Organelles 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
steroid synthesis
from centrioles
motor skills/motility
conrtact muscle
Transport of protein
Golgi complex
initial proteolysis
Microtubule subunits

Function: Essential for the movement of chromosomes during division (form the spindle apparatus), organize cytoskeleton
Food Vacuole
formed by phagocytosis
Found in: Cytoskeleton
Description: Solid, rodlike structures consisting of actin protein.
Function: Proved structural support; play role in cell and organelle movement and cell division
network of microtubules, microfilaments, intermed. filaments that branch throughout cytoplasms n serve a variety of mechan. [transport]
Plasma/Cell Membrane
-phospholipid bilayer
-"selectively permeable"
-regulates cells' interaction with environment
-embedded proteins; transport and reception
smooth ER
stores calcium ions
Fluid component of cytoplasm

Function: Distributes materials by diffusion
Approximate 5!m in diameter
Transcription occurs in the
Nuclear Envelope
Double membrane
lipid bilayer
inner and outer membrane of pores are fused
contains nucleolus, contains most genes,
Found in: Cytoplasm, PLANT ONLY
Function: Storage to hold pigment. Pigment accepts light. Three types: Chromoplasts(color), Luekyoplasts(white), and Chloroplasts(green, photosynthesis).
Plasma Membrane
Membrane enclosing the cytoplasm.
Found in: Cytoplasm
Function: Cell digestion. contains enzymes that break down ingested materials, secretions, wastes
Membrane enclosing the central vacuole
storage of metabolites as carbohydrates
detoxification in liver and kidne
are paired cylindrical bodies
forming a pinwheel array of nine triplets
of microtubules = 27 short microtubules;
act in forming cilia and flagella; organize
mitotic spindle during mitosis
rough ER
protein production, has bound ribosomes, produces membrane, protein and membrane are distributed by transport vesicles, continuous with nuclear envelope
Channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells.
Found in: Plant cells in cytoplasm
Function: Water storage, and stores materials, wastes, maintains hydrostatic pressure.
in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
matrix deposit. in several lamin. layers for protection
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-network of internal membranes
Rough ER:contains ribosomes
-appears as flattened stacks
-synthesized materials are exported, sent to vacuoles, lysosomes or membrane
Smooth ER: tubelike
-catalyze proteins and lipids
comprised of unraveled DNA molecules and various nuclear proteins
a small, cylindrical cell organelle, seen near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis, the new pair of centrioles moving ahead of the spindle to opposite poles of the cell as the cell di
Digest any large biological molecule with ...
Inclusions are temporary structures that are not present in all cell
Cytoplasmic Inclusions
digest ingested bacteria, viruses, and toxins; degrade
nonfunctional organelles; breakdown glycogen and release thyroid
hormone; breakdown non-useful tissue (webbing between fingers and
toes during fetal development); breakdown bone to release Ca2+
“network within the cytoplasm,”
is an extensive system of membrane-walled envelopes and tubes
endoplasmic reticulum (ER),
move in a coordinated back-and-forth motion
golgi apparatus
recieves transport vesicles from rough ER, made of flat sacs called cisternae, modifies rough ER products, manufactures certain macromolecules, synthesis of cell wall, creates vesicles
-site of genes for rRNA synthesis
-appears as small,darkened region inside the nucleus
-responsible for rRNA and ribosome assembly
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Transports things throughout the cell
What is the singular form of mitochondria?
Contains DNA and directs the cell’s activities
ribosomes stud the external surfaces; envelope stacks called cisternae; makes all membrane proteins and membrane
Rough ER
Enclosed by a double membrane; the inner membrane folds in forming shelf-like cristae
contractile vacuole
pumps excess water out of protist cells
Cell Wall
outer layer maint. shapes & protects. made of cellulose, protein, & other polysacc.
lipid droplets
storage of metabolits as high energy form
What organell acts as the cell's powerplant?
The mitochondria.
golgi apparattus
an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to t
= attached to rough ER and make
membrane proteins or exported proteins
Attached ribosomes
are found in white blood cells, immune
cells, and melanocytes
secretory lysosomes
Explain how peroxisomes acquire newly-synthesized proteins
Free polyribosomes in the cytosol create peroxisomal proteins which contain a sm. AA sequence: Peroxisome Targeting Signal 1 (PTS-1).

A PTS-1 receptor binds to the PTS-1 in the cytosol and escorts to the perioxisome. It is equivalent to importin proteins (Importin is a type of protein that moves other protein molecules into the nucleus by binding to a specific recognition sequence, called the nuclear localization signal (NLS).

PTS1R Receptor on the peroxisome binds to the PTS1R
What organelle in a plant is used to store starch?
the transport of fluid into a cell by means of local infoldings by the cell membrane so that a tiny vesicle or sac forms around each droplet, which is then taken into the interior of the cytoplasm.
lacks the surface ribosomes of ER and produces
lipids, including steroids
smooth ER
What is adenosine triphosphate?
A molecule which is produced during glucose breakdown by the mitochondria. It serves as an energy source for the cell.
What is an enzyme?
A molecule which serves as a chemical to make reactions work-like the breakdown of food molecules.
Describe four methods for uptake into lysosomes.
Endocytotic vesicles of lipids from the PM
plasma proteins and receptors
phagocytosis brings in bacteria and other junk, PM-coated particle fuses w/ lysosomes
autophagy is how the cell breaks down organelles and other cell particles
in the case of protons they can enter the lysosome through an ATP dependent pump.
two distinct types of ER
1) Rough ER – ribosomes stud the external surfaces; envelope stacks
called cisternae; makes all membrane proteins and membrane
2) Smooth ER – consists of tubules in a branching network; no
ribosomes are attached; therefore no protein synthesis; store C
What is the second step in the breaking down of glucose?
It completes the breakdown of glucose into carbon dioxide and water, produces much more ATP than glycolysis, and takes place in the presence of oxygen.
How does a plant use the ingredients from photosynthesis?
To build up glucose, which are stored in long chains of starch.
Creates glucose
similar to mitochondria
stroma (structure)
chlorophyll (structure)
green leaves
The nucleus contains
sacs made of membrane
; site of
protein synthesis
Non mobile membrane extensions containing microfilaments

Function: Increase surface area to facilitate absorption of extra-cellular materials
are motile appendages
Cilia and flagella
cylindrical structures made of proteins called tubulin; radiate from
centrosome = cell center; organelles attach to and move along microtubules, which
constantly assemble and dissemble; thickest
back and forth motion; specialized arrangement of microtubules, locomotor appendage
Attachmente structures on the surface of some bacteria.
Functions of Golgi:
protein glycosylation (de), phosphorylation, sulfation, synthesis of glycosaminoglycans, O-linked glycosylation
comprised of one small particle subunit and one larger particle unit
any of several threadlike bodies, consisting of chromatin, that carry the genes in a linear order: the human species has 23 pairs, designated 1 to 22 in order of decreasing size and
are constructed of proteins and ribosomal RNA
Form RNA to mRNA
Post Transcriptional Audification
synthesizes a molecule it packages
the molecule into transport vesicles
Rough ER
(“packing & shipping center”) is a stack of 3 – 10 disk-shaped, membrane bound envelopes (cisternae)
Golgi apparatus
Provides mechanical support to the cell and maintain its shape and provides machinery for various cellular movements
Describe functions of peroxisomes
The peroxisomes metabolize long-chain fatty acids to acetyl-CoA 
Produce plasmalogens, major constituents of myelin, and cholesterol.
Peroxisomes also metabolize ethanol to acetaldehyde.  The acetaldehyde is further oxidized, but excess alcohol can allow some acetaldehyde to escape into tissues and circulation, which can cause hangovers and memory loss. Found genetic link.
Cell membrane
Separates cell contents from the environment
What does the mitochondrion use to breakdown sugar?
two parallel membranes separated by fluidfilled
Nuclear envelope
Generates most of the cell’s energy adenesine triphosphate (ATP) via cellular respiration
Region where the cell's DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane).
involved in synth. of organ. molec. of carbon dioxide & H20
cytoskeletal elements
cell motility intra and extra cellular transport and cellular skeleton
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Membranous system of tubules that extends throughout the cytoplasm.
How do some animal cells store glucose?
As glycogen.
is a spherical structure in the cytoplasm; composed of centrosome matrix (outer cloud) and centrioles =;recall microtubules are anchored at the centrosome (microtubule organizing center)
The centrosomes
What is photosynthesis?
A process in green plants which involves the use of carbon dioxide and water in the production of glucose and oxygen using the sun's energy.
is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms that are exposed to oxygen, where it functions to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.
What is lactic acid?
The substance produced by body cells, such as muscles, when there is not enough oxygen available to go into the Krebs Cycle.
In what organ, on what animal is cell destruction valuable?
The tadpole's tail.
differences between the environments of the cytoplasm and RER lumen
Similar pHs
Ca 2+ is 10,000 X higher in ER (some bound to proteins, some ions)
Ionic composition, not determined
The ER is much more oxidizing, and so intra and interchain disulfide bonds form, ex: insulin. In the cytoplasm, NADA, FADH2 and others keeps others reduced, so no disulfide bonds.
What is the function of the mitochondrion?
To breakdown sugar into carbon dioxide and water.
What is the first step in breaking down glucose?
Breaking down the glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid, and does not require oxygen.
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