Oceanography Flashcards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Nektonic
Swimmers
Microtektites are classified as:
Cosmogeneous
Biosphere
Plant and animal life
The deep zone contains about________percent of the ocean's volume.
80
Geochemistry
Thermodynamic reactions that affect the chemical makeup of sedimentary material
Sediment that originates from the continents is called:
Terrigeneous
Carbon dioxide dissolved in water produces:
Acid
A pycnocline caused by salinity differences is called a:
Halocline
Age of the Earth
4.6 Billion Years
trough
the lowest point of a wave.
Substrate
What the organism is living on/in
Earth's earliest fossilized life form
3.5 Billion Years
Forchammer's Principle describes the:
Proportions of conservative constituents in seawater
Black Smoker chimneys at hydrothermal vents are mainly composed of:
Mineral Deposits
What is Japan associated with?
A subduction zone
Caribbean currents
bring surface ocean water into caribbean from south america
Reduced Warming
Fast Seafloor spreading-> rapid CO2 input-> increased temp, rain, veg-> Increased Chemical weathering-> Increased CO2 removal-> Reduced Warming
surface current
streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface of the ocean
Breaker
wave that gravity pulled down and crashed onto the ocean floor
The water temperature of the deep zone is generally about____degrees Celsius
2
Which kind of marine sediment seems to be associated with oil and gas formation?
Biogeneous
Earth's present atmosphere is mainly composed of?
Nitrogen and Oxygen
The movement of the continents across the surface of Earth is known as
Continental Drift
Silicilieous ooze is formed from:
Radiolarian and diatom skeletons
rip current
Narrow streams of water that break through sandbars and drain rapidly back to sea.
Conditions necessary for coral reef development
-Warm water
-Sunlight
-Saline waters
-Hard substrate for attachment
Surf
the area between the breaker zone and the shore
headland
a narrow ridge of high land jutting out into the water
Shoreline
were land and a body of water meet
Ethiopia, Kenya, and other parts of east Africa are associated with:
divergence and rifting
A test of a hypothesis is also called an?
Experiment
neap tide
a less than average tide occurring at the first and third quarters of the moon.
sandbar
a ridge of sand formed by the action of tides.
beach (berm)
any area of the shoreline deposited by waves
longshore current
a water current that travels near and parallel to the shoreline
The European Age of Discovery began with the explorations of?
Prince Henry the Navigator
The hadopelagic zone is most closely associated with:
The deep sea trenches
wave period
the time between a passage of two wave crests at a fixed point
Where an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate:
The oceanic plate subducts
What does NOT characterize active margin continental shelves?
They tend to be broad and flat
Benthic
Seal Floor
When salinity increases, density:
Increases
Cryosphere
Regional and continental glaciation
John Harrison invented the ___________, a device that was
critical for the accurate determination oflongitude.
Chronometer
Components needed for Primary Production
-Carbon
-H2O
-Sulfur
-Nitrogen
-Phosphorus
-Silicon
Sometimes sediments can form into rocks through the process of:
Lithification
Age of the Sun
5 Billion Years
The first sailing expedition devoted exclusively to marine
science was that of the:
Challenger
crest
the highest point of a wave.
Eutrophication
Addition of substances such as nitrates and phosphates, increases phytoplankton in a water body- depletes O2
What was NOT present in Earth's primitive atmosphere?
Oxygen
`The United States has a manned submersible named ____________,
which has done much of the surveying of ridges and explored the deep
vents.
Alvin
groin
a protective structure of stone or concrete.
Reduced Cooling
Slow Seafloor spreading-> Slow CO2 input-> decreased temp,rain,veg-> decreased chemical weathering-> Decreased CO2 removal-> reduced cooling
Wave trough
the lowest part of a wave
thermocline
layer of water extending from 300m below sea level to about 700m
"Salinity" refers to:
The total concentration of dissolved inorganic solids in seawater
Poorly sorted sediments tend to be:
Of several sizes
Modern polar exploration owes much to the sounding and sampling
instruments developed by:
Fridtjof Nansen
Seasat was the first satellite used to gather oceanographic
data, under the direction of:
NASA
Longshore drift
the movement of water and sediment down a beach caused by waves coming in to shore at an angle.
Spit
load of sand thats deposited as a longshore current turns into a bay
Prevailing winds
the global winds that blow constantly from the same direction
Saltinity
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts and other solids in a given amount of liquid
Wave height
the vertical distance from the crest of a wave to the trough
Most of the sediments that form the continental rise are carried by:
Turbidity Currents
Where is the widest continental shelf?
Arctic Ocean, near Siberia
Who first proposed a formal theory of continental drift?
Alfred Wegener
Oozes are named after:
The dominant organism that comprises them
Tsunami
A giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption, submarine earthquake, or landslide.
Nutrients in short supply in Ocean waters
Phosphate, Nitrate, Silica
sea cave
waves cut holes into fractured or weak rock along the base of sea cliffs
As high continental mountains erode down, the low-density mountain root supporting them will:
experience isostatic uplift because the mass of the mountains is decreasing.
New seafloor is produced and spreads out from:
The mid ocean ridges
Coriolis Effect
The apparent curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to the earth's rotation
What was Earth's primitive atmosphere mainly composed of?
Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, and Water Vapor
The continental masses are often more than 3 billion years old while the seafloor is rarely older than 200 million years because:
new seafloor eventually subducts and melts in deep-sea trenches; this process rarely takes longer than 200 million years.
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Term:
Definition:
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