oceanography 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tennessee
nashville
ATLANTIC OCEAN
23%
tektites
cosmogenous sediment
which is higher
spring
Evolution Coral
starts:
-fringing reef
-barrier reef
-atoll
ions
charged atoms or compounds
guyot
submerged, flat top seamount
conduction
heat transfer through neighboring molecules
Wave Amplitude
1/2 of wave height
diatoms
most abundant organisms on earth
Wavelength
The horizontal distance, either between the crests or troughs of two consecutive waves.
Freezing Point
temperature where liquids turn solid
water: 0C, 32F
planktonic organisms that spend part of their life in plantonic form and the rest as either benotho or nekton are
meroplankton
Trough
The lowest point of a wave
heterotrophs
organisms that rely on consuming compounds to obtain chemical energy.
meteorites
pieces of the early solar system
Benthic Environment
Pertaining to the ocean bottom
Diphotic zone
Directly below the euphotic zone
Eurythermal
o Withstand large variation
o Costal waters
gyre
another name for a surface current
John Ross
(Forbes' newphew) Arctic Explorer, deeper sea organisms collected
Abyssal hill
a hill several hundred feet tall.
swash
the combined result of upwash and backwash
What organisms are responsible for redtide and paralytic shellfish in poising?
Division Pyrophyta
menstrual cycle
takes 28 days
oogenesis and egg release are part of this
turbidity
sediment laden water that flows down slopes up to 90km/hr under influence of gravity
SUBMERSIBLE
a warship designed to operate under water
water
what does terrigenous sediment need to be transported?
Osmosis occurs when salt ions diffuse through a membrane
false
neritic sediment
sediment of the continental shelf, consisting mainly of terrigenous material.
Precipitation
the term for the falling, condensation water molecules, which come down asrain,snow,sleet,or hail depending on conditions in the Eath's atmosphere.
Who is Hideki Tojo?
prime minister of japan
Zonation of benthic organisms includes all of the following except the:
neritic zone.
supernova
the explosive collapse of a massive star
westerlies
Surface winds within the Ferrel cells, centered around 45° latitude, which approach from the southwest in the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere.
neap tide
tide that occurs when the difference between high and low tide is least; the lowest level of high tide. This tide comes twice a month, in the first and third quarters of the moon.
Type of crust that is thick, composed mostly of granite, rich in Silicon and Aluminum, and has a low density
continental
About how mant meters does liight reach below the surface of the ocean?
200 meters
highest growth rate at this temp.
40 degrees C
Current
A large stream of moving water that flows through the oceans.
hydrologic cycle
the water cycle that exchanges among the atmosphere, land, and ocean through evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and subsurface per location. the water cycle
1/2MV^2
what is the formula to find kinetic energy?
Abyssal plains
flat areas of seafloor formed by sediment deposition adjacent to passive margins
Biozone
A region of the environment that has distinctive biological characteristics
wave length
distance between crest and other crest or trough to trough
Pelagic Zone
open zone of any depth, animals swim/float freely
polar molecule
a molecule with an unbalanced charge. one end is slightly neg, other slightly pos
Benthic Microfauna
small members of the deep sea infauna
Frequency
number of wave crests passing point A to point B eac second
what is nannoplankton, microplankton, and netplankton
nannoplankton = bacteria plankton/viruses (b/c of small size and hard to classify)

microplankton = large plankton

netplankton = bigger than nannoplankton
doldrums
a belt of light variable winds within 10 degrees to 15 degrees of the Equator, resulting from the vertical flow of low-density air withing this equatorial belt
Long Shore Drift
the current runs perpendicular to the shore and moves material down the shore.
What cause tides
pull of gravity between the
earth, moon, sun
tsunami
a series of waves created when a body of water is rapidly displaced
Constructive Interference
Addition of two waves when the crest of one overlaps the crest of another, so that their individual effects add together. The result is a wave of increased amplitude.
small particles
what kind of particles are found in the middle of the ocean
The Himalayes were formed as a result of what?
continental-continental covergence
What is the approximate time difference between two HW's?
12 Hours 25 Minutes
abyssal clay
composed of at least 70% fine clay sized particles from the continents
Tide
The regular rise and fall of sea level due to the moon's gravity pull on
Earth
temperature profile
temp that stays the same then drops, stays the same then drops etc. as you go down in the ocean
Milky Way galaxy
the name of our galaxy; sometimes applied to the field of stars in our home spiral arem, which is correctly called the orion arm
tidal current
Mass flow of water induced by the raising or lowering of sea level owing to passage of tidal crests or troughs. See also ebb current; flood current.
three combined factors that produce wave height
wind speed, duration and fetch
well mixed estuary
an estuary in which slow river flow and tidal turbulence mix fresh and salt water in a regular pattern through most its length
The inclination of the earths axis is (blank) degrees from the normal to the earth's orbital plane.
23 1/2 degrees
oil and natural gas
two main energy products gathered from the ocean
at what depth in water is no like present?
1,000 meters
semidiurnal tide
A tidal cycle of two high tides and two low tides each lunar day, with the high tides of nearly equal height.
evidence of continental drift and plate tectonics
1) seashells on mountain
2) continents fit together like a puzzle
3) fossils of Lystrosaurus
4) glaciers
5) trees in antarctica
6) ages of rocks
7) plant fossils
8) animal fossils
1) earths crust divided into pieces
lithosphere thickens and distance increases from mid-ocean ridges
as plates diverge, mantle rock cools and fuses to crust resulting in what?
According to the Big Bang Theory, how old is the universe?
13.7 billion years old
All continents fit together with the least number of overlaps and gaps when
the continents are matched along what depth contour?
Contours around 2000 meters in depth
Who is Adolf Hitler?
wanted to kill all of the jews, german leader (totalitarianism leader)
Describe Teleosts or bony fishes. Name some animals belonging to this group.
these have bony skeletons, scales, and a flap over their gills (diverse, large group) including: cod, halibut, flounder, sole, tune, herring, sardines
bones, teeth, and scales of fish and other marine animals
From where do phosphate-rich biogeous sediments come?
net water movement in n. hemisphere
90 degrees to the right of the surface wind direction
Define neritic in terms of depths and tides
the area seaward from the shore (it includes the intertidal zone), across the continental shelf to a water depth of 120-200 m
cat
meow
Anoxia
no oxygen
north star
northern hemisphere
Oceanic crust is primarily
basalt
biogenous sediment
includes siliceous ooze
nebula
gaseous and dusty space cloud
Milankovitch cycles
causes of ice ages
hypothesis
tentative explanation; makes testable predictions
protists: _____ (prokaryotic or eukaryotic) organisms that do not fit the definition of animal, plant or fungus
eukaryotic
Mantle Plume
Ascending columns of superheated mantle originating at the core-mantle boundary
100 meters
Sunlight penetrates to approximately what depth in water?
medusa
in jellyfish, umbrella shaped body part composed of two membranes
phytoplankton
microscopic plant planton that are found near the water's surface
Diffraction is a combination of (blank)
Refractions
Joint foot
lobsters, shrimp, crabs, krill, barnacles.
Upwelling
• Cooler, deeper seawater is nutrient-rich
• Costal upwelling—high productivity
• High primary productivity in areas of
o Equatorial upwelling
o Costal upwelling
o Coral reefs
Hydrogenous
manganese nodules are considered this type of sediment deposit
Fram
"to push forward" the ship Nansen used in the drift
tidal surges
tidal surges are surges of waves
eyewall
a ring of thunderstorm clouds that produce heavy rain and very strong winds. It borders the eye of a hurricane.
Earth's Structure
spherical shape, density is greater below the surface, uniform acceleration due to gravity, central parts produce magnetic fields. inner core to outer core to mantle to crust
sediment type
physical and chemical composition of sediment can give information as to source location
Criteria for density
low temperature and high salinity
Neuritic Zone
near coast and over continental zone
Trench
A feature that forms at subduction zones.
Faster winds that make larger waves will cause the mixed layer to extend (blank).
Deeper
elevated wave cut platforms in socal are evidence that this coastal area is emergent
true
gravity
Most waves die out because of what?
Ptolemy
mapped the world with Roman knowledge showing latitude and longitude
air masses meet and storms typically develop at _______
fronts
Old crust is subducted where?
convergent plate boundaries
Richter scale
a logarithmic measure of earthquake magnitude. A great earthquake measures about 8
Island whose central core was connected to the mainland when sea level was lower. Rising ocean separates these high points from land, and sedimentary processes surround them with beaches. Compare barrier island.
Sea Island
False
True or False? Water on the eastern sides of ocean basins will be warm.
Nonpoint-Source Pollution
pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single, specific site
Abyssal
pertaining to the great depths of the ocean below 4000m
-Less common, Transform plate boundaries, Linear islands, banks, and deep basins close to shore. Ex.San Andreas Fault.
Transform Continental Margin characteristics
longshore current
current in surf zone moving parrallel to shore
Coriolis effect
deflection of wind and ocean currents caused by the earth's rotation
continental slope
a slope that goes from continental shelf to abyssal plain
when water molecules are in the trough of a wave, they are gernerally moving
backwards
Building (blank), (blank), or (blank) (blank) can prevent erosion due to waves.
Seawalls, Breakwaters, Rip-Rap
lithosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
manganese nodule
round, black objects that cover the abyssal plain, first discovered by the HMS Challenger in 1874
westward intensification
the increase in speed of geostrophic currents as they pass along the western boundary of an ocean basin
Breakers
form in the surf zone because the water particle motion at depth is affected by the bottom
Density of seawater
is controlled by temperature and salinity
How much of earth is covered by water?
80%
standing wave
A wave in which water oscillates without causing progressive wave forward movement. There is no net transmission of energy in a standing wave.
sand and gravel
Which ocean resources are second in economic value to oil?
Splash waves are caused by (2)
coastal landslides, calving icebergs
BP Oil Spill
1. Containment Boom: a large floating barrier is pulled around an oil slick to stop the oil from polluting shorelines.
2. Dispersants: once sprayed, the oil breaks up into clumps that sink to the bottom of the ocean.
3. Absorbent Pads: when the pads are full of oil, they can be easily cleaned off the surface of the water.
Long line Fishing
target is open ocean fish, sometimes catches unintended fish
This layer of atmosphere decreases in temperature as one rises in altitude
thermosphere and troposphere
Density Stratification
The formation of layers in a material, with each deeper layer being denser (weighing more per unit of volume) than the layer above.
Ebb tide
Water rushing out toward the ocean of a coastal bay best describes a
Passive Precipitation of CaCO3
Alters chemical environment to favor formation of CaCO3 as minute crystals which accumulate upon the organism
icebergs
masses of ice that break off of fresh water glaciers
shelf break
the abrupt increase in slope at the junction between continental shelf and continental slope.
A current running parallel to shore in the surf zone, caused by the incomplete refraction of waves approaching the beach at an angle
Longshore Current
Destructive Interference
When the crest of a wave meets the trough of another wave at the same point then the troughs interfere destructively and the overall wave amplitude is decreased
what is the difference between an eastern boundary currents and a western boundary current?
eastern boundary currents- equatorward-flowing cold drifts of water on the eastern side of all subtropical gyres..... western boundary currents- pole-ward flowing warm currents on the western side of all subtropical gyres.
surface currents
currents at the top layer of the ocean caused by winds
Lunar Day
the period of time taken for the moon to make one full rotation on its axis (about 27.3 sidereal days)
A reef attached to the shore of a continent or island
Fringing Reef
An unusual rise in sea level as a result of the low atmospheric pressure and strong winds associated with a tropical cyclone. Onrushing seawater precedes landfall of the tropical cyclone and causes most of the damage to life and property.
Storm surge
the 4 main subdivisions of oceanography
geological (mountain range in ocean), chemical (amt of salt in the water), physical (waves, currents, tides, weather), biological (critters in the ocean)
Dinurmal (once a day), Semidinurmal (Twice), Mixed ( twice and diff heights)
What are the three tidal frequencies?
cordinant system
x (u) = horizontal

z (w) = up

y (v) = out

u v and w designate velocity
What does a modified circulatory system in tuna help with?
Cruise for long periods, maintain high body temp, minimize heath loss and swim for short times
purple and green bacteria use ____ and ____ to produce ___ and ___; they don't produce free ____
carbon dioxide; hydrogen sulfide; carbohydrates; sulfate; oxygen
In what ways does adaptive coloration help an organism survive?
animals can blend in with their surroundings thereby avoiding detection
Why has the carbon dioxide level of the atmosphere been rising for more
than 150 years?
The burning of fossile fuels by humans
7. What is not true of the backshore?
a. It is a relatively inactive zone.
b. It extends to the farthest point that sediment reaches.
c. It extends slightly seaward of the berm crest. d. It can include dunes and grasses.
c. It extends slightly seaward of the berm crest
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