Nutrition Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Organic
Carbs
Fats
Proteins
Vitamins
{Coenzymes}
Fat-Free
>0.5g fat/serving
Water Soluble Vitamins
B-Vitamins
bile
emulsifier of fat
yellow-green
lutein zeaxanthin
 
leafy greens, avocado, honeydew
Rickets
childhood vit. d deficiency
stored form of glucose
glycogen
Leptin
Hormone that decreases appetite
VitaminsWater Soluble
Thiamin B1Riboflavin B2Niacin B3Pyridoxine B6Cobalamin B12Folic AcidBiotinVitamin C
Sources of B-6
plants and meat
anorexia nervosa
Mental disorder-distorted body image
EER stands for
Estimated Energy Requirements
•Heart (pump)•Arteries, veins, capillaries (conduits)•Blood (fluid medium)•Portal system (from intestine to liver)
Cardiovascular system
BMR stands for...
Basic metabolic rate
Dietary Cholesterol
Found only in animal foods
mercury contamination
mostly through fish through fungicides, fossil fuel exhaust, paper mills
 
pregnant women shouldnt eat much fish 
brown sugar
essentially sucrose containing some molasses
Macronutrients
Nutrients needed in large amounts, such as carbs, protiens, fats and water
Heme iron
iron provided from animal sources
kwashiorkor
usually child stops being breastfed b/c mother becomes pregnant again, and is instead fed a gruel of staple food (corn, rice) which has low biological protein value on its own
thin muscles, some fat, edema
provides most of energy muscles use
glycogen
___________ is limited, so body protein is used through gluconeogenesis.
Glycogen
Weight
varies for different sports
too lean: may not have peak peformance
minimum body fat males 7-8%
females 10-12 %
 
body weight changes -done during off seasons 
why? chornic glycogen depletion can compromise peformance
 
to grain weight: increase calories and muscular work 
1 Lbm=2000 calories
 
using glucose to fuel activity
at rest > 50% fatty acids
50% glucose
 
CHO preferred fuel for muscles
saliva (mouth)
contributes to starch digestion, utilizing salivary amylase, lubrication, and swallowing
What can help alleviate a hangover?
TIME
Hydrogenation
Bombarding atoms with hydrogen so nothing else can bond to it
e. coli 0157:H7
80,000 cases/year
8% of people die
onset:1-8 days
duration: 5-10 days
symptoms: bloody diarrhea, ab cramps
foods: raw beef, milk, fruits & vege's
contamination: cattle 
peak blood concentration of alcohol after ingested in what amount of time?
1 hour
do large quantities of galatose exist in nature?
n0
Lipoproteins
Molecules in the blood that help transport cholesterol and fatty acids to tissues
Osteoids
Young bone that has not undergone calcification
4 mechanisms of absorption
simple diffusion (osmosis)
passie diffusio (most water soluble substances have to attach themselves to carriers to pass through cell membrane from higher to lower concentration)
active transport (low to high, requires ATP)
pinocytosis (cellsurrounds nutrient and sucks it up)
Natural lipids
egg yolk, liver, soybeans, wheat germ
targeting body weight, muscle wasting, fat stores, volume status, and signs of micronutrient deficiency are used as an assessment of what
nutritional status
functions of calcium
nerve transmission, blood pressure, bones/muscle, combines with phosporus
How quickly and efficiently a muscle cell produces ________ determines how much work the cell can do before it fatigues.
ATP
Number of double bonds that are present in monosaturated fats
One
True or False 1/3 of metabolically healthy people were considered obese, and half were considered overweight
True
Nutrition
The science of foods and their components, including the relationships to health and disease, processes within the body, and the social, economic, cultural, and physiological implications of eating
What percentage of lipids in foods are triglycerides?
95%
Water recommendation for inactive children
1.5 ml water/kcal expended
Dahlia needs to lose 5 pounds expending 300 extra calories a day, how long will it take to lose 5 pounds?
35 days
honey?
a product of plant nectar that has been altered by bee enzymes
break down sucrose into fructose and glucose
offers some nutritional value as other simple sugars
 
Lipid Functions
Storage form of energy, Supply of essential fatty acids, Absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamines, Organ insulation and protection, Flavor and satiety of food, Cell membrane structure, Precursor to steroid hormones.
Toxicity of Folate
folate will help with B-12 deficiency
Major Mouth function
Mechanical Breakdown of food, secretes saliva, water, salts and mucus (amylase)
dieting without exercise =
weight loss that is regained
natural healthy weight criteria
metabolic fitness, comfortable in daily activites, diff for indiv.
Lipoprotein
The way fat is transported in the bloodstream
amino acids
the building blocks of protein. Forms 20 different combos.
•At this point, most of nutrients are absorbed•Most of water absorption occurs in large intestine•Some dietary fiber digested by bacteria that lives in large intestine-Creates short chain fatty acids-Creates gas•Feces created-Mostly dead bacte
Large Intestine
EXCESS AND DEFICIENCIES FOR: Potassium and Iron
Potassium
Excess:Hyperkalemia (from supplements) too much potassium in blood.
Deficiency:Hypokalemia, from bouts of vomiting and/or diarrhea (seen in bulimia or anorexia)
Iron
Excess: Constipation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Deficiency: Anemia
Average child sees x food ads per year
10,000
What factors influence sweat rate?
○ Genetics○ Age○ Sport○ Climate○ Acclimatization○ Hydration status○ Body composition
do sugar alcohols or sugars have more limited uses?
sugar alcohol
Non-essential nutrients
the body can make in suficient amounts if it is lacking in the diet.
High-gructose corn syrup
A carb derived from cornstarch and converted to fructose using enzymes through food processing. In essence, cornstarch is made into a syrup that is about half fructose and half glucose.
purpose of gallbladder
stores bile and releases it into duodenum
Classifications of Fatty Acids are based on:
Chain LegnthLevel of saturationShape
What is the definition of Ghrelin
hormone that stimulates eating
Good food source of Zinc?
Pork, beans, oysters, and cereal
Average amount of weight gained back in quick fix weight loss program.
90 - 95%
light to moderate drinking is
A reduces heart disease and stroke
Intake of VK
90 ug/day for women 120 ug/day menNo UL
Non-essential amino acids can be formed from
precursors if sufficient N is present
What are the max and min of carbon lengths?
4-24 carbons
What are the consequence of high calcium intake?
Constipation, interference with absorption of other minerals, kidney stones
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
use to evaluate your current intake for a specific nutrient, the further you stray above or below this value, the greater your chances of developing nutritional problems
How fast does your liver metabolize alcohol?
Small amount per hour
Bioelectrical Impendance Analysis (BIA)
since fat is a poor conductor of electricity and muscles/water are good conductors, body fat can be estimated by determining how fast electrical current passes from ankle to wrist.
 
advantages: portable, easy to do, painless, accurate
limitations: expensive
Essential fatty acids
Fatty acids that cannot be made by the body and can be provided only by diet. Omega-6 and Omega-3
USDA exercise recommendations for mantaining body weight
approx. 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity on most days of the week while not exceeding caloric intake
What is cancer: uncontrolled cell growth
over 100 different diseases2nd leading cause of death in U.S.takes several genetic changes to create cancer
What is the function of Selenium?
-enzymes that contain selenium are essential to proper functioning of iodine containing thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism-helps prevent free radical formation and protects against oxidation
Daily Value (DV)
use a a rough guide for comparing the nurtient content of a food to approzimate human needs. Typically, this is used on food labels refers to ages 4 year to adulthood. It is based on a 2,000 calorie diet, some values increase slightly with higher calorie intakes
Fat soluble vs. water soluble vitamins
Fat soluble vitamins can cause toxicity in high amounts
does a nutrition label list all the individual forms of fiber?
nope, just a whole value
whats a full liquid diet?
liquids or solid food that turns into liquid at body temperature
Who is most likely to have iron deficiencies?
Women, especially in childbearing years
What makes folic acid so important?
Folic Acid is vital for
DNA synthesis
what is more dangerous to health, subcutaneous or visceral fat; why?
visceral fat. it is more metabolically active. this causes oxidation in cells which leads to chronic inflammation.
#1 cause of death in US
Heart disease - diet plays a large role in its development. Antioxidants (protects food from oxygen damage) helps prevent heart disease and cancer.
When you over eat what happens with excess fats
it is stored in adipose tissue
• What are the recommended levels for restricting diet energy?
○ Should not be restricted to less than 80% TEE, unless medically supervised○ Daily imbalance should not exceed 500-1000 kcals per day § = 1-2 lb/wk weight
If you have decreased amounts of Ca, PTH (parathyroid hormone) increases, which does what?
Increases synthesis of active Vit. D and results in increased absorption of Ca+P from the intestines or from bone
Drop in cholesterol in US adults over past 5 years
240mg to 203mg. Lowered heart disease 50%, but still a big problem. Every 1% decline produces 2% decline in rate of heart disease.
What are the major roles of water in the body?
-makes up about 60% of your weight-carries nutrients throughout the body-participates in chemical reactions-regulates temp.-is a solvent (used to dissolve minerals, glucose, amino acids etc.)-is a lubricant and acts as a cushion for joints, digestive tract. -Protects sensitive tissue like spinal cord, eyes and fetus-acts as coolant (sweat)
Be able to label foods in the 6 food groups.
Study the book to see if you are right!
Diaphoresis
Excessive sweating
Vitamins
Maintain vital processes
Micronutrients
Vitamins & Minerals
Glucose
Blood sugar or Dextrose
Solutes
Dissoved substances in fluid
Endoderm
digestive, respiratory systems, glandular organs
lactose
found in milk. disaccharide.
Serum Cholesterol
manufactured within the body
Peripheral
Extremities ie legs and arms
cariogenic
capable of causing (dental) caries
BT Corn
major controversy caterpillar (european corn borer). pesticides cause problems when other animals eat it or it kills too much so BT = bacteria kills caterpillar by toxin. Protein is only toxic to the caterpillar and a few other insects. now gene inserted into the corn
LDL
Bad cholesterolSynthersized by the liverTransports mostly cholesterolto tissuesHigh-Fat diets decreases removal from blood
food groups
categories of similar foods
Triglycerides
Most common lipid in body
Retinal-binding protein
specific protein responsible for transporting retinol
endurance is greatest when calories come from
carbs
diverticulitis
an inflammation of the diverticula caused by acids produced by bacterial metabolism inside the diverticula
Lipids
Substances that are insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents such as ether, acetone and chloroform. Fatty acids, Trigylcerides, phospholipids, sterols such as cholesterol. Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen
Tryptophan configuration
60mg tryp=1mg niacin1g protein=10mg tryp
Additive
it could possibly get in food
Dairy-Lo
Protein globules, substiture for fat in milk
9
how many kcals are in lipids?
Fasting
Should be closel watched. Increases stress on GI tract -- intestinal starvation, can't produce mucus on cell lining, can become infected.
fat
a nutrient that provides stored energy and helps the body store and use vitamins. it ocntains nine calories per gram
sulfite sensitivity
very small amts. can cause anaphylactic shock / asthma attack in sensitive people
ketone bodies
products of incomplete breakdown of fat containing three or four carbons
required for protein activation and blood clotting
vitamin K
Renin
Enzyme synthesized in the kidney and released in response to low blood pressure
Biotin Info
associated with "egg white injury" (avidine)-when avidine binds to Biotin and you can't absorb it
4-6 months babies eat
intro to solid foods
bulimia
the person eats then the subject purges and starves themselves then eats a large amount of food then starves again
PCR
polymerase chain reaction : make many copies of DNA
Insulin ______ food intake and body weight and affects the amount of leptin produced and secreted.
reduces
Atherosclerosis
Takes many years to developBegins with accumulation of lipid in the arteriesGradually enlarge and develop into plaques (lesions)
Fat burning
low to moderate intensity required
if oxygen debt occurs--no fat burning
 
submaximal ex-fat cells shrink and empty out fat stores duration--the longer, the greater % energy burned from fat
 
not trained-20-25 minutes start burning fat
 
trained muscles burn fat sooner
-medical history-medications-education
what are some additional nutritional parameters?
Angina
Chest pain. Roughly 50% blockage, sign of heart attack
enriched foods
food in which nutirens lost during processing are added back into the food
binge-eating disorder
-people tend to be overweight or obese
-1/3 male
-eat large amounts of food. feel a lack of control.
-don't vomit or try to control weight gain.
-30-90% of obese people have binge-eating disorder
-stress, depression, anger, anxiety
-treatment: they record their food intake, indicate binging episodes, note their feelings about it 
where is fructose absorbed in teh body?
small intestine
Experimental Group
The participants in an experiment or research study who receive the treatment or substance neing studied to determine whether it has an anticipated outcome.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Hormone released by the pituitary gland to act on the kidneys to control urine output
glycosuria
blood glucose is too high for kidneys to absorb so it appears in urine
overweight and obese
overweight,high fat, high in povnd. obese is 30% fat, health risk
Medical applications
Insulin(inorder to get it from humans) and diabetes, Somatotropin and Dwarfism (human growth hormone), Erythropietin and Anemia and kimo. Tissue Plasminogen Act and Heart Attacks (protien that causes your body to make another protein to dissolve blood clots).
The average onset of anorexia is _____ years.
17
Polyunsaturated Fats
Fat that is more suscestible to rancidity
What mineral do we typically get too much of?
Sodium
Pylproc Sphincter
•Acts as a flow regulator for gastric emptying •This gives the small intestine time to digest and absorb nutrients (ex: the whole meal doesn’t enter the same intestine at once)
where are simple carbs found?
glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose
fat soluble
vitamins that can be dissolved in fat and stored in the body. vitamins a,d,e, k are examples of these
impact of alcohol which is correct?
increase calorie, decrease nutrients
Low-density lipoproteinsLDL
Remnants of the breakdown of VLDLs. They deliver cholesterol to the other tissues including blood vessels. Cholesterol rich
calcium
most of the body is bone, and when there's not enough calcium to build bone (we are building bones from fetuses to 21-25 y.o.) the body leaches it from blood
2 requirements proteins must:
must have all amino acids present
must be deaminated to be used for energy
which diet is low residue (low fiber) diet with very few uncooked foods?
soft diet
Protein combinations to create complete amino acids
legumes (includes peanuts) + grains
 
legumes (peanuts) + hummus/nuts and seeds
 
vegetables + grains
 
vegetables + hummus/nuts and seeds
desirable, under nutrition, and over nutrition
States of nutritional health
Glycemic Load
(GI)(cals)/100 = GL Eat low GI foods with type II diabetes.
vitamin A acitivty 
referring to both the active forms of vitamin A and the precursor forms in foods
Monounsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid that contains only one double bond. hydrogen and carbon.
USDA exercise recommendations for reducing risk of chronic disease in adulthood
at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, above usual activity, at work or home on most days of the week
what are two types of alternative feeding methods?
enteral nutrition parenteral nutrition
What factors influence the amount of water needed by the body
-Food-(alcohol, caffeine [diuretic], fiber, protein salt sugar medications)-air temp and humidity.-altitude-activity level-diseases (diabetes, kidney disease)-pregnancy/breast feeding -surgery, blood loss, burns-age (very young/old age)-sweating
Upper Level (UL)
use to evaluate the highest amount of daily nutrient intake that is unlikely to cause adverse health effects in the long run in almost all people (97%-98%) in a population. This number applies to chronic use and is set to protect even very susceptible people in the healthy general population. As intake increases about the this, the potential for adverse effects generally increases.
What is Plasma?
The fluid portion of the blood needed to maintain adequate blood volume so that the blood can flow easily throughout our body.
Central element to diabetes
Elevated blood glucose (result of not enough insulin and/or insulin resistance)
what are essential amino acids?
amino acids not made by our body
What occurs during milling?
bran and germ are removed during this process; they contain all the B vitamins!
essential amino acids cannot
be synthesized to the extent needed by the body
Inorganic element needed by the body
1. calcium (greatest quantityt in body) 2 1/2 pounds
2. phosphereous
 
-macro minerals
 
 
micro minerals (less than 5 grams)
-iron
-magnesium
What two minerals can vary in food due to soil content
Iodine and selenium
What is Leukocytes?
White blood cells is the key to our immune functions and protect us from infection and illness.
what are some additional advantages, besides cost, of high fructose corn syrup?
it doesn't form crystals and has better freezing properties
RBP and Pre-albumen carry retinol where?
Retinol carried to nuclear membrane by these, and then rebound to different proteins
Recommended protein intake for adults.
0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight per day. In a 2,000 cal diet 10%-35% of cals should come from protein for a total average of 50-175 grams a day.
bile (liver stored in gall bladder)
suspends fat in water utalizing bile acids, cholesterol, and lecithin to aid fat digestion in the small intestine
W/NO LACTASE PRESENT IN STOMACH, WHAT DOES LACTOSE DO?
CAN'T BE DIGESTED SO IT FERMENTS CAUSING GAS, BLOATING, NAUSEA
what are the foods that yield the highest percentage of calories from carbs?
table sugar, hoiney, jam, jelly, fruit, and plain baked potatoes
richest sources of carbs, carbs deliver most of their calories
 
what is a diet as tolerated?
an ordered diet for a client who's appetite, ability to eat, & tolerance for certain foods change
Good food sources for Vitamin D?
Milk, fatty fish, cod liver oil, and fortified cereals
carbs provide glucose for needs of ------
RBC and parts of brain and nervous system
What is the function of iron?
-used in cells to carry oxygen to the body (hemoglobin) and to the muscles (myoglobin)-used as part of enzymes, energy metabolism, needed to make new cells, amino acids, hormones, and neurotransmitters.
Why do you store meats, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products in the refrigerator?
These are foods that spoil if not kept cool.
What is the US Dietary Guidelines or Daily Food Guide
It gives the consumer an easy way to choose a varied diet
kilojoule
HDL.
good cholesterol.
macronutrient
omega 3 is
Phytochemicals
-plant-derived
-antioxidants, reduce heart disease and cancer risks
-found in fruits, veggies, whole grains, legumes, wine
what makes bile?
the LIVER.
B6 (pyridoxine)functions:
coenxyme in metabolism
t of determine
tooth decay
Polyunsaturated fatty acids more commonly come from plant or animal sources?
plant
Anabolic process of metabolism
building up
2
what has the least cholesterol
Glucose Synonyms: (2)?
dextrose, blood sugar
Cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin are all forms of Fibers. t/f
True
nitrogen intake equation
(grams of protein)/6.25
Folic Acid
Essential in amino acid metabolism.Fresh green vegetables, fruits, liver, and yeast.HomocystinemiaMegaloblastic (macrocytic) anemiaNueral tube defects
Nutrients
Chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance and repair the body's tissues.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
definition
 
system consisting of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory structures. this system performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes
excess phosphorus does what?
inhibits Ca absorption
folate deficiency
megaloblastic anemia: pregnant women, alcoholics; neural tube defects: range of problems- spina bifida
polypeptide
amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Saccharin ________ times sweeter than sucrose?
180-200x
organs
discrete structural units made of tissues that perform specific jobs
omega 3
alpha, anti inflammatory, cognitive development, epa, dha and heart disease!
solvent
having the power of dissolving; causing solution.
socio-cultural variable
stressors such as lifestyle or poverty
cultural patterns or beliefs
What would be the best fluid replacement for events lasting less than one hour?
Water
33. Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
a. Biotin
Which hormone is released from the adrenal gland to aid in blood glucose regulation?
Epinephrine
CHEMICAL REACTION
definition
 
an interaction between two chemicals that changes both chemicals
A hormone that increases blood glucose level is:
glucagon
What is the second most abundant mineral?
phosphorus
Soluble fibers
Food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy or gel0like characteristics to foods.  An example is pectin from fruit, which is used to thicken jellies.  Soluble fibers are indigestible by human enzymes but may be broken d
what do broilers need in their diet?
lythamine
The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) ‘94:
Dietary supplements can be sold without?
FDA approval
How many non-essential amino acids are there?
11
overweight
having a moderate amount of excess body fat, resulting in a person having a weight that is greater than some accepted standard for a given height but is not considered obese.
Listeria monocytogenes
In raw milk, unpasteurized cheese, ready to eat meats
Can be passed from pregnant woman to fetus
phytic acid
a white to pale-yellow, water-soluble liquid, C6H18O24P6, found in cereal grains: used chiefly to chelate heavy metals during the manufacture of animal fats and vegetable oils and as a water-softening agent.
white powder from plant leaves, 100% natural, 0 kcal, sold as dietary supplement
Stevia
Vitamin C deficiency
scurvy, poor wound healing, bleeding gums, perifollicular petechiae, cork screw body hair, fatigue, pain, death
carbohydrate
the primary fuel source for the body, particularly for the brain and physical exercise
t or f: bioavailability of iron is highest in meats.
true.
essential fatty acid that has 18 carbons, 2 cis double bonds, and is an omega-6 fatty acid.
linoleic acid
Starch 
smaller polysaccharides
maltose
pepsin
polypeptides
pepsinogen
enzymes 
bicarbonate
bile
cholecystokinin
small intestine
villi
large intestine
Salivary amylase digests __ into __ ___ and __.  In the stomach__ digests protein in __. hcl activates___ The pancreas secretes___&___ in the duodenum. ___ bile emulsifies fats the hormone__stimulates the release of bile. the ___ ___ is the major site of digestion and absorption. ___ are fingerlike projections on the folds of the small intestine. The ___ ___ absorbs water and prepares waste for excretion.
GHRELIN
- a protein produced by the stomach cells that enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
Magnesium s/s of deficiency:
hypomagnesemia: poor heart function, Torsades de Pointe
which of the following plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of dietary fiber in the large intestines
Bacteria
How many servings of meat should you have?
2-3
There is a large body of scientific evidence which concludes that sugar causes misbehavior in children and criminal behavior in adults.t/f
False
What not to do during lactation
Drink alcohol
Smoke
Illegal drugs
Drink caffeine
essential amino acids
taurine is conditional, TVTILLPM+H --> tryptophan, valine, threonine, isoleusine, leusine, lysine, phenylalanine, methionine, histidine
What is the most abundant mineral in our body?
Calcium

Chyme is the give name given to a massive food after it’s

chewed up, full of saliva and swallowed.  T/F
True
what are the two most common oligosaccharides? [B/c humans lack the enzymes needed to digest these two, they pass undigested into the large intestine, where bacteria ferment them.]
raffinose and stachyose
FAT CELL DEVELOPMENT
- During growth the fat cells increase in number. - When energy intake exceeds expenditure than the fat cells grow in size- When the fat cells have enlarged to maximum and energy intake still exceeds expenditure then the fat cells increase in number again.- When a person tries to lose weight they only shrink the fat cells they do not lose the amount of fat cells.
Sodium
\n Functions- fluid\n balance, nerve impulse\n Sources- table salt,\n soy sauce, dill pickles
How many grams/day do we need of Minerals?
20 g/d
small intestine
20 feet in length, responsible for the absorption of nutrients.
Meat, Fish, and Poultry
-Provides minerals, protein and B vitamins-Choose Lean-Trim and drain fat to reduce fat intake-Weigh to determine portion size-Use low-fat cooking methods
Acheiving aerobic benifits
to build aerobic capicity, the level of exercise must raise the pulse rate within 60-90% of a persons max heart rate
Other cells in adipose tissue
◦ Pericyte – connective tissue cell around small blood vessels◦ Endothelial cells – cells lining lumen of blood vessels◦ Macrophages – white blood cell that engulf foreigncompounds◦ Pluripotent stem cells – starting point of any fetal or adultscell
A characterist of farmed raised is they are
lower in omega-3 fats
A sample of corn silage weighed 1lb prior to drying, and 0.32lbs after drying. What is the dry matter %?
 
1. 1.32
2. 68%
3. 16%
4. 32%
68% moisture
4. 32%
What is Nutrition?
Nutrition is the science of food and how the body utilizes it.
Water-soluble vitamins:
are vitamin C and the B complex (which is eight vitamins). The body does not store water-soluble vitamins, so these need to be provided in the daily food intake. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed easily from the gastrointestinal tract. Although water-soluble vitamins are not stored, toxicity can still occur.
Lipids Fatty acid chains
Saturated - single bonds, all carbons are saturated w/Hydrogen

Unsaturated - one double bond

Polysaturated - several double bonds

Breakdown: broken into lipid droplets by enzyme lipase into fatty acids & glycerol
what is primary function of fat in they body
protect vital organs
True or False: Energy density continues to increase in the food supply, but does not increase food intake.
a. trueb. false (FALSE)
123. Which of the following is not known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly?
a. Excessive use of hypertension medications
How is calcium intake determined?
by person's age and vitamin D status
What is the deficiency of Potassium (K)?
-Hypokalemia: a lower-than-normal amount of potassium in the blood
-Hyperkalemia: a higher-than-normal amount of potassium in the blood

folate deficiency anemia stage IV
the stage of folate deficiency inwhich the number of red blood cells has declined due to a lack of folate and macrocytic anemia develops.
nitrogen balance with protein
positive- more in than out (good for pregnancy), equilibrium-equal, negative-more out than in (happens with blood loss through surgery)
143. Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K?
a. No adverse effects have been reported with high intakes
What do the "good" fruits contain?
The "good" fruits contain: Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Potassium and Fiber.
Cabalmine Vitamin (B12) is important in ______?
DNA synthesis in conjunction w/ proper red blood vessel formation.
What does it mean to absorb
absorb: to take in, as nutrients are taken into intestinal cells after digestion; the main function of the digestive tract with respect to nutrients.
How is Vitamin D made from sunlight
ultraviolet rays shine on the a cholesterol compound in human
skin, the compound is transformed into a vit D precursor and
absorbed in the blood. 



presents no risk for vitamin D toxicity
Why are phytochemicals bad in supplements
The body may not be equipped to handle phytochemicals when concentrated in supplement doses, so the best way to get them is through actual food. Also, many vitamin supplements lack the valuable phytochemicals that are found naturally in plants. There is often a lack of research to support claims made about these supplements.
Which of the following is a rich source of dietary starch?
The richest source is grain. Root crops and tubers, and legumes
most to least fats
mufa, pufa, 6 to 1.20 % mufa up to 10 pufa
What are the best food sources of iron?
· \nLiver, oysters, shellfish, meat, cereals,\ngrains
Macrominerals
>100mg/day
120/80
normal blood pressure
Total Lymphocyte Count
>1800
coprophagy
practice of eating feces
Urea
A relatively nontoxic, nitrogen-containing compound that is produced from ammonia
Estimated Average Requirements: Adjusts for?
Digestibility
NFE
total digestible protein, nitrogen free extract,crude fiber and 2.25 times digestible fat

Alcohol, although it contains calories is actually a toxin and not a nutrient. 
True
Thiamin (B1)
-important in decarboxylation reactions
starch
amylase + amylopectin-most important carb-digestible/breaks down at a slow rate-slows energy
Balance :Not overconsuming any?
One food
fluid and electrolytes balance at
kidneys
Nursing Care: N/V
-Encourage fluid intake
-Promote comfort; oral care
-Eliminate odors; sit in fresh air and use fan
-Rest before meals and encourage smaller meals
-Give prescribed meds before mealtime
203. What is the major intracellular cation?
a. Potassium
Chylomirons are produced in the:
Small Intestine
NOTE: the liver synthesizes and metabolizes lipids as needed. The liver serves as the central command center for lipid metabolism. The liver also makes lipoproteins required for the delivery of newly synthesized lipids.
what are the fat soluble vitamins
ADEK
Excessive sweating can lead to p296
dehydration
Functions of Flouride


•Small amounts reduce tooth
decay

•


•Fluoridation of water
supplies helps reduce dental caries in children by 50-60%

•


•Maintenance of bone
structure





“Calories” on the nutrition label are in
kcal
Calcium deficiency
-Rickets in children
-Osteomalacia in adults
-prone to osteoporosis
Carotenoid
are naturally occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants, People consuming diets rich in carotenoids from natural foods, such as fruits and vegetables, are healthier and have lower mortality from a number of chronic illnesses.
kcal per 1gram of protein
4 kcal
____________ is the process of a membrane by a substance linking that to : a chemical reaction
Chemiosmosis
What does DV stand for
DV: Daily Value
polysaccharide
a complex carbohydrate consisting of a long chain of glucose
atrophic gastritis
chronic inflammation of the stomach accompanied by the diminished size and functioning of the mucous membrane and glands.
Describes a medical disorder caused by physician diagnosis, manner, or treatment.
iatrogenic
Peristalsis
a wave of contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle lining the tubular tissue
lymph
the fluid that moves from the bloodstream into tissue spaces and then travels in its own vessels, which eventually drain back into the bloodstream
Syndrome X is associated with type ___ diabetes.
2
Adaptive Thermogenesis
The change in energy expenditure induced by factors such as changes in ambient temperature and food intake.
Using Food Labels in Diet Planning: Daily Values used for?
comparison
fibers
the indigestible parts of plant foods, largely nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by resident bacteria of the colon. Fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages and the non polysaccharide lignin.
Pathothenic Acid is important in synthesis of _____?
Fatty acids
during pregnancy
calcium and iron increase in absorption
fiber
the structural part of plants and plant products that consists of carbohydrates, as cellulose and pectin, that are wholly or partially indigestible and when eaten stimulate peristalsis in the intestine.
Clear liquid diet
See through
liquids broth, tea, cola, plain gelatin, and cranberry juices.
Fatty acids located in cell membranes and the eye. Reduces blood clotting. Important component of the brain and nervous system.
Omega 3

The formation of wheat glucose is in the body is through _____ and occurs mostly in the ________ from the hormones ______.

 
???
Pancreas
Insulin
T or F food combining can enhance absorption of certain nutrients
true
NOTE: the presence of lipids in the small intestine stimulates enterocytes to secrete the hormone cholecystokinin, which in turn signals the gallbladder to contract and release bile into the duodenum.
What is the best food source of folate?
spinach
non-nutrients
a term used to mean compounds other than the six nutrients that are present in foods and have biological activity in the body
What are the functions of electrolytes?
-regulate fluid balance
-generating and conducting nerve impulses
-activates enzymes in the cell
Calcium (at least 800 mg)


lab data:
9.5-10.5 mg/dL
4.5-5.3 mEq/L
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon called HITTING THE WALL what nutrients are most likely depleted?
Glucose Depletion
With sun exposure, what vitamin can the body produce
Vit D
Recommended macronutrient distribution ranges and functions - carbos
Carbohydrate: 45-65%
Main source of fuel-- supplies calories
What is the natural pH of cat urine?
6.2-6.4
Patient with B6 and B12 and folate deficiencies elevates what protein
homocysteine
What does AI stand for
AI: Adequate Intake (Observational) (Enough to prevent deficiencies and contribute to optimal health) (used when there isn’t enough information to establish an RDA)
The organ in the body that can manufacture nonessential amino acids, convert fructose to glucose, detoxify alcohol and build fatty acids from excess glucose.
The Liver
All blood leaving the gut drains into the ............... vein
 
A. jugular
B. renal
C. portal
D. femoral
C. portal
What products of digestion are transported by the lymphatic system?
triglycerides and fat-soluble vitamins
Regulation of drinking
consumption is related to the amound of heat produced and energy that is expended
What are four sources to Finding Reliable Nutrition Information/
-Accredited University
-Hospital dietetics department
-Well known health entities
(e.g., American Heart Association, American Dietetic Association, etc.)
-Registered Dietitian (RD)
Type 2 Diabetes
90% to 95% of diagnosed cases
insulin resistance
progressive insulin deficiency
Which of the groups are the MOST vulnerable to dehydration?
Infants and Elderly
why is zinc not absorbed from certain grains?
phytic acid/ phytate
Why are antioxidants necessary?
1. Because second-hand smoke is so common
2. Because even normal metabolism produces some free radicals
3. Oxygen is a terrible thing
4. They are co-factors for many enzymes
2. Because even normal metabolism produces some free radicals
What is tbe type of diabetes where the person does not produce insulin at all?
type 1 diabetes
Nutrients come from food:
and do what 4 things?
-Provide energy
-Provide building blocks
-Maintain body cells
-Essential
Full Liquid diet
-fluids and foods that are liquid at room temperature
-next step after Clear liquid, or for clients who cannot chew
Folate supplementation during pregnancy
400 micrograms/day for women who might become pregnant
Buy fortified grains
What is a complete protein?
Contains all nine essential amino acids


B-complex Vitamins: Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)


Group of six related compound
Part of a coenzyme for more than 100 enzymes, amino acid metabolism, neurotransmitter, and heme synthesis (part of hemoglobin)
Good sources: enriched cereals, meat, fish, poultry, starchy vegetables
Toxicity from supplements can result in nerve damage and skin lesions
Deficiency: anemia, elevated levels of homocysteine (a protein indicative of heart disease)
 
 
THERMIC EFFECT OF FOOD (TEF)
- an estimation of the energy required to process food (digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store ingested nutrients)
short term gi feeding with what kind of tube
ng or ni tube
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
-Max daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most of healthy ppl beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects
The consumer nutrition environment includes:
a. Types and locations of food outlets (stores, restaurants)b. Accessibility (hours of operation, drive through)c. Price, promotion, placement of foods within food outletsd. a and be. a, b, and c(C)
basal metabolism (basal metabolic rate, BMR)
at rest, comfy, no food intake or activity. 2/3 of energy expenditure. supports basic processes of life.
What is food insecurity?
It means that you don't know when you are gonna find your next meal.
Milestones for feeding baby
At 6-7 mos use infant spoon and sippy cup
At 8 mos can pick up small pieces of food
At 9-12 mos soft foods and table foods
Among the following, which is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight?
A high-kcalorie diet plus regular exercise
What is residual? When should it be checked?
amount of feeding in the stomach
residual checked before boluses are given or q 4-6 hrs if feeding is continuous

The function of bile in digestion to do what?
It is released into the small intestine to aid in fat digestion and absorption.
 
It's made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. 
Which of the following is not among the recommendations issued by health professionals to reduce cancer risks?
Increase intake of foods high in iron
What is the USDA food guide equivalent for 1 tsp oil
1tsp oil: 1 tbsp of mayo, 2tbsp light salad dressing, 1 tsp vegetable oil, 1 tsp soft margarine
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