organic chemistry 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
12 C
Ring formation:
hydrogen sulfate
=O, -O-
Hydrocarbon 9
Nonane C9H20
name this -c-c-c-c-c-c-
carbon-carbon single bonds
Hybridizations-Bond Angles-Shape

sp2-120-trigonal planar

sp3-109.5-tetrahedral, pyramidal, or bent

dsp3-90,120-trigonal-bipyramidal, seesaw, t-shaped, linear

d2sp3-90-octahedral, square pyramidal, square planar
two monosaccharides linked together
Aldehydes with LiAlH4
Primary Alcohols
Molecular structure of butyl
alkyl radical geometry
trigonal planar
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
Three-carbon carbohydrate with three hydroxyl groups attached; a component of fats and oils
tertiary structure
how the protein folds
From coca plant
-abused drug
-local anestetic
*Blocks neuron impulse
*Loose feeling in parts of the body.
CNS stimulent
-may cause cardiac arrest.
Totally eclipsed
Highest energy, Least stable
carboxylic acid acidic, H2O soluble,
Gauche Substituents
Staggered conformation; side-by-side substituents in Newman projection.
Hydrocarbons with double bonds within the molecule.
building block of a carbohydrate; simple sugar
Adenine, Thymine(or Uracil), Guanine, and Cytosine
Nitrogen bases
saturated, 4 single
Alkanes are saturated/unsaturated hydrocarbons because they have...(2) bonds for each C
4 single bonds. i hydrogen bond
CnH2n +2
General formula for saturated hydrocarbon
alkane + halogen substitutes hydrogen for halogen
(nitriles) -nitrile
-C triple bond N (2nd)
branched off the main carbon chain
Protic Solvents
Protons on heteroatoms (H-bonds donors); stabilize charge separation in SN1 TS, decr. Ea.
H Bonds
what holds the secondary structure together, H to O
amino acids
carbon atom, nitrogen group, acid, variable r group
protein hormone that helps to decrease blood sugar
hydrocarbons with the same name but different arrangement in space
boat conformation
the less stable puckered conformation of cyclohexane, with both parts puckered upward.
Process that occurs during Hydrolysis
Digestion of Carbohydrates
difference in electronegativity .5 to 1.9
polar covalent
6 elements
C, H, O, M, P, S
base peak
tallest peak with highest intensity that belongs to the most common ion and is given a relative abundance value of 100%
Carboxylic acid
A compound containing a carboxyl, -COOH, group
specialized protein that speeds up a chemical reaction by decreasing activation energy; typically end in "ase"
Structural Isomers
Same formula, but different bonding order
Portion of ATP and ADP that is composed of adenine and ribose
quaternary structure
result of two or more polypeptide chains joining together into one complex
a structural change in a protein that results in a loss of its biological properties
has 4 valence electrons- can form 4 covalent bonds
constant unit
In the homologous series, each memeber will differ from the preceding member by a...(2)
Organic Chemistry
-study of carbon compounds and their reactions -must contain carbon and hydrogen -carbon atoms can have single, double or triple bonds
Is an unsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond three carbon atoms away from its methyl end; linolenic acid(18:3), eicosapentaenoic acid(20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid(20:6).
addition reaction
polymerization in which all atoms in the monomers are present in the polymer
the study of why carbon is so different
Amino acids are able to undergo self ionisation. A proton is transferred from the carboxyl group to the primary amine. Therefore, there is a protonated amine, and a carboxylate ion.
Equivalent hydrogens
Hydrogens that have the same chemical environment. (They are bonded to the same sp3 hybridized C atom, and that C atom can rotate freely at RTemp). (They are related by symmetry, namely a plane or point of symmetry in a molecule).
Carbons Hobby
Forming chains to Carbon atoms
-straight branched of form rings
-backbone of organic molecules
& determine overall shape
used as storage to save energy for a long time in liver and muscles (sugar)
elimination reaction
a general reaction type in which a saturated reactant yields an unsaturated product by losing groups from two adjacent carbons
Dehydration Synthesis
When a water molecule is taken away from a polymer and forms a bond.
polar molecules
Water is an excellent solvent of other ___ _____ (pl.).
3 sigma, 1 pi
sp2 / 120 / trigonal planar
Organic compound
Any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon
splitting (spin-spin splitting)
results from neighboring Hs that are not chemically equivalent
Epoxide Ring-Opening with Acid
Nuc attacks at more-hindered position (gives least substit. alcohol).
Stable Octet
When there are 8 electrons in the valence
Glucose and Fructose
have 6 carbon backbones, and are used in assembling larger carbohydrates
ionic bond
a bond formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another to create ions
Terminal alkyne
An alkyne in which the triple bond is between carbons 1 and 2.
Halogenation (X and X) of Alkenes
X2 (X=Cl,Br)

Adds X and X
anti addition
no rearrangements
effect of solvent on Sn1 rxns
polar protic solvents such as water/alcohol are way better, because they solvate and stabilize cations/anions (->transition states leading to carbocations) very well.
Order of leaving Groups
Best leaving groups are WEAK BASES or those that can accept electron pairs and associate to form a stable species. This is usually the OPPOSITE of base strength: I->Br->Cl->F-
Saturated Fatty Acid
Is a fatty acid with a carbon chain in which all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds.
Beta Carbonyl to the COOH
only mild heat is needed when there is a...
Why is an aryl amine a weaker base than an alkyl amine?
Because Aryl amines have the ability to resonate within the aromatic ring structure and the lone pair of electrons on the Nitrogen.
outside nucleus
Acid anhydride
=O, -H
Hydrocarbon 10
Decane C10H22
proteins,fats,carbohydrates and nucleic acids are examples of what
malonic acid
propanedioic acid
ring of carbons
starch, cellulose, and glycogen
Ketones with LiAlH4
Secondary Alcohols
Molecular structure of isobutyl.
stable nucleophile _______ Sn2
amino acid
monomer of a protein
Two glucose molecules bonded together
the hydrophobic tails are ________(polarity)
Metabolic sysnthesis and building process.
hydroxide- polar, H20 soluble, "alcohols"
Constitutional isomers differing only in placement of substituents.
Ethyl - Prefix
Prefix for 2 carbons
chemical that enters a chemical reaction
monosaccharide- main source of energy for all living things
Organic compounds tend to be larger/smaller than inorganic compounds?
Carboxylic acid + alcohol produces ester + water
a compound wih three hydrocarbon groups attached to a three carbon backbone by ester functiona lgroups
the three-dimensional shape of a molecule at any given instant, assuming that rotation around single bonds is frozen
alkoxide ion
conjugate base of an alcohol
Radical rxn; alkane w/extra electron forms alkene and new R.
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure, one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA, either adenine or guanine
complementary base pairing
held together by hydrogen bonds
prefix for a chain of 6 carbons
a rapid oxidation at high temperatures in the presence of air or oxygen
longest carbon chain is main chain, prefix of side chain + oxy + main chain
organic compound reacts in the absence of oxygen to produce an alcohol and carbon dioxide; wine
Aldehydes and Ketones
contain a carbonyl (C=O) group
boat structure
structure of cyclohexane that is "crumbled" at the ends to reduce strain
Nodal plane
Any plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation that runs through a node
Newman project
a means of indicating stereochemical relationships between substituent groups on neighboring carbons. The carbon-carbon bond is viewed end on and the carbons are viewed by a circle. Bonds radiating from the center of the circle are attached to the front carbon, and bonds radiating from the edge of the circle are attached to the rear carbon
reactant in a chemical reaction that happens in a living thing
Three steps of substitution
1. Production
2. Propagation
3. Termination
secondary structure
hydrogen bonds causes the amino acids to fold and coil - there are two types, the Alpha Helix and Beta Pleated
Constitutional Isomers
same molecular formulas that differ in the order which the atoms are bonded
aliphatic hydrocarbons
What are hydrocarbons in a straight chain called?
-add a functional group or atom of double/triple bond
Enzyme test that is used to dissolve emboli in some stroke victims.
quaternary structure of proteins
multiple tertiery polypeptide chains together form a functioning protein
Chemical shift
the difference between the position of absorption of TMS and that of a particular proton.
Solubility of amines
Protonated amines are soluble in water. This is due to the strong ion dipoles that form between the positively charged protonated amines and the polar water molecules. The full positive charge on a protonated amine ion forms stronger bonds with water molecules than do the partial charges on the N-H groups.
Hooke's Law
Frequency of a stretching vibration = 4.12 times the square root of (K/u) *K is force constant, u is the "reduced mass"
Small molecule that can be linked to other molecules of the same type to build a larger (building block of a polymer)
petide bond
2 or more amino acids joined by covalent bonds
angle strain
the strain that arises when a bond angle is either compressed or expanded compared to its optimal value
Saturated fats
No double bonds of Carbon atoms. Solid at room temperature. Animal fats
______ is the reason why water has a high heat capacity and high heat of vaporization.
The polymer used for plumbing, floor tiles, shoe
soles, shower curtains, and artificial leather
polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Line Angle Formulas
the convention in organic chemistry is to depict structures as line-angle formulas; each vertex and line ending represents a carbon; hydrogens are omitted and it is assumed there are a sufficient number of hydrogens in order to provide each carbon a complete octet
IR spectra for O-H
a broad dip around 3200- 3600
Standard Gibbs Energy
ΔG = -RT*ln[Keq], where R is universal gas constant.
A double bonded O and a O withe two alkyl groups next to it
Organic Compounds
consist of one carbon and one or more additional elements covalently bonded together
Pauli exclusion principle
a maximum of two electrons may be placed in each orbital (but only when their spins are paired oppositely)
Organic synthesis
A series of reactions by which a set of organic starting materials is converted to a more complicated structure
Of what monomers are Triglyceride lipids composed?
Glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What are some examples of isomers?
glucose, fructose, galactose - they are all C6H12O6
Single Bond (Type, Hybridization and Angles)
Sigma bond, sp3 hybridization, 109.5 degrees
Monounsaturated Fatty Acid
Is a fatty acid with a carbon chain in which one carbon-carbon double bond is present.
they form a 5 or 6 member ring
Aldol reactions are most successful if...
what are the reactants necessary to form a carboxylate salt?
a carboxylic acid + NaOH (OH pulls a H+ and the Na stabilizes the carboxylate ion).
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