foods. monosodium glutamate enchances this flavor when added to foods
6 Classes of Nutrients
Fats, Proteins, Carbs, Vitamins, Minerals, Water
HEMAGLOBIN
- carries oxygen in the blood- Iron activates the protein and is stored in the Heme (the nonprotein portion)
what are epidemiological studies?
determine incidence and distribution of diseases
Pernicious Anemia
-occurs when cells that make intrinsic factor are destroyed-older adults-> atrophic gastritis= inflammation of the stomach lining-causes a reduction is acid secretion-can't release B12 from food proteins
Balance :Eat foods from the?
five major food groups
Free
none or a trivial amount. Calorie free means containin fewer than 5 calories per serving; sugar free or fat free means containing less than half a gram per serving.
Trans Fatty Acids
Fatty acids with unusual double-bond structures caused by hydrogenated unsaturated oils.
Nonfood cravings
Cravings for nonfood items such as laundry, clay, dirt
Cultural phenomena
Not a response to nutrient needs
Which of the following is known to speed up the passage of bile through the large intestines, thereby decreasing exposure time to microorganisms?
Fiber
Which of the following is/are nutrition factors for lowering blood pressure?
a. lower salt intakeb. maintain healthy weightc. moderate alcohol intaked. Exercise regularlye. All of the above(E)
glycemic index
rating of the potential of foods to raise blood glucose and insulin levels
LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER
definition
a circular muscle that constricts the opening of the esophagus to the stomach also called the
Gastroesophageal Sphincter
EAR -estimated average requirements
the average daily nutrient intake estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals
Sources of Thiamin
pork, liver, ham, seeds, whole grains, and legumesin all nutritious foods in moderation
What comes from animal, solid at room temp.
saturated fat
What are proteins composed of?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen
Pathothenic Acid is important in the metabloism of what?
Proteins & Carbs
Dental health in elderly
May interfere with eating ability
May interfere with food choices
three parts of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum and ileum
Lean sources of meat are ___ g saturated fat per ___ oz serving.
<4.5 g;
3 oz
One difference between dietary fiber and amylose is that:
amylose has alpha-glycosidic bonds, whereas dietary fiber has beta-glycosidic bonds
TRANSPORT PROTEINS
- acrs as a gate for substances to move inside and outside of the cell.
Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)
The energy expended for everything we do other than sleeping eating or sports-like exercise.
What are the three functional subcategories of nutrients?
1. Energy yielding (protein, carbohydrates, lipids)
2. Promote growth, development and maintenance (water, some vitamins and minerals, protein and lipids)
3. Regulate body processes (water, some vitamins and minerals, protein and lipids)
What are the three functional subcategories of nutrients?
What functions do they serve?
Heme vs nonheme iron
heme found in animal products, nonheme plant products
what is a branched chain alpha keto acid dehydrogenase
maple syrup disease
168. Why are hemoglobin and hermatocrit tests of limited usefulness in the assessment of iron status?
a. They are late indicators of iron deficiency
What chemical groups make up an amino acid?
Amino group
Alpha group
Carboxyl group
*R = a unique side chain
Positive Nitrogen Balance
more nitrogen in body at the end of day than the beginning. Body builders, pregnant woman, babies
Carbohydrates uses &amp; breakdown in the body
Simple Carb sugars (mono &amp; disaccharides): Fruit, honey &amp; milk

Complex carb (polysaccharides): Bread, ceral, flour, pasta, nuts &amp; potatoes

Glucose - used by body cells to make ATP

Neurons &amp; RBC's rely almost entirely upon glucose for their energy needs.

Excess glucose is converted to glycogen &amp; stored

Breakdown: glycolysis --Cellular respiration
Which of the following is an advantage of breastfeeding compared with formula feeding?
It provides immunological protection.
204. All of the following are properties of electrolytes except
a. They include fat-soluble as well as water-soluble particles
HEALTH RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
- central obesity may raise the risk of heart attack and stroke- weight gain increase risk- high LDL cholesterol, hypertension, and smoking increase risk
What do proteins do in the body?
-provides 4kcal of energy per gram
-major component of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bone matrix (needed for building and repairing these structures)
-needed for skin, hair, nails, brain neurotransmitters
-needed for synthesis of many hormones
-needed to form all enzymes
-needed for formation of antibodies
-fluid balance
-acid bas ph

-stimulates the release of glucogon, a fat burning hormone that maintains stable glucose levels and releases stored fat so it can burn for energy
-low protein can cause amino acid imbalance, muscle loss, decreased metabolism, mineral loss and low glucagon levels
-high protein diets can cause ketosis if carbs are low
What is the name and symptom of this vitamin's deficiency disease? Folate
Folate- anemia (large-cell type), elevated homocysteine, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, immune suppression, frequent infections, smooth red tongue, increased risk of neural tube birth defects, depression, mental confusion, fatigue, irritability, headache, spina biffida for children in mother’s womb
What is the enzyme system of superoxide dismutase?
Converts free radical to less damaging substances, such as hydrogen peroxide
How would you respond to someone who states that white bread is just as nutritious as whole-wheat bread?
a. White bread is just as nutritious because it has been enriched with iron, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, and folate.b. Whole-wheat bread is preferable because it is likely to contain several nutrients not added to white bread.c. Whole-wheat bread is higher in fiber content than white bread.d. a and be. b and c(E)
A meat described as &quot;prime cut&quot; means that it
is higher in fat than other cuts of meat.
What are Complex Carbs?
· \nBread, pasta, cereal, fruits, veggies
3. Which of the following is NOT a retrospective dietary intake assessment method?
a. Food records b. 24 hr dietary recall c. Detailed diet histories d. Food frequency questionnaire e. None of the above(A)
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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