Nutrition-Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
H202+Fe2+-->
HO`+OH-+Fe3+
Biotin
Co2 transfer
kyphosis
Dowager's hump
normal b1 dose?
20-25mg/day
Pellagra symptoms
diarrheadementia dermatitis
ATP/ CP


Anaerobic
Intensity: Maximal
Duration: 2-10 sex
Advantage: Immediate
Disadvantage: Brief, VERY BRIEF
Magnesium
Daily Value
400 mg/day
Cations in ICF
K+
Mg2+
Functions of Fe
FUNCTIONS:
Hemoglobin
Myeglobin
iron-containing enzymes
Obesity leads to:
-Diabetes
-Cancer
-Cardiovascular disease
-300,000 deaths per year in the U.S.
BMI for obese person
30-39.9
Vitamin D
Upper Limit
50 micrograms/day
Percent water in fat
20%
the six nutrients are:
carbohydratesfatsproteinsvitaminsmineralswater
Folate
DV: 400 mcg
Toxicity: N/A
Sources:
-Green Veggies, Orange Juice, Organ Meats, Sprouts     
  Function:   • Coenzyme
– DNA synthesis– Homocysteine metabolism• Sensitive to:– Heat, oxidation, ultraviolet light Deficiency:
– Affects RBC reproduction• Can’t carry oxygen as well• Megaloblast cells – immature RBCs• Megaloblastic Anemia• Neural tube defects
What is Fiber
non digestable stuff
side effects of HMB?
none apparent
Ideal infant nutrition is?
human milk
carbohydrate
a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; most are known as sugars, starches, and fibers. 4kcal/g


Which governmental agency is responsible for inspection of meat and poultry?
USDA
Percent water in lean muscle
73%
Selenium food sources
FOOD SOURCES:
seafood
meats
cereal grains
nuts
sources of b1?
whole grains, liver, eggs
Sulfur (S)
DV: N/A  Toxicity: N/A
Sources: Protein Foods
Function: Part of Vitamins and Amino Acids, Drug Detox, Acd/Bse Bal  
Deficiency: No deficiency or toxicity
teeth and tongue
function in mechanical digestion(grinding)
Vitamin D's are 
sterols with hormone-like functions
risk of dietary supplement acidophilus
difficult breathing
Beri-Beri symptoms
muscle weakness, ataxia, footdrop, opthalmoplegia, nystagmus, neuropathy,
What is the most satiating macronutrient?
Protein
The frequent urination common in diabetes is known as
polyuria
Fitness
Ability to perform moderate intensity physical activity without undue fatigue
 
-Nutrition
-Lifestyle
-Exercise
 
Cardiovasuclar and muscular cellular
ribosomes
cytoplasmic particles that mediate the linking together of amino acids to form proteins; may exist freely in the cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum
pepsin
a protein-digesting enzyme produced by the stomach
Where digestion of fat soluble vitamins begins....
Stomach
Calcium
Adequate Intake
1,000 mg - 1,200 mg
Function of Mo
FUNCTIONS:
Cofactor in enzymatic reactions
Part of metalloenzymes
Sterol function:
component of cell membranes, percursor to other substances like:sterol hormones, vitamin D, bile acidsFood sources: animal products
sources of vitamin e?
nuts and nut oils
Fluoride (F)/tm
DV:3.8 mg Toxicity: 10 mg
Sources: Fluoridated Water, Toothpaste, Tea, SeaweedFunction: Helps Keep Teeth Intact, Protects From Dental Caries
• Role in prevention of dentalcaries
– Helps tooth enamel resist acid
– Inhibits bacterial growth
Deficiency: • Upper Level is 1.3-2.2 mg/day for
children
• Upper Level is 10 g/day for olderchildren and adults
• Mottling of teeth in children
• Limit toothpaste to pea size for children
– High amounts can weaken teeth
what beneficial bacteria is found in the intestine that enhances immunity and counteracts the negative effects of antibitotics?
probiotics
double-blind study
an experimental design in which neither the participant's nor the researchers are aware of each participants assignment (test or placebo) or the outcome of the study until it is completed. An independent third party holds the code and the data until the study has been completed
Niacin
B3
carries energetic e- to ETS for ATP production
listeia monocytogenss
infections during pregnancy fucks kid up; hot dogs lunch meats, unpast milk, organism multiplies at fridge temp
Folate defiency symptoms:
macrocytic anemia, villous atrophy, and depapillation of tongue
Essential Nutrients for humans
watercalories8-10 essential amino acidsessential fatty acids13 vitamins (organic)16-20 minerals (inorganic)
Which of the fllwing compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D?
 
Cholesterol
Tryptophan
Beta-carotene
Eicosapentanoic acid
Cholesterol
Approx what percentage of weight loss during starvation is lean body mass?
50
What a marathon runer experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall", what nutrient is most likely depleted?
Glucose
diabetes
a disease characterized by high blood glucose, resulting from either insufficient or no release of the hormone insulin by the pancreas or general inability of insulin to act on certain body cells, such as muscle cells. the two major forms are
TYPE 1 DIABETES-requires daily insulin therapy
TYPE 2 DIABETES-may or may not require therapy 
laxative
a medication or other substance that stimulates evacuation of the intestinal tract
What temperature range supports the most rapid bacterial growth?
40-135 F
marasmus
a disease resulting from consuming a grossly insufficient amount of protein-calorie malnutrition. victims have little or no fat stores, little muscle mass, and poor strength. Death from infections is common
Vitamin K deficiency
Rare:
May be associated with long-term antibiotic use or fat malabsorption. Potential for excessive bleeding.
 
Excessive Vitamins A and E interfere with Vitamin K production. 
Sodium Absorption
Almost all ingested sodium is absorbed
Stomach, Colon, SI
Functions of Zinc
FUNCTIONS:
required by 300 different enzymes 
Celiac disease
Genetic, intolerance for gluten, diet lacking wheat, rye, barley
complete protein
all 9 EAA'ssources: meat, chicken, fish
what does pantothene do?
decreses serum cholesterol and trigylcerides
Riboflavin-B2
DV: – 1.1 mg/day for women
– 1.3 mg/day for men Toxicity Non-toxic
Function: Coenzyme - energy metabolism that need O2
Sources: Milk, Mushrooms, Spinach, Liver, Grains
Deficiency: – Inflammation of mouth and tongue, dermatitis,
sensitivity to sun
chemical digestion
uses enzymes to break bonds holding food molecules together
anthropometric assessment
measurement of body weight and the lengths, circumferences and thicknesses of parts of the body
Catabolic Pathway
breaking down of nutrients to release energy
not a common use of chamomile
c. muscle aches
Ischemia-reperfusion injury
occurs on reperfusion of a cardiac infarct or other ishcemic tissue, reexposure to oxygen after tissue undergoes narcosis, and death
empirical equation used to estimate BMR
Harris Benedict equation
The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supple of
vitmain B12
In quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except
 
diet
behavior
physical activity
adipocyte number
adipocyte number
Which of the fllwing fruits are known to contain substances that inhibit the functioning of the thyroid gland?
 
Apples/Pears
Lemons/Limes
Avocados/Mangos
Peaches/Strawberries
Peaches/Strawberries
Which of the fllwing would represent a source of possible iron contamination?
 
An iron frypan
An iron chelate
A ferric iron supplement
A ferrous iron supplement
Insulin stimulates the actions of all the following metabolic activities except
 
fat release
glucose uptake
protein synthesis
glycogen synthesis
fat release
body mass index
(BMI) 
weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared. a value of 25 or greater indicates a higher risk for weight-related health disorders if one is also overfat.
epiglottis
the flap that folds down over the trachea during swallowing
vein
a blood vessel that carries blood to the heart
Food Sources of Carotenoids
FOOD SOURCES:
Dark green and yellow/orange fruits and vegetables.
Lifestyle Modifications that decrease BP
Weight loss
DASH diet
Aerobic Activity
Decreased Sodium intake
Decreased Alcohol intake
Amount of fluoride found in municipal water
0.2 mg/cup
invisible fats- ex.'s
marbeled meat, added or naturally occuring
what must you have to manage vitamin e levels?
zinc
Thiamin-B1
DV:
– 1.1 mg/day for women – 1.2 mg/day for men
Toxicity: non-toxic
Sources: Sunflower Seeds, Pork, Whole Grains, Beans, Peas
Function: • Used to release energy from carbs
• Sensitive to alkalinity and heat Deficiency: Beriberi
How do you measure antropometrically in adults?
Percent desirable weightBMIWeight changeWaist circumferenceBody composition (%fat, muscle mass, bone density)
where can you find creatine in your daily diet
red meat
Pantothenic acid:fxnstructure
effects acyl group transfer as part of coenzyme ABeta alanine in amide linkage with pantoic acid
The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
excess body weight
Which of the fllwing is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes?
 
Glucagon
Lipoprotein lipase
Cellulite synthetase
Lipoprotein synthetase
Lipoprotein lipase
Knowing the role of vitamin K in the body, in what organ would you expect to find it in large quantities?
Liver
What is muscle atrophy?
Loss of muscle size and strength
What is exercise presription?
In general cardiovascular fitness you want to use large muscle
 
Mode:
Intensity:
Frequency:
Duration:
 
receptor
a site in a cell at which compounds (such as hormones) bind. Cells that contain receptors for a specific compound are partially controlled by that compound
branched-chain amino acids
amino acids with a branching carbon backbone; these are leucine, isoleucine and valine. All are essential amino acids
bioelectrical impedance
the method to estimate total body fat that uses a low-energy electrical current. The more fat storage a person has, the more impedance (resistance) to electrical flow will be exhibited
How fat-soluble vitamins are transported in the body.
Chylomicrons and Lipoproteins via lymphatic circulation.
DASH guideline for meat, poultry, fish
2 or fewer servings/day
3 types of fat replacers:
1. protein-based2. carb-based3. fat based -Olestra- indigestable, reduces absorption of ADEK, too much causes diarrhea
addtl protien for pregnant women
25g/day (50% more than daily req)
How to hydrate endurance athletes?Electrolytes?
Before= 14-22oz H2O 2-3 hrs During=6-12oz every 15-20 minAfter= 16-24oz per pound lost (25-50% more than weight loss)Electrolyte replacement= 0.5-0.7g/L sodium (sports drink or water)Only if event >1hr
Basal Metabolic Rate
energy required when a person is at rest
Measure of choice for establishing the cumulative nutrition status over an intermediate time interval
Transferrin (8-9 day T1/2)
an RQ >1 means what?
excess calories and hence fat synthesis
At any given time, what % of all US women are attempting to lose wt?
35-45
As far as is known, which of the fllwing is not a process that directly involves calcium?
 
pH regulation
Blood clotting
Nerve transmition
Maintenance of heart beat
pH regulation
What is VO2 max?
An individual's maximum velocity on a treadmill test
Values for Lactate Threshold


Values

- Low= LT @ 60% VO2max
-Medium= LT @ 60-85%

-High= LT @ 85-95% VO2max
negative energy balance
the state in which energy intake is less than energy expended, resulting in weight loss
Effects of 1-2% body weight in water loss
Fatigue
Decreased physiological function
conditionally essential amino acids are..
non essential AA's that become essential in certain situationsex. tyrosinephe--> tyrclinical condition- PKU
A healthy diet satisfies three needs:
-Fuel to power the body
-Organic molecues to build molecules
-Essential nutrients--raw materials that animals cannot make for themselves
Give examples of micronutrient status eval for Vit B12, Vit B6, Vit D, Vit A, Vit C, Calcium, Magnesium, and zinc
Vit B12/folate- RBC or serum, homocystein levels, Schilling test, serum B12Vit B6- serum pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)Vit D- serum 25OHD3VitA- plasma retinol, liver stores, dark adaptation, histological assessment.Vit C-plasma and serum for recent, WBC store for long term.Calcium - not routine available, need bone scanMagnesium - serum done routinely but not good measure. 1% of total in blood. RBC and peripheral lymphocyte Mg is better.Zinc - problematic, serum levels used most often but not specific and decreases ONLY in severe deficiency.
3 things Amino Acids can do....

used for protein synthesis
used as energy
stored as fat (in excess)
Calculating large frame size desirable body weight
Add 10% to medium frame weight
Which of the fllwing can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
 
Bone
Carotene
Tryptophan
Exposure to sunlight
Exposure to sunlight
Which of the fllwing is a characteristic of type 1 diabetes?
It is an autoimmune disorder
Maximal Oxygen Consumption
VO2 max
Maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed per unit of time
-size of your engine
-Increase the higher = longer the aerobic state
Values
-Low: 30-50 o2/Kg/min
 
Not very trainable (if you are already fit)
 
 
 
AO's reduce risk of CV disease by:
preventing ox. damage to LDLsanticoagulant to prevent bl clotsreduces low grade inflammation
Chloride (Cl)
 Negative ion for extracellular fluid
DV: 2300 mg
Toxicity: 3600 mg • High intake may cause high blood
pressure
Sources: • Found in fruits and vegetables, Table Salt, Some Veggies, Processed Foods
Function:
– Immune response, nerve function
Major -  Ion of Extracellular Fluid, Stmach Acid, Nerve Imp  
Deficiency: • Deficiency is rare
How do you estimate energy needs for obese people?
Use adjusted body weightdesirable weight+(actual-desired) x 0.25The adjustment is for their adipose tissue because you assume only 25% of weight is metabolically active.
Ascorbate in diet is impt for?
reducing Fe2+ to Fe3+ improving its absorption
What is a safe rate of wt. loss on a long term basis for most overweight people?
0.5-2 lbs/week
Which of the fllwing diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?
 
High-fat diet
High-protein diet
High-carbohydrate diet
Normal mixed diet with vitamin supplements
Normal mixed diet with vitamin supplements
What percentage of US oil consumption is used to grow transport and store food?
 
10-15%
Average food distance is 1500 miles
Avg 10 kcal fossil= 1 kcal of food
1.True or false.... Average adult is 8 pounds heavier than 10 years ago2.What is a Bomb Calorimeter used for
1.True2.Used to determine amount of energy in foods
How do you get signs and symptoms in Clinical Data?
InterviewPhysical examClues from table posted
Patients with COPD benefit from what? why?
burning more fat than carbs for caloriesbecause fat has a lower RQ (more O2 produced)
Which of the fllwing is an important function of selenium?
 
Helps blood to clot
Inhibits the formation of free radicals
Stabilizes the alcohol content of beer
Acts as a cross-linking agent in collagen
Inhibits the formation of free radicals
what are three vitamins and a mineral that are highly linked with strengthening the immune system?
vitamin c, beta carotene, vitamin e, and zinc
Which of the fllwing defines central obesity?
 
Accumulation of fat during the mid-years of life
Storage of fat around the central part of the body
Overfatness due to a lg # of interacting behavioral probs
Overfatness due to reliance on high fat foo
Storage of fat around the central part of the body
Which of the fllwing is not a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?
It is required in amts proportional to energy expenditure
Which of the fllwing is not among the recommendations issued by health professionals to reduce cancer risks?
 
limit intake of red meats
moderate, if any, intake of alcohol
increase intake of foods high in iron
eat at least 5 servings a day of veges
increase intake of foods high in iron
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Term:
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