Organic Chemistry I Flashcards

Terms Definitions
carbonyl
ketone
halo
halogeno's
Diazo
RN2+
Amines
R-NH2
*
Isopropyl*
hydropilic
...
PCC/PDC
mild oxidant
pKa NH4+
9.25
propane
three carbons
x
acid halide
4
How many carbons-Butyl
Hydrocarbon 7
Heptane C7H16
cyclic compounds
contain rings
substitution
halogenation and branching
=O, -OH
carboxylic acid
alkenes ends in what?
ene
Halogenation (Chlorination)
Ethene adding chlorine
ketones always end in
-one
E1: How many steps?
2
HALOALKANE + dil. KOH --->
ALCOHOL
ADD
Addition reaction (Double/triple bonds break - not benzene)
anhydride hydrolysis to carboxylic acid
H2O
double bonds
defining factor of alkenes
Butane
alkane containing four carbon atoms
polymerization
Process by which smaller units--monomers--are joined together to form larger compounds--polymers
degenerate orbitals
Orbitals with identical energies.
reduction of carboxylic acid gives...
primary alcohol
carboxylic acid
contains a terminal O=C-OH group
disaccharides
carbohydrates made of two covalently bonded monosaccharides
orthoxylene formula
C8H10; X on 1, 2
absolute configuration
R( clockwise) or S(Counterlockwise)- way to physically describe the orientation of atoms about a chiral center
saccharides
sugar, starch, and cellulose. also called carbohydrates
para
A substituent of a disubstituted benzene that is three down from the primary substituent
alkyne
a nonsaturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH(2n-2), contains as least one triple bond
Disulfide
A molecule containing an -S-S group
Allyl
A CH2 = CHCH2 - group
Deoxyribose
a five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides, monosaccharide
Aromatic Compounds
Organic compounds with benzene (which is a ring of six carbons that have alternating double and single bonds) as part of there structure; often have strong odors; in a ring shape
base
lower concentration of H+ ions than water; pH lower than 7
What one element do all organic compounds contain?
carbon
halogenation
the reaction of alkanes with halogens, in the presence of heat or light, to give products with halogen atoms substituted for hydrogen atoms
hydrocarbons
organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen
lipids
made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxegyn with an H to O ratio greater than 2:1
Rxn: Methane + Cl2 -----> Chloromethane + Hydrogen Chloride
Halogenation Reaction
thiol
organic compound that contains an -SH group
Saturated
Each carbon bonded to maximum number of atoms (single bonds)
RMgX
The general formula for a Grignard reagent
conformation
the three dimensional shape of a molecule at any given instant, assuming that rotation around single bonds is frozen
polymer
large molecule made up of smaller building blocks or monomers
Ketone
Can be produced via Jones reagent, KMnO4 and alkali dichromate salts and secondary alcohols. Suffix: -one
withdrawing group
the better the withdrawing group, the more electrophilic the carbonyl will be. This occurs because the LUMO is lowered by the better withdrawing group.
Quantum Number
a number that specifies the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
protein
organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
amide
compound with an amine and a carbonyl group, formed by the reaction of an amine and an organic acid
hydrocarbon characteristics (3)
nonpolar, insoluble in H2O, exhibit LDF
formal charge
number of electrons in the isolated atom, minus the of electrons assigned to the atom in the Lewis structure
Condensed structural formula
structural formula that uses groupings of atoms, in which central atoms and atoms connected to them, are written as a group.
straight-chain alkane
an alkane whose carbon atoms are connected without branching
Bending vibrations
O-H bond also absorbs energy near 1250cm-1 this energy causes bending
Hydroboration-oxidation
A method for converting an alkene to an alcohol. The alkene is treated with borane (BH3) to give a trialkylborane, which is then oxidized with alkaline hydrogen peroxide to give the alcohol. (The overall reaction occurs in three successive steps)
Waxes
any of a group of substances composed of hydrocarbons, alcohols, fatty acid. Is solid at ordinary temperatures.
Cis, trans isomers
Stereoisomers that have the same connectivity but a different arrangement of their atoms in space as a result of the presence of either a ring or a carbon-carbon double bond. (Have the same molecular formula and the same connectivity of their atoms, but the arrangement of their atoms in space cannot be interconverted by rotation about a single bond)
Aldehyde
A carbonyl group bonded to the end of the carbon chain
substitution reaction
a general reaction type in which an atom or group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom or group of atoms
cis-trans isomers (geometric isomers)
stereoisomers that differ only with respect to their cis or trans arrangement on a ring or double bond
alkyl halide
root of halogen as precursor to the name.
methyl, ethyl, porpyl, butyl, pentyl
one, two, three, four, five
Heterocyclic Compound
A compound with a ring structure that contains within the ring some atom other than carbon, typically nitrogen
secondary alcohol
What type of alcohol is produced by the attachment of the hydroxyl group to a carbon atom that is joined directly to two other carbon atoms in the chain?
Anomeric Effect
α isomer (axial OH) dominates in many sugars (instead of less-hindered equatorial orientation) due to unfavorable dipole alignment in β isomer.
zwitterion form
neutral dipolar ion that has + and - charge on same ion
equatorial bond
one of the six bonds (three down and three up) on the cycloalkane ring that are directed out toward the "equator" of the ring
Neutral Organic compound
Tend to be hydrophobic, that is they are less soluble in water than in organic solvents
Leaving group (Lv)
The group that is displaced in a substitution or that is lost in an elimination (The leaving group can be a halide (X) or other electronegative group that can form a stable anion or other stable species)
What is one of the best commonly used unsaturated oils that is considered quite healthy?
Olive oil
What regions do the Infrared Rays lie between?
Visible and Microwave rays
Cumlated systems are BLANK.
Carbon chain systems that just have a two pi bonds overlapping each other. 
How do you name alkyl groups
Depends on # of carbons, cooresponds to alkane naming system but replaced "ane" ending with "yl"
to find hydrogens for Alkynes
2n - 2 (with n = number of Carbons)
Why is it a concern for the recent outbreak of avian influenza in the Netherlands?
It is because HUMAN INFLUENZA MAY EXCHANGE GENETIC MATERIAL WITH AVIAN INFLUENZA AND INFECT HUMANS.
/ 80
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online