Oceanography Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hydrogenous sediment
Plant-like plankton: diatoms.
specialized single-celled algae derived from dinoflagellates; live intracellularly and are concentrated in the tentacles; form of symbiosis called mutualism
get it from volcanoes
4.6 Billion- 570 Million
biogenous sediments
sediments derived from organisms
(surface currents) Eastern Boundary Currents (California Current)
-cold, slow
-originate @ polar regions, deflected to the equator
-flow east
420 degrees C
Venus- average temp?
Polar regions get ______ heat
the lowest part of a wave
circulation cells between 60 degrees and 90 degrees
An intense rotating oceanic wealther system with winds of 74 miles per hour or greater.
speckled rock composed mainly of oxygen, silicon, and aluminum
decrease, increase, decrease
salinity______around river mouths where fresh water enters ocean...salinity _______ in polar regions in winter as sea ice forms removing h2o from surface water and salinity______ in summer when sea ice melts returning water to surface.
the uninterrupted distance over which the wind blows without changing direction
Diatoms, Coccolithophores, dinoflagellates
3 types of phytoplankton..
Thickness of atmosphere
About 10 km thick
aphotic zone
below 1000 meters- no light
surface expression of a persistent rising plume of hot mantle material
Mixed layer
Phytoplankton & Zooplankton live and grow in the...
fan shape deposit of sediment formed when a stream enters the ocean
Continental rise
A transition zone between the continental margin and the deep-ocean floor comprised of a huge pile of debris.
Barrier Reef
Name for a coraline-algal structure separated from the mainland by a lagoon
marine organisms that drift in ocean currents.
volcanogenic sediments
particles are ejected from volcanos ex: ash
Sea otters
expected to show the highest concentrations of DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in its tissues
the science, which deals with the study and exploration of the ocean.
Laguna Madre is a classic Coastal plain estuary
shallow-water wave
waves traveling in water shallower than 1/20 the wavelength
how many lithosphere plates does plate tectonics say covers the earth?
a pigment that changes color by contracting and expanding
in bony fish
Streamlining in fish means that the minimum amount of energy is expended to swim.
Lines that ran from pole to pole
graded bedding
stratification in which each layer displays a decrease in grain size from bottom to top.
density current
a subsurface current that is heavier or more dense than the surrounding water.
The type of boundary where two plate slide past each other
2% of the Earth's water is...
Frozen fresh water
a layer of water in which the temperature changes rapidly with changes in depth
a deposit of sand that forms when coastline change
each degree of latitude is about
60 nautical miles
pycnocline layer
density changes rapidly 0-1500 m- high lats, density constant, stable
the earth's surface winds are caused by air moving from a region of high or low pressure to a region of high or low pressure
high, low
Animals that live on the ocean bottom, either attached or moving freely over it.
What effects salinity positively?
Volcanic Activity, freezing, erosion, and evaporation.
cause waves and determine the type of wave produced
bending of light or sound waves as they move at an angle other than 90 degrees between media of different optical or acoustical densities (like light in water)
Photic Zone
Zone that receives a lot of light
A process by which bacteria or archaea synthesize organic molecules from inorganic nutrients using chemical energy released from the bonds of a chemical compound by oxidation.
the mass per unit volume of a substance, usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter
The layer of the earth that plates slide around on.
Trade winds
global wind belt that is located in the north (NE) or south (SE).
What is used to determine the absolute age of a rocky fossil?
Carbon Dating
tropical cyclone
a weater system of low atm. pressure around which winds blow coutherclockwise in the n. and clockwise in the s. originates in the tropics within a single air mass, but may move into temperate waters if water temp. is high enough to sustain it. small tropical cyclones are called tropical depressions, larger ones are called tropical storms.
El Nino
a warm ocean current that flows along the equator from the date line and south off the coast of Ecuador at Christmas time
what is the rock that makes up the deep sea floor?
The average depth of the oceans is about what?
3,800 meters
The tidal bulge on the earth, on the opposite side of the moon is caused by (blank) force
barrier island
a long narrow sandy island (wider than a reef) running parallel to the shore
circular orbital motion
motion of water particles caused by the wave as it moves through water
Spring tides
tides occurring near the times of the new and full Moon, when the range of the tide is greatest
hydrothermal vent
a spring of hot, mineral- and gas- rich sea-water found on some oceanic ridges in zones of active seafloor spreading.
Ekman spiral
A theoretical model of the effect on water of wind blowing over the ocean. Because of the Coriolis effect, the surface layer is expected to drift at an angle of 45° to the right of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere and 45° to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Water at successively lower layers drifts progressively to the right (N), or left (S), though not as swiftly as the surface flow.
spring equinox
occurs in march when the 90 degree sun angle is on the equator. March 21
pressure sensor
a device that is mounted on the sea floor, designed to weigh the water that passes over it, as a measure of wave height
similarites between surface and density currents
-movement of large ammount of water
-circular movement
-affected by temperature
ocean basin floor
Where in the ocean would you find deep-ocean trenches?
Horizontal movement across surface
high to low pressure, strong and dependable winds
The sea floor is oldest at the the mid-ocean ridge, and is younger as you move further away. True or False
pg 50
salt wedge estuary
a very deep river mouth with a large volume of freshwater flow beneath which a wedge of salt water from the ocean invades
As earth cooled, water vapor in atmosphere from outgassing condensed and rained out-forming oceans
where did oceans come from?
a marine fish is ______ (hypotonic/hypertonic). what about a freshwater fish?
marine fish = hypotonic (low salinity)
freshwater fish = hypertonic (high salinity)
The zone in the ocean where sound can travel extremely long distances is called
SOFAR channel-deep sound channel
Where does deep ocean water form?
Near the poles at the surface.
Has high salinity and is cold
Additional 6 kinds of vent life
-clams (up to 30 cm (12 inch) long)
-mussels, crabs, snails, octopuses,
-sea anemones, sponges, shrimps,
-tube worms (over 3 m (10 ft) long),
-echinoderms and even some fish
(like tonguefish).
upward moving material breaks through crust as lava spews out forming new sea floor
how does the earth create new sea floor?
Echinoidea, no arms, ball or disk shape
Sand dollars and sea urchins are in class ________, which is characterized by _________ and __________.
What happens when a comet enters the solar system?
develop gas and dust tails trailing behind
true segmentation
Measure salinity
137.75 degrees WEST
Significant oceanographic knowledge was acquired during the Middle Ages.
Widely distributed single-celled phytoplankton, use flagella to move
Polar cells
60-90 degrees lat
Christopher Columbus established trade routes from Europe around Africa to India
International Whaling Commission bans whaling in 1986, everyone stopped but Japan, still research whaling for minke whales, Norway resumed, believed to be sustainable
radioactive decay
source of inner heat
Kingdoms are groups of _____
________ currents form when turbulent water contains a lot of sediment.
ciliated, swimming larva of some invertebrates
bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms to degrade pollutants such as crude oil
REMEMBER* surface tension-- what is stronger than gravity between molecules??
Only the (blank) wavelength waves survive the travel across an ocean.
Marine animals
• Streamlined body shape
• Generate internal body heat (warm blooded)
• Respiratory system is modified (they're in water and need to be able to stay in it longer than humans)
• Osmotic adaptation (handle salinity better)
are the 4 general characteristics of what?
How to resist sinking (adaption)
• Internal resistance to flow of a substance
• Increases with inc salinity
• Increases with decreasing temperature
where is there a convergent ocean-ocean plate boundary?
Characteristics of Oceanic Crust: Thin or thick
Giant streams of water moving through the ocean.
a partially enclosed body of water seperating a barrier island from the mainland
Charles Darwin
collected a variety of marine organisms for study and proposed an explanation for the progressive evolution of coral reefs into atolls.
coral reefs
colonial organisms that create calcite structures
Warm Currents
On the warm side of gyres
Limiting Factor
factor whose presence and available amount governs the productivity
Submerged volcanoes that dot the ocean floor.
During evaporation heat is added to (blank).
the most biologically productive part of a bic is the
low marsh
Equatorial currents are driven by the
trade winds
What is the boundary between westerlies and polar easterlies?
polar fronts
Where are the majority of "mega cities"(greater 10mill) located?
an instrument that detects and records earth movement associated with earthquakes and other disturbances
Vertical wall of variable height marking the landward limit of the most recent high tides. Corresponds with the berm at extreme high tides.
Beach Scarp
drowned river valley that is a great breeding ground for fish
Point-Source Pollution
pollution that comes from a specific site
area of the shore between mean high water and mean low water, the intertidal zone
Transform Continental Margin, Convergent Active Margin
2 types of active margins
sping tide
sun moon and earth are in line
submarine canyon
deep valley in the continental slope and shelf
prevailing winds
they blow in a particular direction like trade winds and westerly winds
t/f: the diameters of deep water wave orbits decrease with depth
How many bulges of seawater are there due to the moon? (blank)
The balancing of the downward force of the crust and the upward force of the mantle.
trawl nets
sonar finds fish; pull trawl net through that area
caused by the spread of wave energy passes through the small opening to the other side
winds that circulate from west to the east
What percent of the earth is covered with oceans?
spring tide
The time of greatest variation between high and low tides occurring when Earth, moon, and sun form a straight line. Spring tides alternate with neap tides throughout the year, occurring at two-week intervals.
parts per thousand
Ocean salinity is usually expressed in _____.
The formula to find the depth of the ocean water is.....? D= ________(1500m/sec) (t)
Seismic sea wave or tsunamis are caused by
sea floor movement
long distance surface currents
travel thousands of kilometers around the world like the Gulf Stream
Is Earth warming
definitely warming in terms of global average temp
in the oceans found in the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere, a high or low pressure cell develops over oceans in winter and a high or low pressure cell developes iover the oceans in the summer
low, high
Subduction zone
An area at which a lithospheric plate is descending into the asthenosphere. The zone is characterized by linear folds (trenches) in the ocean floor and strong deep-focus earthquakes; also called a Wadati-Benioff zone
Phytoplankton, Nekton and zooplankton
The pelagic environment concerns three major species...
Latent Heat
Name of energy required to change ice into water
Marginal Seas
small bodies of saltwater found at the edges of major oceans
passive margin
The continental margin near an area of lithospheric plate divergence
A coral reef surrounding an island or lying parallel to the shore of a continent, separated from land by a deep lagoon. Coral debris islands may form along the reef.
Barrier Reef
Trubidity, salinity, polar creep
The three types of density currents are: ________, ________, and ________.
standing crop
total amount of biomass in an area of any one instance
surface currents
currents at the top layer of the ocean caused by winds.
Swash Mark
A fine, wavy or arcuate line or minute ridge consisting of fine sand, seaweed, and other debris on a beach; marks the farthest advance of wave uprush. Also known as debris line; wave line; wavemark.
Divisions of Marine Environment
􀂄 The pelagic (“of the sea”) environment is the
water where organisms are unattached
􀂉 Swimming- nekton
􀂉 Floating- plankton
􀂄 The benthic (“bottom”) environment is the
ocean bottom, plants and animals that are
attached (benthos)
Average speed of the wind, a factor in wind wave development.
wind strength
what are the two main types of circulation in the ocean?
thermohaline and surface circulation
29.5 days
How long does it take for the moon to orbit the earth?
hydrostatic pressure
per unit area "P"
@ depth "z"
p = -(density) (g) (z)

g= acceleration due to gravity

z = depth of sea h2o

*** (-) b/c z axis has origin at sea level and is negative going down into ocean
3. What was the main requirement for the development of life on Earth?
a. Exposure to sunlight
b. Absence of free oxygen c. Simple sugars
d. Energization from electrical sparks
b. Absence of free oxygen
What are the seven main taxa into which scientists classify organisms into?
Kingdom, Phylum/Divsion, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species
In what ways does countershading help an organism survive?
animals can make it difficult for predators above to see them against the dark, deep water if their dorsal side s a dark color
The most likely place to find abundant manganese nodules is on the
abyssal plain far from a continent
Is there any change in the thickness of the lithosphere as one moves from
the oceanic ridge towards an oceanic trench?
It increases in proportion to the distance
9. Which is not a characteristic of thermoclines?
a. Tropical thermoclines are deeper than those at higher latitudes.
b. Thermoclines are not identical in form.
c. Polar waters tend to lack thermoclines.
d. Thermoclines are more abrupt in the high lati
d. Thermoclines are more abrupt in the high latitudes.
causes waves
diatomaceous ooze
biogenous sediment
measures depth of ocean
Oceanic trench
convergent plate boundary
continental shelf
along edges of continents
short fluctuation in atmospheric conditions.
time scale in hours or weeks.
example: seasonal growth of glaciers
spilling wave
wave collapses down front?
crashed together to form planets
gases dissolve easily in seawater
Chemical reaction in the organism releases light without producing any heat
The highest part of a wave.
% of surface water in ocean
what causes tsunamis?
earthquakes, submarine landslides, volcanic eruptions
the wave as it comes ashore/breaks
Mantle composition
Mg, Fe (magnesium and iron)
labrador current meets gulfsteam and makes ____
An isolated segment of seafloor, island arc, plateau, continental crust, or sediment transported by seafloor spreading to a position adjacent to a larger continental mass. Usually different in composition from the larger mass.
A short, artificial projection of durable material placed at a right angle to shore in an attempt to slow longshore transport of sand from a beach. Usually deployed in repeating units
producing live young from eggs that hatch with in body. ex: Coelocanth
The trade winds influence the ________ currents.
Wave Height
vertical distance between crest and trough
referring to a solution having the same concentration of dissolved substances as the solution that surrounds it
Light produced in living organisms by chemical reaction. Found in bacteria,phytoplankton and metazoans
TF species diversity is less in sediment covered shores compared to rocky shores but numbers may be same
In December, Arctic ocean water salinity increases or decreases, and Anactic ocean water salinity increases or decreases
increases, decreases
Protective coloration in an animal or insect, characterized by darker coloring of areas exposed to light and lighter coloring of areas that are normally shaded.
What is a variable?
Something that can change.
an extremly large storm whose winds rotate from the northeast. It is a low pressure area whos center of rotation is just of the coast.
Gravity Waves
Increased wave energy and wavelength compared to capillary waves; wind-generated wave
Diatoms reproduce quickly when ____
levels rise and are thought to account for 25% of all the _____ on Earth
sunlight; photosynthetic biomass
Most photosynthesis in the ocean is carried out by the plank-tonic plant called
short waves have fast or slow speeds?
include all animals capable of moving independently of the ocean currents
During a "normal" year, which side of the equatorial pacific experiences upwelling?
these are built parallel to shore to protect harbor from waves
surface tension
cohesion helps this in water because of all the hydrogen bonds, relates to the measure of how difficult it is to stretch or penetrate the surface of a liquid.
Prostate Gland
gland of the male reproductive tract, contributing roughly one-third of the volume of semen secretes an alkaline fluid which neutralizes the acidity of the females vagina
hot spots
one of the surface expressions of plumes of magma rising from relatively stationary sources of heat in the mantle
Green House Gasses
Absorbing of infra-red radiation- by: h2o, co2, n2o, o3, ch4
(water, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, trioxygen, methane)
Antarctic circumpolar water
mixture of deep water circulating around antarctica
Oceanography (Marine Science)
The process of discovering unifying principles in data obtained from the ocean, its associated life-forms, and its bordering lands.
the body fish - largest class of vertebrates
continental slope
sharp increase in slope and rapid water depth increase
what type of weather makes evaporation occur quickly?
hot weather
Part of the Earth where ocean salinity is generally the highest
Polynesian explorers
navigated across open ocean in double hulled sailing canoes, relied not on maps but by winds and wave patterns.
The formation of layers in a material, with each deeper layer being denser (weighing more per unit of volume) than the layer above.
density stratification
what do plants need for photosynthesis?
nutrients and sun
An event during which normal tropical Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation strengthens, and the surface temperature of the eastern South Pacific drops below average values. Usually occurs at the end of an ENSO event. See ENSO
La Nina
The number of waves passing a point in a given amount of time
mixed zone
an area of the ocean surface with uniform temperatures created by the mixing of water by waves, currents, and tides.
sand on the seaward side of a berm sloping toward the ocean to low tide mark
water vapor
warmer water means more energy will be used to break hydrogen bonds and from what?
If two oceanic plates converge, the (blank), (blank), (blank) plate will undergo subduction.
Denser, Cooler, Older
A series of waves created when a body of water such as an ocean, is rapidly displaced.
Destructive Interference
When a crest coincides with the trough of the the other wave
As waves approach shore, they bend so wave crests are nearly parallel to shore. Wave speed proportional to depth of water. different segments of wave crest travel at different speeds, so shallower portions slow down and the waveface "bend" towards shore.
wave refraction
Heat capacity
Amount of enegry required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 C.
Secondary sewage treatment is distinguished form primary sewage treatment by the
chlorination of the liquid effluent
fringing reef
A coral reef formed close to a shoreline
Types of estuaries & examples
drowned river mouth, fjord. tectonic, bar built
Atlantic ocean
which ocean has a lot of Mid ocean ridges?
When a point on the Earth passes under a bulge, a (blank) is observed at that coast.
High Tide
Carbonate Concentration Depth
The depth at which the amount of calcereous material preserved falls below 20% of the total sediment
during the night there is a cool breeze from the ___ to the ___
land to sea
how does albedo affect climate?
Effects the total amount of solar radiation absorbed by a surface.
a tidal bore is
a true tidal wave caused by incoming high tide that moves up certain rivers
Seafloor spreading (all areas) occurs at a rate of approx?
1 to 10 cm a year
What is the Coriolis effect?
1.) Objects moving in the Northern Hemisphere are deflected to the right (clockwise)
2.) Objects moving in the Southern Hemisphere are deflection to left (counterclockwise)
on continental shelf
if you are a piece of sand where are you most likely to get deposited?
the clumping of dust and gas into a nebula causes what
thermonuclear reactions (Hydrogen --> helium)
32. If an eddy found in the Gulf Stream is rotating counterclockwise, then it is:
a. a warm water eddy.
b. a cold water eddy.
c. a transverse current.
d. an eastern boundary current.
b. a cold water eddy.
Contrast that with the composition of early Earth's atmosphere.
b. The composition of the early atmosphere was water vapor, with small amounts of carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and other gasses.
a warm water eddy off of massachusetts is in what
the cold labrador waters and rotating clockwise
4 things that happen to sunlight when entering sea water
1. The sun hits the water
2. Evaporates (drive hydrolic cycle)
3. Reflects back out away from surface
4. Drives photosynthesis
arrow worms
Supralittoral Zone
splash zone
krill,cnidarians, hydrozoan, scyphozoan
plant and animal life
protozoans incased in compartmented calcareous covering
A forward motion of energy.
floats for its entire life
an animal with distingusihing characteristics who nurse their young and have hair
propagnate energy, not water mass
Zone between high and low tide
a ring-shaped reef surrounding a shallow lagoon
the large circular surface current pattern found in each ocean
study of earths ancient magnetic field
the central part of the Earth
right whale
considered the most endangered whale
Coastal winds ocean to land
Sea breeze
The downward movement into the asthenosphere of a lithospheric plate.
The uninterrupted distance over which the wind blows without a significant change in direction, a factor in wind wave development
by catch
unwanted marine creatures that are caught in nets while fishing for another species
This current travels from the east coast of the US towards Europe ________ current.
Height of wave increases ______ than the length
climax community
a stable, long established community of self-perpetuating organisms that tends not to change with time
Abyssal Zone
The benthic enviroment between 4000 and 6000 meter
TF The gravitational force between two bodies is dependent on mass and distance, distance most important
T/F: The rule of constancy of composition of sea salts for open-ocean water specifies that regardless of the salinity, the major ions always appear in the same ratio to each other
A descriptive term for organisms with a high tolerance for a wide range of salinity conditions
neap tide
earth, sun and moon not aligned
organisms (animals & plants) that live on, in or attatched to the sea floor
General Features of coastal regions
shore; coast; coastline
protists—eukaryotic organisms that do not fit the definition of ___, ___, or ___
animal, plant or fungus
celestial navigation
the technique of finding one's position on Earth by reference to the apparent positions of heavenly bodies.
if an object is closer its gravitational pull is higher or lower
Animal is light colored on the bottom and dark colored on the top
nekton live in the ocean by doing what?
water budget
an accounting of the inflow to, outflow from, and storage changes of water in hydrological system
is a thick ring of muscle that separates the vagina from the uterus and holds a baby in the uterus.
Bathyal Zone
the bottom along the continental slope down to the deep open ocean bottom.
Cold, dry air is...than warm, wet air
more dense
conservative properties
these are useful for tracing the pathway of a water mass through the ocean
Calcareous oozes are produced by the remains of (blank) and (blank) shells.
Foraminifera, Cocolithophore
superheated water
when water is heated under pressure such as occurs in hydrothermal vents, its temp can exceed the sealevel boiling point of 100 degrees Celsius, and often exceeds 350 degrees Celcius
at shelf break
change in continental slope occurs where?
the foward-most part of the boat or ship that is used as sleeping quarters
Amount of gas in water at saturation value
due to loss of volatiles, melting of crust, and production of magma
The layer of the Earth between the crust and the core, composed of silicates of iron and magnesium. The mantle has an average density of about 4.5 g/cm3 and accounts for about 68% of the Earth's mass.
low friction = high or low waves
low waves
Vertical movement in surface water (upwelling or downwelling) caused by wind
wind-induced vertical circulation
The land rises, or ses level falls to form this type of coastline
neritic zone
the part of the ocean that extends from the low-tide line out to the edge of the continental slope
sand on the shoreward side of the berm crest, sloping away from the ocean
thin plates that hang from the top of the whale's mouth
The (blank) valley is a proof that the seafloor spreads.
coriolis effect
effect caused by the spinning of the earth
shallow water waves include (3)
shallow near-shore areas. tides. tsunamis
When air moves up what type of pressure does it create?
Low pressure
What are Benthos?
*plants and animals living on the seafloor
*move or swim across the bottom to find food
fracture zone
long, narrow rift on the ocean floor, separating areas of differing depth
Full Moon
When the Moon is on the opposite side of the Earth from the Sun and the entire Moon is lit up
deep ocean floor
where is the only place where the finest (smallest) pieces of rock can settle because there are no waves or currents of water?
If a beach attached to land at one side, it is called (blank)
Strand Plain
transverse current
est to west, or west to east current linking the eastern and western boundary currents. ex: north equatorial current
what is a lagoon?
a long, shallow body of seawater islated from the ocean- when rising sea level caused the ocean to break through the dunes
What are pinnipeds flippers like?
they are short, flat, wide flippers for hands and feet :)
adaptation sof deep sea hydrothermal vent exist bc
hydrothermal vent areas are short lived phenomena
How do methane hydrates form?
bacteria breaks down to organic matter trapped in sea floor sediment, producing methane gas, which is incorporated into gas hydrates
What is the thermal equilibrium?
Averaged over time, the input of energy to the whole surface of the earth and atmosphere is equal to the output of energy to space
Where do the waves from the disturbance go?
outward and away from the disturbance
the plates float on the _______ layer. and cause geological events where?
Asthenosphere; at the plate borders.
Origin & Relation with Volcanoes
- came from the water vapor that was accumulated in the atmosphere
- when the Earth cooled, the water vapor condensed to form clouds, and it rained to form the oceans
- the water vapor from the volcanoes cooled, torrents of rain filled basins on the surface to form oceans
why is light transmission in water important?
animals need light energy and plants need it for photosynthesis
Describe the Ocean's origin and its relationship to Volcanoes.
About 4 billion years ago, water vapor began to be stored in Earth's early atmosphere. Over millions of years, it cooled enough to condense into storm clouds. Torrential rain begins to fall. Oceans were formed as this water filled low areas on Earth called basins.
Once an element or dissolved substance reaches the ocean,
It may stay or be removed depending on the individual chemistry of the element
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