Organic Chemistry basics Flashcards

Terms Definitions
meta
1,3
para
1,4
pent
5
oct
8
dec
10 (liquid)
prop
3 (gas)
hept
7 (liquid)
insulin
reduces blood glucose
SN2
substitution, nucleophilic, bimolecular (1 step via backside attack, goes through walten inversion switches from r/s to opposite)
Hydrocarbons
Only C and H
hex
6 (low boil liquid)
alcohols
have hydroxyl group (-OH)
common reactions for alkanes
combustion, substitution
dextrorotatoy isomer
rotate polarized light clockwise
DNA
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes, deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
basic organic chemistry
molecules that have carbon
Aldehydes
carbonyl group at the end (terminal)
keratin
hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails
functional groups
properties of the organic molecule that stems off the backbone and atoms from carbon skeleton - they are involved in reactions
aklyl groups
carbon branch off base chain, substituent for an H
covalent bonds
bonds between shared electrons between 2 atoms
alkanes
CnH2n+2 This is also the highest possible H/C ratio for a stable hydrocarbon.
Since the H/C ratio in these compounds is at a maximum, we call them saturated (with hydrogen).
glucose
The body's blood sugar; a simple form of carbohydrate
benzene ring
all bonds are same length, alternating ring of single and double bonds
Esterfucation
carboxylic acid and an alcohol make an ester and water
saturated fat
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms
amino group
a nitrogen atom bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms - acts as a base, amines - only have amino group, amino acids - are combo of carboxyl and amino group
guide to naming
count longest chain of carbons for prefix + a/y/e-ne, consider every branch from base to be substituent name, number with end closest to branch the substituents
bonding molecular orbitals
contain 2 electrons in ground state where probability of finding electron is large
Ester
R-C-OR (=O off the c) -oate (the O's R group is a -yl group)
Alkene Addition Reaction
adds on both sides of double bond (h goes first choses H with less hinderance)
Sub-Rules for IUPAC Nomenclature
1. If there are two or more longest chains of equal length, the one having the largest number of substituents is chosen.
2. If both ends of the root chain have equidistant substituents:
(i) begin numbering at the end nearest a third substituent, if one is present.
(ii) begin numbering at the end nearest the first cited group (alphabetical order).
ethyl
-CH2CH3
ortho
1,2
meth
1
eth
2 (gas)
lipids
fats and oils
Ether
ROR (R-oxy name)
Alkyne
a triple bond (CnH2n-2)
steric hinderance?
axial on cyclohexane
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
structural isomer
same formula, differing structure
levorotorary isomer
rotate polarized light counterclockwise
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
cis-trans isomerism
same chemical formula different arrangement in space and not superimposable upon each other
antibodies
substances produced by the body to prevent disease
a mix of both optical isomers is
racemix
SN1
substitution via 2 step process (that being added to becomes + and then the thing adds in either fromtop or bottom changing r/s )
amines
derivatives of ammonia, have an amino group (N,NH,NH2)
molecules
groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
why carbon
1. carbons valence electrons - branch off in 4 separate directions; makes it a good backbone 2. position of valence orbitals can serve to shape many molecules - allows you to have different shapes 3. can form multiple bonds (depends on type)
geometrical isomers
cis- same side, trans - opposite side
unsaturated fat
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms
carboxyl group
oxygen atom double bonded to a carbon atom; bound also to hydroxyl group - called carboxylic acids *source of protons
aldehyde
R-C-H (the C has a carbonyl group =O) -al
Carboxylic Acid
R-C-OH (=O off the c) -oic acid (carboxyl group)
anti-bonding molecular orbital
electrons in an excited state where probability of finding electron is low
alkanes have what..?
the handedness stuff where its R or S (number in order of weight 1-3 then draw its that R or S unless H is the out of the page)
cis and trans? (Z and E) in alkenes?
on either side of double bond are the ones with higher weight z or e? (if equal its a steric center)
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