Organelles Flashcards

Terms Definitions
photosynthesis
                                   chlorophyll Carbon Dioxide + Water ---------------> Glucose + Oxygen                                   radiant energy   (food)
Cytoplasm
Lysosomes
Golgi Apparatus
Nucleolus
Makes ribosomes
Cytosol
Liquid bathing organelles
Flagellum
Moves the cell
Vacuoles
Mambraneous sacs storing materials
Centrioles
function during cell division
Mitochondrion
Converts stuff into energy{ATP}
phospholipid
Any of various phosphorous-containing lipids, such as lecithin and cephalin, that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule.
Ribosomes
RNA and Protein synthesizing polypeptides
nucleus
includes the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, and nucleoplasm
CELL NUCLEUS
brain of the cell
Vacuole
carry out hydrolysis, phagocytosis, pump water out, integral part of endomembrane.
Chloroplasts
Photosynthesis happens in this organelle found in plant cells
Ribosome
organelles that help manufacture proteins
golgi complex
both-network of membranes- processes/distributes proteins
Microvilli
Absorb materials into the cell
solute
A substance dissolved in another substance, usually the component of a solution present in the lesser amount.
Cytoskeleton
maintains cell shape, protects the cell, enables cellular motion
chromatin function
contains instructions that control cell metabolism and heredity
CILIA
motile extentions, abundant on free surfaces of certain epithelial cells
Cell membrane
selectively permeable lipid bilayer enclosing cell
plasma membrane
phospholipid bilayer enclosing the cell; it separates the internal metabolic reactions from the external environment and it controls the transport of materials into and out of the cell
ER
site for lipid and protein synthesis
vesicular transport
endocytosis; into the cellexocytosis; out of the cell
microfilaments
both, all organisms- most slender, actin protein molecule- cell structure/ support-
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
synthesizes steroids, regulates calcium levels, breaks down toxic substances
hypertonic
Having the higher osmotic pressure of two solutions.
Mitochondria
Two membranes and site of cellular respiration 
Endoplasmic Reticulum
transports chemicals between cells and within cells,provides a large surface area for the organization of chemical reactions and synthesis
lysosome structure
- membrane bound bag containing hydrolytic enzymes - hydrolytic enzyme (i.e. using water to split chemical bonds)
PEROXISOMES
synthesis of bile acids, break down lipids, detoxification of alcohol
Chromosomes
DNA and Protein packed into chromatin in nucleous.
centrosome
part of the cell where the microtubules originate
central vacuole
plant cells, others have vacuoles,- large. watery- storage of nutrients....retention/ degradation of waste products,,,,, support
Chloroplast
composed of a double layer of modified membrane (protein,chlorophyll, lipid) ,
cell wall function
- provides protection from physical injury- together with vacuole, provides skeletal support
Organelle
A tiny structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
plastid (not in animal cells)
stores food or pigments
Smooth ER
found in plant and animal cells, looks like little worms. place where lipid components of cell membranes are assembled
chloroplast structure
- composed of a double layer of modified membrane (protein, chlorophyll, lipid) - inner membrane invaginates to form layers called "grana" (sing., granum) where chlorophyll is concentrated
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
network of membranous sacs and tubes. synthesis of membrane and other processes, has rough (ribosome-sutdded) and smooth
Bacterial Cell
A cell that is usually much smaller than animal or plant cells. It does not contain a Nucleus and does have a cell membrane or a cell wall.
cell wall structure
- a non-living secretion of the cell membrane, composed of cellulose- cellulose fibrils deposited in alternating layers for strength- contains pits (openings) that make it totally permeable
cell wall (not in animal cells)
supports and protects the cell
active transport
requires energy
Flaglla
Long projections for locomotion
Flagella
help in cell movement
Rough ER{endopasmic Riticulm*}
Produces proteins
Nucleous
selectively permeable to control movement in or out,
ribosome function
site of protein synthesis
lysosome
cell recycler. breaks down biomolecules and bacteria
nucleolus structure
non-membraneous matrix of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein
ROUGH ER
w/ ribosomesfunctions in protein synthesis
VESICLE
delivery service of cell, carries chemicals about the cell
Nuclear membrane
double membrane enclosing nucleus, pores, continuous with ER
Peroxisome
break down various substances like hydrogen peroxide, fatty acids, and amino acids; also it has various metabolic functions
Organs
A collection of various tissues integrated into distinct structural unit to perform specific functions.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
prepares proteins for export
nuclear envelope
surrounds nucleus in eukaryotic cells. keeps DNA in and protects nucleus, and contains chromatin and chromosomes
rhibosomes
on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in the nucleolus of all cells. They assemble proteins and are made of parts of RNA.
tissue
many cells working together to perform different functions of the body. Example: muscle tissue, bone tissue.
Micro Filiments
Solid rods consisting of actin providing structural support
cellular respiration
Glucose  +  Oxygen  ------> Carbon Dioxide  +  Water  + Energy (ATP)
lysosome function
break large molecules into small molecules by inserting a molecule of water into the chemical bond
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
basic framework of membrane, found in a double layer with fatty acid tails turned inward
Plasomodesmata
channels through the cell wall that connect the cytoplasm to adjacent plant cells
nuclear envelope structure
-two unit membranes with a fluid-filled space-nuclear pores present -outer membrane may be continuous with endoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum function
- transports chemicals between cells and within cells- provides a large surface area for the organization of chemical reactions and synthesis
cell wall
found in plant cells. surrounds cell membrane- acts as support and protection.
microfilaments and microtubules
contribute to the support, movement and division of cells
endoplasmic reticulum structure
- sheets of unit membrane with ribosomes on the outside - forms a tubular network throughout the cell
cilia and flagella
propel cells through the environment / move material over the cell surface
golgi body structure
- stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane (cisternae)- vesicles pinch off the edges
cell membrane function
- acts as a boundary layer to contain the cytoplasm (fluid in cell)- interlocking surfaces bind cells together - selectively permeable to select chemicals that pass in and out of cells
flagella/cilia
locomotion
sER
Lipid metabolism
Lysosome digesting food
Lysosomes
capsule
well organized glycocalyx; prokaryotes
Microtubules
Found in: Cytoskeleton
Description: hollow tubes made of subunits of tubulin protein.
Function: Provide structural support; have role in cell and organelle movement and cell division; components of cilia, flagella, centrioles, basal bodies
Free ribosomes
Types of ribosomes
From DNA to RNA
Transcription
Intermediate filaments
Found in: Cytstoskeleton
Description: Tough fibers made of protein
Function: Helps strengthen cytoskeleton; stabilize cell shape
nucleoplasm
everything enclosed by nuclear envelope
Lysosome breaking down damaged organelle
Lysosomes
The control center of cell
nucleus
Intracellular junctions
hydrolysis of food in vacuole
Golgi process
synthesizes carbs, packages proteins and glycoproteins that make lysomsomes
centriole
a small, cylindrical cell organelle, seen near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis, the new pair of centrioles moving ahead of the spindle to opposite poles of the cell as the cell di
Post Transcription Audification
Occurs in the Protein
Form RNA to mRNA
Post Transcriptional Audification
nucleoid
the "nucleus" of a prokaryote; gene material localized here
ER (in general)
Found in: Cytoplasm
Function: ROAD WAYS THROUGHOUT CELL. Synthesis lipids and modifies many proteins; origin of intra-cellular transport vesicles that carry proteins.
thylakoids
Occur in an intercomm. system in chlorop. & machine used to convert light
Fiberoblast
fusiform cell with cytoplasm with a flattened poorly stained nuc tapering processes are present but sometimes difficult to find. Specked appearance Function: to make fibers and ground substance
What is a reasonable and logical alternative to evolution of a cell?
Creation.
microtubule
a hollow cylindrical structure in the cytoplasm of most cells, involved in intracellular shape and transport.
the fingers of the mitochondria are called...
Matrix
protein fibers; most stable and permanent; help cells resist
pulling forces = provide tensile strength; play a role in linking cells together
Intermediate filaments
Compartments of Golgi

Cis – 1st compartments from RER


Medial – glycosylation takes place


Trans – sorting site for transport 


Trans-Golgi network (TGN) – secretory vesicles and prelysosomes (carrying enzymes to endosomes/lysosomes) come off
Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough)
Network of membranous channels with attached ribosomes

Function: Modification and packaging of newly synthesized proteins
golgi apparattus
an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to t
Notice that the bases pair in a complementary fashion
Nucleus
filaments of contractile protein actin that interact
with myosin to create cell division, perform endo- and exocytosis, and play a role on
pseudopod extension and retraction; organelles also attach to and move along actin
filaments, which constantly as
Microfilaments (actin filaments):
Composed of two subunits (60S and 40S) that fit together to
form a functional ribosome
Ribosomes
What is the source of stored energy in the form of food for animals and humans?
Plants.
is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms that are exposed to oxygen, where it functions to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.
Catalase
Enter your front text here.
Enter your back text here.
What is chemical equation for when the body cells need energy?
ATP yields ADP+P+energy
 
3 pathways through which proteins from Golgi are released to:
Constitutive secretion – replenish plasma membrane proteins
Regulated secretion- signals
Transport of prelysomal enzymes to late endosomes or lysosomes
Contains three types of protein rods (not covered by membranes):
1) Microtubules, 2) Microfilaments, and 3) Intermediate filaments
What is the difference between colored and colorless plastids?
Colorless plastids contain food as starches or oils, while colored plastids contain pigments.
What is the only difference between ADP and ATP?
ATP contains more energy as a result of the extra phosphate group being added.
Why is cell destruction valuable in a tadpole's tail?
The tail must be absorbed as the tadpole develops into a frog or toad.
The nucleus contains
chromatin.
Transcription occurs in the
Nucleous
; site of
protein synthesis
Ribosomes
Membranous sacs containing oxidases and catalases; “toxic waste plants
Peroxisomes
are spherical membranous bags containing digestive
enzymes, “demolition crew” that break down macromolecules
Lysosomes
are motile appendages
Cilia and flagella
chromatin
DNA with proteins; in the nucleus
nucleoli
dark masses where ribosomes are produced
chromosome
23 pairs in human body cells
(“packing & shipping center”) is a stack of 3 – 10 disk-shaped, membrane bound envelopes (cisternae)
Golgi apparatus
Inclusions are temporary structures that are not present in all cell
types
Cytoplasmic Inclusions
plasmid
accessory ring of DNA; double stranded and usually circular; found in bacteria often, can replicate independent of chromosomal DNA
How is glucose stored inside cells?
In vacuoles.
Enclosed by a double membrane; the inner membrane folds in forming shelf-like cristae
mitochondria
is any enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction involving molecular oxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. In these reactions, oxygen is reduced to water (H2O) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
oxidase
mitochondrial matrix
enclosed by inner membr. & contain enyzmes/substr. for citric acid
Peroxisomal rxns

 
They reduce O2 to H2O2- which is used to oxidize other substrates. Excess H2O2 is removed by catalase, a peroxidase, by converting it to water and oxygen. Catalase also oxidizes  toxins- phenols, formic acid, formaldehyde and alcohols. They also can convert an acyl group into an ether group which creates ether lipids.  
Smooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
NO PROTEIN; drug detoxification; steroid and lipid synthesis
Where does glucose come from?
The starch in food.
Works in partnership with the ER; Sorts products of rough ER at
the cis end and sends them to proper destination from the trans end
Golgi apparatus
Explain what a “peroxisome proliferator” is

Many compounds, called peroxisomes proliferator activators =PPA - man-made and fatty acids, can stimulate proliferation.


They bind to nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)


The receptors, then, accelerate production of peroxisomal mRNAs and proteins, i.e. they stimulate gene expression for more peroxisome proteins


An excess number of peroxisomes particularly in the liver and can lead to hepatic cancer, b/c peroxidase cannot be activated as much.
What is the ultimate source of energy for starting the food chain?
The sun.
= float in cytosol ; make soluble proteins
(function in cytosol)
Free ribosomes
Rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
Storage and transport of protein made on ribosomes
What is an organelle?
A small structure within the cell which serves specialized functions.
What is adenosine diphosphate?
A molecule within the cell which is converted into the energy molecule ATP during glucose breakdown.
two distinct types of ER
1) Rough ER – ribosomes stud the external surfaces; envelope stacks
called cisternae; makes all membrane proteins and membrane
2) Smooth ER – consists of tubules in a branching network; no
ribosomes are attached; therefore no protein synthesis; store C
How do lysosomes break down food material inside a vacuole?
Attaching to the outside of a vacuole and spilling their enzymse into it.
What is the function of the energy realeased by the mitochondrion?
Adds a phosphate to ADP, changes ADP to ATP.
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