Ocean Systems Flashcards

Terms Definitions
primary producer
James Hutton
Oceanic Crust
A. Basalt
Cosomogenous Sediments
D. Extraterrastrial Origin
plankton larger than 1 cm
biogenous sediments
siliceous and calcareous oozes
Sodium-Chloride (salt) dissolves easily in water because the atoms are bonded together by:
ionic bonds
Guyots are flat-topped seamounts formed by wave action
J. Tuzo Wilson
C. Plate Tectonics
Blue Whales are commercially extinct
The "oxygen Revolution" began approximately 4.5 Billion Years Ago as bacteria began photosynthesis
freezing point of water
0 degrees celsius
energy, produced by the random vibration of atoms or molecules, causes heating and expansion of material
abyssal plains are the flat featureless expanses of sediment-covered ocean floor found in nearly all the worlds oceans
The molten magma from the asthenosphere that fills the gap created at a spreading ridge is composed of basalt-like material which makes new ocean sea-floor
Technology developed during World War II proved to have limited applicability to Bathymetric Mapping
S- waves;
Travel as transverse (shear) waves
Light is rapidly scattered and absorbed as it penetrates seawater making evertying appear dimmer than normal
Life most likely originated in:
B. Water
latent heat of vaporization for water
540 cal/gram
gas hydrates are the largest carbon sink on Earth and represent the possible future for energy supplies from he ocean
other than petroleum and natural gas, sand and gravel are the most valuable sedimentary
hydrogen bonds between the polar water molecules give water the property of cohesion which results in usually high surface tension
Ocean basisn are bathtub shaped. The continents drop of steeply just beyond the surf zone then deepen to their deepest point somewhere in the middle of the basin
submarine canyons are a direct result of offshore seismic activity and tectonic movement
the latent heat of vaporization is much greater than the latent heat of melting for water
the speed of sound through water increases with decreases in temperature and pressure
the ocean is a highly acoustic environment and animals that live there have had to dull their acoustic senses to aurvive the constant sound impulses
______ is the term for unintended organisms killed while fishing for desirable ones (catching dolphins in tuna nets, or albatrosses in long lines, for example)
The Hawaiian Island Chain formed as basaltic lava oozed up along a large transform fault located in the middle of the Pacific Plate
Long Wavelength light rays of the visible spectrum (near the IR range) are 71% absorbed in seawater at just 1 meter ( 3.3 feet) deep, so the color red quickly "fades out"
Longitude can be easily calculated by the "star" method
Areas where the winds are primarily vertical (rising or falling) are areas where the horizontal winds tend to be calm (the doldrums and horse latitudes)
Due to the coriolis effect, hurricanes (cyclones) rotate clockwise in the northern hemisphere
There is a sharp increase in temperature through the thermocline from the sufrace layer to the deep layer
Nitrogen makes up 48% of the atmosphere but accounts for 78% of the dissolved gasses in ocean water
Earth's early atmosphere ( 4.5 Billion Years Ago) was able to support life as it exists today
The Boundaries of the North Atlantic Ocean are clearly defined by international treaty.
Island arc systems always form in association with Transform Plate Boundaries
Georg Forchhammer first noted that the ratio between various types of salts in the oceans remained constant despite veriations of salinity, and this became known as " The Principle of Constant Proportions"
the latent heat of melting for water is much greater than the latent heat of vaporization, there, ice (as icebergs) transfers much more heat (per unit of mass) than liquid water
water's high heat capacity makes it an ideal fluid to equalize the polar-tropic heat imbalance
the country that is the number one harvester of marine life in 2004 was____
the ______ marks the abrupt transition from continental slope
shelf break
Pure water is most denst at 3.98 degree Celisus
Heat Capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of material by 1 degree Celisus and is the same for all materials
Near the Amazon River delta the salinity of the Atlantic Ocean is ---
A. Raised
The Carbonate ion (CO3) is held together by ---bonds
B. covalent
John Harrison did little to help solve the problem of finding latitude
All the material in a subduction zone penetrates to the core/mantle boundary
" S- waves" Travel readily though any solid, liquid or gas
More than 95% of all U.S. foreign trade passes though a U.S. port or harbor
California is cut by the huge San Andreas Transform Fault. This means that California will eventually be cut of from the United States and "Fall into the sea"
Biology plays a big role in regulating the amounts of dissolved gasses found at various depth in the ocean
The average land elevation is 4 1/2 times greater than the average ocean depth
The Star Polaris  is used world wide to determine latitude
Addition of salt to pure water lowers its "point of maximum density" and its "freezing point"
The present- day atmosphere is composed mostly of:
Nitrogen and oxygen
area of fierce competition for food, living space, protection from predators, and mates
coral reef communities
a dilute mixture of sediment and water that periodically rushes down the continental slope is a:
turbidity current
the deep zone is also known as the pycnocline
The Heat Capacity of Water
C. 1 calorie/ gram/degree Celsius
Of the following ocean basin features, the one with the greatest average angle of inclination (the speepest) is---
B. Continental slope
Isostacy is the reason that:
D, A,B,C
A. Mountains have roots
B. Icebergs Float
C. Heavy metal ships can float  
Convergence of Polar and Ferrel Cells (60 degrees latitude)
E. Jet Stream
water in this area is laden with hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and oxygen upon which specialized archaea and bactera live
hydrothermal vent communities
The deepest point in the world ocean, as presently mapped, is in the...
D. Pacific Ocean
The "Scientific method" could be described as all of the following EXCEPT:
Something only scientists can use
The main source of pollutants to the ocean is from---
D. large-ship operations
of the following, which forms the base of the food chain for most ocean fish?
unicellular algae (like diatoms)
It would be best to use a chart with a "Ginomonic Projection" when doing exploration at the North 60 degree parallel (Canada)
Ocean sediment is:
E. Both A & C
A. thinner (if there at all) over Mid- Ocean Ridges
C. Older and thicker at the edges of the ocean basin near the continents
Calcareous ooze is formed from shells of ---
E. Both A and C
A. Foraminifera
C. Coccolithopres
of the following, which are the most common features of the deep ocean floor?
oceanic ridge systems and silty plains
The water molecule is unique becasue :
B. it is an asymmetric polar molecule
San Francisco and Norfolk are at the same latitude, but San Francisco has warmer winters and cooler summers. Which of the following statements help explain the difference?
the wind generally blows over the Pacific Ocean before reaching San Francisco, but blows over land before reaching Norfolk
The "Active Portion" of a transform fault is located'
D. Between the offset ridge creats of a divergent plate boundary
The Miller- Urey Experiment was the first to determine:
D. Both B & C
B. the amino acids could be produced from the early atmosphere
C. the water was a necessary ingredient for the formation of life  
The presence of strips of high and low intensity magnetization in the sea floor is caused by:
Both A & C
A. Polar reversals during creation of new oceanic crust at spreading centers
C. Divergent plate motion  
secondary consumer
Chlorophyte, phaeophyte, rhodophyte
seaweed classifications
ocean currents move as this
climax community
stable long established community
a machine that uses ultrasonic waves
most useful measure of wave strength
long, shallow body of seawater isolated from the ocean
the farming of marine organisms, usually in estuariers, bays, or nearshore environments is called...
ocean current
is a mass of moving water.
accronym for the formation of atlantic waters
Of or pertaining to the biogeographic region of the ocean bottom between the littoral and bathyal zones, from the low water line to the edge of the continental shelf, or to a depth of approximately 660 ft. 200 m.
erosional coast
here the dominant process involves removal of coastal material
Natural Gas
which is not a renewable resource
spring tide
an extra-high tidal bulge and an extra-low tidal dip.
trade winds
any of the nearly constant easterly winds that dominate most of the tropics and subtropics throughout the world, blowing mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere, and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere.
renewable resources
naturally replaced by the growth of marine organisms or by other natural physical processes
Niche is an organisms role in the community
tidal range
is the difference in hieght between a high tide and the next low tide.
coriolis effect
an effect that affects all objects on earth
non-extractive resources
uses of the ocean in place - transportation of people and commoditites by sea, recreation, and waste disposal
Refined oil is more deadly
True because of the additives
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