Oceanography Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
universal force
Non-oxygen using
overenrichment of nutrients
cosmogenous sediments
derived from space
the time between waves
c-c transform volcanoes
no volcanoes
Average Seafloor Spreading Rate
5 cm/year
(sticky) a substance's internal resistance to flow. ex.toothpaste has high viscosity greatly effected by temp. * viscosity of the ocean water increases as salinity increases and temp decreases.
molten rock at spreading center
Scale that measures hurricanes?
Saffir simpson
massive barriers intended to prevent waves from reaching areas behind the wall
The scientific study and exploration of the environment of the ocean
Internal Waves are associated with ____
can create organic chemical energy compounds from inorganic compounds and an external energy source.
an organic compound consisting solely of hydrogen and carbon. Petroleum is a mixture of many hydrocarbon compounds
A fundamental category of taxonomic classification, ranking below a genus or subgenus and consisting of related organisms capable of interbreeding.
small underwater craft used for deep-sea research
Whale Falls
(Chemosynthetic Ecosystem) Huge input of organic matter to bottom osedax worms
Cold, high viscosity water benefits floating organisms.
o-c convergent landforms
trenches and composite cones
Wave Height
the vertical distance between the trough and the crest of a wave.
this type of current always flows west
example of islands formed by hotspots; as oceanic lithosphere moves over a hot spot, successive eruptions can produce a linear series of peaks, or seamounts, on sea floor
average rock type found in oceanic crust
Spit turned landward at its outer end.
type of margin where continental shelf is broad and continental slope ends in continental rise
organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
The color pattern in which marine organisms are light
sediment deposition
the buildup of sediment from organically derived matter or chemical processes
outermost portion of the Earth, basalt and granite
subpolar gyres rotate _____ of the subtropical gyres
The movement of a substance in solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration across a slectively permeable membrane is:
movement within a fluid resulting from differential heating and cooling of the fluid. Convection produces mass transport or mixing of the fluid
low tide
The low water position corresponding to a tidal trough.
Sea Stack
pillar formed by the erosion of headlands
Part of Earth that includes water in solid, liquid, and gaseous forms
Beach face
a section of the foreshore normally exposed to the action of waves
in bony fish, the release of gametes during external fertilization
The daily rise and fall of Earth's waters on its coastline.
continental rise
steep continental slope merges into a more gradual decline. Marks the boundary between continental crust and oceanic crust
more precipitation than evaporation
what does lower salinity mean?
fringing reef
reef attached to the margins of islands or coast lines
A kingdom of organisms that do not have nuclear material confined with in a sheath but spread throughout the cell. Includes bacteria, blue-green algae, and Archaea.
Sediment. Hard to erode but easy to transport. Tides, slow rivers and streams.
Processes that decrease salinity
Precipitation, se ice melting, icebergs melting, runoff from land
a group of substances that tends to resist change in the pH of a solution by combining with free ions
• occur when photosynthetic dinoflagellates undergo a
______ ______
• colors the water red, orange or brown
• dinoflagellates that cause (this) produce _____
- _____ ____ ____ occurs in humans who consume shellfish contaminated with (this
harmful algal blooms; population; explosion; toxins; paralytic shellfish poisoning; oxygen; dinoflagellate toxins
Wind waves
gravity waves formed by transfer of energy via the wind, applied in deep water
which can hold more gas---cold water or warm water?
cold water
A surface current is flowing in the opposite direction from an adjacent surface current.
continental shelf
part of a continent that extends under the ocean from the shoreline
tidal surges
the onshore rush of seawater caused by the high winds that are associated with a hurricane and the low pressure of the storm.
Anal fin
ventral fin that helps keep the fish upright and moving in a straight line
Abyssal Benthic Communities
deep, dark and cold, little energy, scavenger based food webs, organisms move and grow slowly, diverse life and robust ecosystems
How many g/kg (ppt) of sodium are there in this 2.0 kg ocean cample (na=30.62)
6 g/kg
sand on the shoreward side of the berm crest, sloping away from the ocean
group speed
speed at which a group of waves travels (in deep water, group speed equals one-half the speed of an individual wave); the speed at which the wave energy is propagated
Coriolis Effect
the effect of the Earth's rotation on the rotation of the winds and currents
Water flowing out of an enclosed basin due to the tides is called:
ebb current.
density stratification
The formation of layers in a material, with each deeper layer being denser (weighing more per unit of volume) than the layer above.
free wave
A progressive wave free of the forces that formed it.
What is an example of organisms that are part of the epifauna
a sea star
percentage of water on earth
earths surface 71% water
water from oceans lakes rivers seas glaciers
Making up an answer to a question is a formulation of a (blank)
mid ocean ridge
found near the center of most ocean basins, a interconnected system of underwater mountains that have developed on newly formed ocean crust
Which source of energy drives mantle convective flows and plate movements
Earths internal, thermal energy
An exposed sand bar attached to a headland adjacent to a bay and extending across the mouth of the bay
Bay Mouth Bar
at what latitudes are the tropic of cancer and tropic of capricorn?
cancer- 23.5 N.............. capricorn- 23.5 S
silicate and lighter elements
all dense elements sunk to core and _________ and _______ elements float to surface?
What is NASA's definition of life?
Life is a self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.
What do the two relatively flat areas on the hypsographic curve represent:
Some interior continental areas/ coastal plains and abyssal plains.
Describe ocean acidification? What are the ramifications of this for marine life? What types of marine life will be most heavily impacted
increased amount of CO2 in atmosphere leads to increased amount in atmosphere; marine organisms who build hard parts out of calcium carbonate are going to have a hard time
Describe the "year without a summer".
in New England there were late spring snows & midsummer freezes (destroyed crops, hardship)
Formation of Solar System time and theory
Big Bang formed universe over 15 billion years ago
Factors that can lower salinity in the ocean and why are...
Areas where there is lots of percipitation, and near the mouths of water
In what ways does vertical migration help an organism survive?
animals do this to stay alive; at dusk they come to the surface to feed on phytoplankton, and at daytime they return to deep waters
photosynthetic algae
Largest ocean
temperature of magma
percent of coral reefs
biogenous sediment
includes phosphate-rich material
Long-wavelength shallow-water wave caused by rapid displacement of water. See also seismic sea wave.
rich in ferromagnesian minerals, between crust and core
crustaceans, nearly microscopic, most abundant animals on Earth
place where ocean meets land
_______: process that converts
molecular nitrogen dissolved in seawater to ammonium ion
nitrogen fixation
Device that measures amount and direction of residual magnetism in a rock sample
________ - free floating, unicellular plants and animals.
members of two different species involved in mutually beneficial relationship
microscopic plant planton that are found near the water's surface
distance between two successive crests or troughs ((L))
an artificial structure of durable material that interrupts the progress of waves to shore. often used to shelf harbors
Calcium carbonate, Milky water that eventually becomes chalky, white cliffs of dover.
Harmful Algal Bloom
• Dinoflagellates
o Red tide
type of continental- continental plate boundary which formed the Himalayas
an underwater "avalanche" of abrasive sediments thought responsible for the deep sculpturing of submarine canyons and means of transport for sediments accumulating on abyssal plains
turbidity current
What technology do scientists use to measure ocean depth?
a depth of about one-half wavelength, where the diameter of the orbits of water particles in waves is essentially zero. the depth below which water is not affected by surface waves
occur because of Earth's tilt and rotational around the sun
deep sea benthic communities
limited food supply
stable environment
high pressures
a huge circle of moving ocean water
long-term average of weather for a particular region (local, regional, or global)
Once active volcanoes that are now submerged flat top structures.
The primary supplier of moisture to the atmosphere is the (blank).
groins are constructed for the purpose of maintaining or widening beaches that are losing sand
Plunging breaker
Moderately steep seafloor, Wave energy expended over a short distance.
Trade winds
prevailing wind pattern at tropical latitudes
coastal winds from land to ocean
land breeze
are deep focus earthquakes more common in trenches or along mid ocean ridges?
condensation theory
Premise that stars and planets accumulate from contracting accreting clouds of galactic gas, dust and debris
A shallow body of seawater generally isolated from the ocean by a barrier island. Also the body of water enclosed within an atoll, or the water within a reverse estuary
True or False? In general, ocean water on the western side of ocean basins will be less dense than that on the eastern side of ocean basins.
the organisms that live at the bottom of the sea or ocean
change results in an alteration to the global sea levels dur to changes in volume of water or basins
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts and other solids in a given amount of liquid
deep crevice in ocean floor caused by subduction
deep current
stream like movement of water beneath the surface of the ocean
animal plankton that can grow to 2 inches
t/f: the restoring force of a ripple is gravity
(blank) (blank) are built by placing large rocks along the foot of the cliffs
Rip Rap
solar day
time period determined by one rotation of Earth relative to the sun; the mean solar day is twenty four hours
live buried in the sand, shells, or mud
gulf stream
the strong western boundary current of the North Atlantic, off the Atlantic coast of US
point of at least zero vertical motion in a standing wave
what are some activities humans are partaking in that are negatively impacting our oceans?
fossil fuels
Describe sunlight.
-provides 98% fo the energy that drives earth's weather systems
-it comprises most of the radiation energy that reaches earth and "energizes" photosynthesis
ebb current
Water rushing out of an enclosed harbor or bay because of the fall in sea level as a tide trough approaches.
Which of the following is a type of nekton?
Mariana's Trench
What is the specific name for the deepest point on the earth?
Water slides down front slope of wave. Gently sloping seafloow. Wave energy expended over longer distance
Spilling breaker
Importance Of Upwelling
Upwelling is a process that brings deep, cold water to the ocean surface. It is important because the water provides nutrients that promote primary production and plankton growth which attracts fish. This is why upwelling is important.
continental slope
is farther from the shore; the ocean floor drops sharply at the continental slope
barrier reef
separated from the shoreline by a body of water, example: the great barrier reef
Transform Fault
A plane along which rock masses slide horizontally past one another.
Sea stacks and Sea cliffs are a part of which specific coast?
Oxygen Minimum Zone
Layer containing the least amount of oxygen, located at boundary between intermediate and deep zone
disphotic zone
an area between 200 and 1000 meters- only a very small amount of light enters
hot spot
a surface expression of a plume of magma rising from a stationary source of heat in the mantle
Sand on the seaward side of the berm, sloping toward the ocean, to the low tide mark
North Atlantic Intermediate Water
salty and cold moved northward to reappear at the surface; Trapped by Labrador and gulf stream
Continental Jigsaw Puzzle
You could put some of the counties together and they fit.
Surface currents
ocean currents on the top of the water that are driven by wind
the ocean provides us with
food and steady temperature and climate in a particular area
An estuary in which an influx of seawater occurs beneath a surface layer of fresh water flowing seaward. Mixing occurs along the junction
Partially mixed estuary
The line or point of no wave action in a standing pattern. See also amphidromic point.
what is diurnal, semidiurnal, and mixed tides?
diurnal (gulf)- 1h/1L per day.... semidiurnal (east)- 2h/2L per day.... mixed (west)- 2h/2L per day. (most common, tidal range is different)
dying fabric, agriculture, de-icing roads, seasoning, curing, and preserving foods
What is this important salt used for?
constituents of sea h2o
crustal rock
vary greatly due to solubilities
What adaption are needed for deep diving cetaceans?
collapsing lungs, large amount of myoglobin in muscles (store oxygen), increased hemoglobin in muscles, low cardiac rate
Dead sea compared to world's oceans
dead sea has 300, oceans have 35
What is the primary productivity in a kelp forest like?
the productivity is high, rivaling that of some of the richest farmlands, the forests support a rich community of animals.
Satellites are used to map the ocean floor because
-They are unaffected by surface weather
-Can cover areas where ships have not produced surveys
-Can see large areas of the seafloor at one time
-The shape of the ocean surface reflects large features on the seafloor below
How is it that fossils of ancient polar plants are currently found near the
Plants lived near the poles but drifted with the land masses to their current locations
2. How is sound transmitted through a medium?
a. By rapid vibrations of molecules
b. By rapid temperature changes in a medium
c. By rapid pressure changes in a medium
d. All of the above
c. By rapid pressure changes in a medium
freezing point
Primarily iron and nickel
Scientific method step 5
heat deficit
less heat than needed
a seasonal wind or weather
Speed in a specific direction
particulate organic and inorganic matter that accumulates in loose, unconsolidated form.
what color makes fishes appear invisible in the deep ocean
the changes in species composition that lead to climax community
Marine Vascular Plants
Phyllospadix, Zostera, and Rhizome
The difference between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere is in their (blank) state.
intense buckling and crushing of earths crust is called?
raising fish as a single species
"geostophic currents"
= (barotrophic + baroclinic velocity)
balanced by
Coriolis Force
mid-ocean ridges
long mountain ranges where seafloor spreading takes place
-formed at divergent boundaries
coastal zones
modified by waves and wave action
Littoral Zone
covered and uncovered with seawater once or twice a day as the water level changes between high and low tides
Animals (such as birds or mammals) that can regulate their body temperature.
What is an example of a "cruiser"?
Detects Water mass properties based on conductivity, temperature, and depth
Rip current
strong surface current flowing seaward from shore; the return movement of water piled up on the shore by incoming waves and wind
During what event did the atmosphere form?
bits and pieces of decomopsing organic matter that serve as the base of several important marine food webs. the decomposing salt march plants, mangrove leaves, and sea grasses are important in the estuaries and the rain of detritus from the photic zone is important to the deep ocean benthic community.
convergent boundary
type of boundary at subduction zone
shorelines risen above current sea level
emerging shorelines
Layer of water where density changes rapidly with depth
white smokers.
Hydrothermal vents between 30°C and 350°C produce:
study of the ocean floor contours. earliest known studies were carried out in the mediterranean by greek posidonius
the smallest particle of an element that exhibits the characteristics of that element
mid-ocean ridge
continous elevated zone on the floor of all the major ocean basins
Person who FIRST figured out that Africa and South America might fit together
Francis Bacon!...Hmmm...bacon...
a nor'easter is a large storm whose rotate from the northeast. it is a low pressure area whose center of rotation is just off the coast.
The use of reflected sound to detect environmental objects. Cetaceans use echolocation to detect prey and avoid obstacles
Clamshell Sampler
Sampling device used to take shallow samples from ocean bottom
these birds have lost the ability to fly, but are excellent swimmers
autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV)
preprogrammed devicesthat are not tethered to surface vessels and can perform a wide variety of tasks on the ocean floor
The quantity pH represents the amount of (blank) in a liquid.
H ion
Passive Margin
Continental margin near an area of lithospheric plate divergence
siliceous ooze
Ooze composed mostly of the hard remains of silica-containing organisms
Sediments which are poorly sorted and made of a variety of minerals could have been deposited by
a glacier
Increasing energy results in
gravity waves and trochoidal waveforms
submarine canyons
deep, ushaped canyons into the shelf and slope by strong turbidity currents
Where is the riches area for bioluminescence to occur?
Arabian Sea
the great body of saline water that covers 70.78% of the surgace of the earth; one of its primary subdivisions, bounded by continents, the equater, and other imaginary lines
baymouth bar
a sand bar that completly crosses a bay, sealing it off from teh open ocean
Sea Cave
formed as wave action hollows out the cliff
What depths has red algae been found?
Over 250 meters
sublittoral zone
the ocean floor near shore. the inner ___ extends from the intertidal zone to the depth at which wind waves have no influence ; the outer ____ extends to the edge of the continental shelf
Solar Tide
T=24 hours. Weaker tide 40% that of Lunar
Netting strangles seals and birds
plastics cause significant biological damage in oceans when
the measure of the level of clarity or murkiness of water
c. satellite radar altimetry
which sea floor mapping method produces the greatest coverage of sea floor features? a. lead line b. sonar c. satellite radar altimetry d. satellite color imagery e. scuba
Water can pile up short distances above a container's rim due to
high surface tension
The phenomenon of a particle of water moving forwardd slightly with each passing wave is known as:
Stokes' drift
What type of water sinks?

Cold water sinksSalty water sinks

a region where plates are pushing together and where a mountain range, island arc, and/or trench will eventually form; often a site of much seismic and volcanic activity
convergent plate boundary
What adaptations does Sargassum weed have that help it live in the Sargasso Sea?
these adaptations include: being supported by bubble-like gas filled structures to keep it floating which enables it to get sunlight
More than 80 % of sharks are less than ___ m as adults
magnetic anomaly stripes that are symmetrically arranged about axis of active mid-ocean ridges
sea-floor spreading plus geomagnetic polarity reversals= ?
The oceans are stratified with respect to
Density, temperature, & salinity
whats a pyroclastic flow
cloud of super heated rocks coming unbelievably fast
Tidal Surges are caused by?
The high winds that are associated with a hurricane and the low pressure of a storm
on continental shelf
if you're a piece of sand where are you most likely going to be deposited?
In the Equatorial region, what is the most predominate time for the afternoon effect?
1400-1500L (2pm to 3pm)
Milankovitch cycles are based on 3 solar phenomenon
Changes in Precession, Changes in Obliquity, Changes in Eccentricity
What does the "Dynamic Theory of Tides" explain?
the characteristics of ocean tides based on celestial mechanics and the characteristics of fluid motion. AKA, the centrifugal force of Earth's rotation reinforced by the gravitational attraction of the moon causes two bulges on the ocean surgace, one toward and one opposite of the moon
How high was the highest wave ever and where was it
120 ft in Japan
A plate consists of portions of what?
the rocky upper mantle and the crust
what is the 3rd to bottom lvl on the trophic pyramid
3, 1st lvl carnivores
where does the water in the deep zone come from, and what is its oxygen concentration?
polar oceans, relatively high O2 concentration
What is pangaea? When did it form and when did it break up?
A super continent that formed in the late paleozoic and broke apart in the triassic time
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