Organic Chemistry 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hept
seven
1
meth
C10H22
decane
Alkanes
CnH2n+2
Alkene
-ene
polypeptide
...
Carboxylic Acid
O=C-O-H
pKa :NH3
35
Isoleucine
-Ile; sec-butyl
x
1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid
ene
suffix for alkene
Monomers
Small carbon molecules.
Oligosaccharide
2-10 monosaccharide units
Ether
structural element C-O-C
amide
suffix of an amide
carbohydrate
key source of energy
Body Temp
37 degrees Celsius
DBE of 4 implies
Benzene
alcohol
contains an -OH group
Amino Acids
building blocks of proteins
Alkynes
Hydrocarbons with triple covalent bonds
eth-
2 carbons in the skeleton
difference in electronegativity greater than 1.9
ions form
paraffin series
another name for alkanes
bridge
carbon chain connecting bridgehead carbons
Conformation
Any three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule that results from rotation about a single bond
What is the general for alkenes?
CnH2n
anabolism
synthesizing a complex molecule from simpler compounds
outward/ inward
Phosphate group: polar and hydrophilic
Lipids: nonpolar and hydrophobic
SO cell membrane is double layer- water soluble ends face __ and water insoluble ends faces __
incomplete combustion
not enough oxygen for combustion
c terminal
Caboxyllic Acid End of Protein
Alkenes
Hydrocarbon chain with atleast one double bond
Monosaccharide
The simplest carbohydrate; a simple sugar with a molecule formula that is generally some multiple of CH20. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
hydrocarbons have what kind of bonds?
covalent
Allylic
Next to a carbon-carbon double bond
Octet rule
Atoms generally form bonding arrangements that give them filled shells of electrons (noble-gas configurations). For the second-row elements, this configuration has eight valence electrons.
Phospholipids
A molecule that makes up biological membranes, polar/hydrophilic head, a nonpolar/hydrophobic tail.
glycerol
three cerbon alcohol with -OH groups on all of the carbon atoms
disaccharides
A double sugar, produced when two monosaccharides chemically combine.
proteans
are made of carbon , hydrogenand oxygen
is in all animal flesh
monomer-amino acids
Isomer
molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
waxes
natural coating of fruits and animals; consist of fatty acid linked to an alcohol
Soluble in nopolar solvents is water or oil
oil
fully saturated
A molecule containing the maximum number of hydrogens is said to be...
least substituted
Under Markovnikoff's Rule, in an electrophilic addition reaction, the electrophile will be bound to the ____ carbon
Quantization
only specific values of energy are possible, rather than a continuuum of values; electron shells only occur at quantized energies
Organic
Always contains a Carbon and Hydrogen; can at times have an Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Halogen (group 17)
Aromatics
Compounds w/ one or more benzene ring
Carbohydrates
a group of molecules that includes sugars and starches
Achiral
Mirror image objects that CAN be superimposed. e.g. the letter 'A'
enantiomers
isomers that are mirror images of each other; biological enzymes act on only 1 enantiomer
oxygen bonded to three atoms or groups has ________ hybridization
sp3
Cyclic ethers with 2+ oxygen atoms are called
dioxanes
electron-dot structure
a representation of a molecule showing valence electrons as dots
isotopes
atoms of the same that have different number of neutrons and the same number of protons but have different mass numbers
optically inactive
compounds that do not rotate light- can be chiral or achiral compounds
Expanded structural formula
structural formula which shows all atoms in a molecule and all bonds connecting the atoms.
Ketone
Have an oxygen bonded to one carbon atom on the interior of the carbon chain.
Even numbers of N give ____ Molecular weights
Even
4 types of boilogical molecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
denaturation
when an enzyme changes shape and no longer functions due to high temperatures or wrong pH
Hydrocarbon
A compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen
A well-known carboxylic acid mentioned in the text and the common household product containing this chemical (2 answers)
acetic (ethanoic) acid; vinegar
empirical formula
the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of each element in that compound
positive feedback
feedback which tells the brain to send more of a signal
London dispersion forces
dipole-dipole bonds are very weak and are responsible for phase changes of non-polar molecules
Quaternary ammonium compounds
surface active agents that are usually used for disinfection of skin, oral and nasal cavities and instruments. Topical disinfectant. another name for it is benzalkonium chloride or zephrian chloride
saturated
a carbon atom bonded by 4 single bonds is
anoic acid
double bounded to O and bonded to OH
Alkynes from Alkenes
Dibromination: alkene + Br2 > dbl. bromide; dbl. elimination: dbl. bromide + xs LDA > alkyne.
Definition of Isomerism
The existence of two or more quite distince compounds with different structures but the same molecular formular.
amides (-amide)
carbonyl w/ an ammonia derivtive ( O = C-NH2)
Monosaccharides: Ready Energy
1. Consist of a single sugar
i) a simple sugar can have a carbon backbone of 3-7 carbons
Allylic substitution
Any reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is substituted for another atom or group of atoms at an allylic carbon.
Molecular Orbital theory
A chemical bond is the result of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals.
Essential Fatty Acid
Is a fatty acid needed in the human body that must be obtained from dietary sources because it cannot be synthesized within the body, in adequate amounts, from other substances.
difference between amine and phosphorous centers?
 
why is amine S while P is R?
P does not go through INterconversion because Amine has ability to tunnel electrons through other side causing a shifting of atom substituents.
 
(look in class notes)
 
use sterocenter configuration rules ( R vs S
Where is the general amine peak located on an IR spectroscopy and what does it look like?
3000 ppm is a sharp peak
what makes up an RNA nucleotide?
the same as DNA, except the base thymine is not present and uracil is
How could you identify a saturated fat from an empirical formula?
All of the available bonds would be filled in hydrogen.
Decane
C10H22
but
four
-ane
alkane
IUPAC: CH3-CH2-O-Benzene
ethoxybenzene
ethane
two carbons
benzoic acid
lactone
cyclic ester
electrophile
an electron-loving species
purine
two ring structure
ethyl group
2 carbons
Organic compound
carbon-based molecules
alkyne hydrogen halide (mechanism)
addition
ring
most alkanes have these
carboxyl group
C=O with OH
Triphosphate
3 phosphates, ex. ATP-adenosine triphosphate, bond energy stored here
secondary
attached to 2 other carbons
Proteins
Macromolecular substances present in all living cells
meso
achiral; mirror image within molecule
with flourine halogenation _____ product is dominant
primary
Polymerization
Process by which macromolecules are formed.
alkene bonds
at least 1 double C=C
aromatic
a hydrocarbon made with alternating double and single bonds
examples of monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, and galactose
Thermodynamic product temp.
Faster at higher temperatures
dipole movement
sum of individual bond dipoles
aldehyde
organic compound containing a carbonyl group at the end of a carbon chain
1-5
-NH2: approximate chemical shift in ppm downfield from TMS
Fatty acid and glycerol
The monomer(s) Lipids
What is the structure of Hydroxly?
-OH
Condensation polymerization
Two monomers joined, produce water
sodium borohydride
1. only reduces aldehydes and ketones
2. NaBH4/ H2O, methanol, or ethanol
organic chemistry
the study of compounds of carbon
Paradichlorobenzene
used in embalming as a mold preventative agent
oxidation
removing a hydrogen or adding an oxygen to a compound
geometric isomers
have different shapes but are otherwise the same
aliphatic
a nonaromatic hydrocarbon such as a simple alkane,alkene, or alkyne
alkane
a hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2 where all of the carbon-to-carbon bonds are single bonds
Initiation
The stage of free radical reactions where non-reactive molecules are broken by UV or high temperatures (~750K) to make free radicals.
amides with strong acids or strong hases
hydrolyzed
Thermodynamics
The study of the relative energies between any two entities on a RCD that are shown in wells, such as the energy between the reactants and products.
What is another name for a lipid?
Fat
Functional group interconversion
converting one functional group into another
Fractional Distillation
A method of distillation using a fractionating column; it is used to separate liquids with different boiling points
what formula is most useful in determining isomers and how the atoms are bonded?
structural formulas
organism
a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently, Made up of organ sytems
denature
every enzyme has an optiomal pH and temperature, when the enzyme is not there, they ___________
Condensed Formula
CH3(CH2)2CH3 To show the outline of the structure
13C NMR
which type of spectroscopy is the intensity not related to the # of equivalent carbons
Polysaccharide
A carbohydrate that is a polymer of monosaccharides
Carbon also forms what in living organisms such as plants , animals and humans
the backbone
Protic solvent
A solvent that is a hydrogen-bond donor; the most common protic solvents contain -OH groups. Common protic solvents (for nucleophilic substitution reactions) are water, low-molecular-weight alcohols such as ethanol, and low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids (each of these has a partially negatively charged oxygen bonded to a partially positively charged hydrogen atom, protic solvents solvate ionic substances by electrostatic interactions between anions and the partially positively charged hydrogens of the solvent and also between cations and partially negatively charged atoms of the solvent)
Nucleophiles with Same Attacking Atom
Stronger base, more nucleophilic.
DDG REPRESENTS
THE E DIFFERENCE OF THE TRANSITION STATE
Stereoselectivity of E2 Reactions I
Stereoselective reaction: one that forms predominantly or exclusively one stereoiosmer when two or more are possible.
The E2 reaction is stereoselective becasue the more stable stereoisomer is formed preferentially.
funtion of proteins
A) . Particpate in chemical processes; like hormons ,cell membranes,chanels receptors , enzymes
specific rotation
a measure of a compound's ability to rotate the plane of polarized light. C is concentration in g/mL and l is length of sample cell in decimeters
Facilitated transport
Is the transport process in which a substance moves across a cell membrane, with the aid of membrane proteins, from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration without the expenditure of cellular energy.
staggered conformation
the 3D arrangement of atoms around a carbon-carbon single bond in which teh bonds on one carbon bisect the bond angles on the second carbon as viewed end on
Preperation of arenediazonium salts
Primary arylamindes react with nitrous acid to yeild stable arenediazonium salts.
HBr, no peroxides
Puts a leaving group in the Markovnikov addition
natural gas
a fossil fuel formed by the remains of marine organisms;the main component in methane
mono and disubstituted acetones
Acetoacetic ester (AAE) is useful for the preparation of...
sp^3 Hybrid orbital
A hybrid atomic orbital formed by the combination of one s atomic orbital and three p atomic orbitals
both i and ii
Which of the following is the structure of the dipeptides formed by a condensation reaction between glycine and valine?
substitution reaction
one atom or a group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom of group of atoms
number of peaks due to splitting for a group of chemically equivalent hydrogens is given by this formula
n + 1
characteristics of Sn2 rxn- nucleophile strength, solvent, rate
occur in a single step, rate is dependent on conc. of nucleophile and substrate, nucleophile attacks the intact substrate from behind and the leaving group is knocked free while nucleophile bonds to the substrate, inversion of configuration occurs, doesn't happen with tertiary C, polar aprotic solvent
What is the normal bonding pattern for oxygen?
6 valence electrons2 bonds.2 lone pairs.
amide < ester < acid anhydride < acid halide
rank acyl reactivity: amide, ester, acid anhydride, acid halide
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Term:
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