Organic Chemistry A&P Flashcards

Terms Definitions
-ol
alcohol
ester
anoate
Alpha-Elimination
N/A
pent
5
-al
aldehyde
oxirane
p orbital
organic chemistry
carbon
CnH2n+2
alkane formula
Alkene
double bond
Alkene hydration (catalyst/agent)
H+
15.7
pKa of H2O
3 carbon atoms
propane
peptide
one single amino acid
pH equation
pH= -log [H3O+]
Codeine
Methyl Morphine
-abused drug.
-cough medicine
fructose
fruit sugar, a monosaccharide
Deactivating o/p directors
-X -CH2X
ethylene
C2H4, common name for ethene
Disaccharides
Two monosaccharides. ex. surcose, lactose, and maltose.
Br₂, HOAc, 25°C
Bromination of benzene
IR
region of electromagnetic spectrum above the microwave visible
aromatic
unsaturated ring hydrocarbons; general formula CnH(2n-6); simplest is benzene C6H6
Kr2Cr2O7
Potassium dichromate, used in oxidation
REMOVEs 2 H and replaces with double bonded O to create a carboxylic acid substituent
R-COH=O
saturated fat
single bond between a carbon
two structural polysaccharides
1. cellulose 2. chitin
Aldehydes
Those organic compounds that are characterized by a carbonyl functional group (-CHO)
Disaccharide
2 sugar units (lactose, sucrose, maltose)
lipids
-fats, oils, and waxes
-not very soluble in water
-less oxygen than carbohydrates
-excellent energy storage
-common in cell membranes because of its low water solubility
"Organic" chemicals
compounds made by living things
preservative
components of embalming solutions used to inactivate the active chemical groups of proteins and amino acids. to inhibit decomposition, to kill microorganisms, destroy odors and eliminate their further formation
Aliphatic
Carbon atoms linked in open chains
aldehyde
O (the O is double bonded)
R-C-H
Hydrogen Bond
Very strong dipole-dipole attractions occur between hydrogen atoms bonded to small, strongly electronegative atoms (O, N, or F) and nonbonding electron pairs on other such electronegative atoms.
Enantiomers
Chiral objects that are not superimposable mirror images. They are a specific type of stereoisomer.
feedback control
the substance or quality being regulated feeds back upon the controlling device and inhibits the production of more of that substance or quality
homolytic
symmetrical bond breaking so that one electron remains with each product fragment
protein
This organic compound is found in gelatin.
functional group
group of atoms that act together
usually found at end of carbon chain
Tertiary Structure
Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
anhydride reduction to alcohol
1. LiAlH4 2. H3O+
alkanes
hydrocarbons where all the carbon to carbon bonds are single bonds.
sigma bond
bonds that have a circular cross-section and are formed by head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals
eclipsed conformation
the geometric arrangement around a carbon-caron single bond in which the bonds to substituents on one carbon are parallel to the bond to substituents on the neighboring carbon as viewed in a Newman projection
Ionic bonding
electrostatic attraction of two ions of opposite charge (ions are formed in order to fulfill the octet rule); generally, ions will form if the difference in electronegativity between interacting atoms is 1.9 or greater (strongest of the 3 bonds)
Autoxidation
Air oxidation of materials such as unsaturated fatty acids (this is one of the most important reactions for materials, food and also for living systems; oxidation requiring oxygen and no other reactant)
Steam Distillation
Steam heats pot, carries condensed vapors into receiver; forms azeotrope w/water to lower bp.
isomers
conformational - isomers that can be interconverted by bond rotations
stereo - differ in spatial arrangement, CANNOT be interconverted by bond rotations
constitutional - differ in bonding patters of atoms
Isomerism
The existance of two or more quite distinct compounds with different structures but the same molecular formula
Condensation polymers
polymers formed by releasing a small molecule by-product such as water.
Dihydroxyl Alcohol
Ethylene glycol is classified as what kind of organic chemical
ring strain
the extra strain associated with the cyclic structure of a compound, as compared with a similar acyclic compound; composed of angle strain and torsional strain
nucleophile
lover of nuclei - always have lone pair (in acid-base rxn)
What is hydrolysis?
reversal of dehydration synthesis. by adding water, it breaks up macromolecules into smaller subunits.
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
you can't simultaneously know position and momentum of an electron
Ethers
Have two carbon atoms bonded to the same oxygen.
triglyceride
a lipid with three fatty acid "tails" (which could be saturated or unsaturated), connected to glycerol
soap
a cleansing agent made from the salts of vegetable or animal fats
Plane-polarized light
Light oscillating in only a single plane
Optically Active
Pure Single Enantiomer and ability to rotate plane polarized light. 
An alkyne is reduced by sodium and liquid ammonia to
trans alkene
Polyhydroxyl Alcohol
Sorbitol is classified as what kind of organic chemical
how many bonds does nitrogen have
always has 3 bonds
Unsaturated compounds
an organic compound with one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
phenyl, aryl
As a substituent, an aromatic ring is called either a ___ or a ___ group
HCN, RMgX, RLi
Name three molecules that provide good nucleophiles in a reaction
dehydrohalogenation reaction type
"E2 in high concentration of bulky base, E1 without strong base"
R-O-H + Na
R-O-, a very strong base and nucleophile
why is carbon chemistry pervasive?
-carbon forms covalent bonds with itself using single, double, and triple bonds
-carbon forms covalent and/or ionic bonds with >90 elements (no noble gases or highly radioactive elements)
endused fit hypothesis
like the lock and key hypothesis but the active site morphs to fit the reactants
Simple IR Spec implies
Symmetry in your molecule (most likely only a Hydrocarbon)
Hydrolysis of Nitriles
Nitrile + H2SO4 + H2O > carbox. acid.
saturated fatty acids
have no double bonds in the fatty acid tails
the more potential energy an object has...
the less stable it is.
stability of cations
3° and 2° w/ resonance > 3° > 1° w/ resonance > 2° > 1° > methyl > vinylic
the ring strain in cyclopentane increases its reactivity
When cyclopropane is treated with HI, 1-iodopropane is formed. A similar type of reaction does not occur with cyclopentane or cyclohexane. How do you account for the reactivity of cyclopropane?
What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
1. phosphate group
2. nitrogen base
3. sugar
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Term:
Definition:
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