Organic Compounds 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
methane
1
Alcohol
"ol"
C10H22
Decane
fatty acid
-oic
Purines
Adenine
Guanine
Alkyne
triple bonds
Sugar
example of carbohydrates
Glycerol
Monomer of Lipids
ribose
found in RNA
protien
macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds.composes of 10-30% of cell mass and is basic structural material of the body
Structural polysaccharide
Builds structures (polysaccharide)
DNA
A, T, G, C
Triglycerides
1 glyrecerol
3 fatty acids
form important cellular structures
protein
organic compounds
Compounds containing carbon.
CH2ON
Basic unit of a monosaccride(molecule)
Hydrolysis.
Disaccharides and polysaccharides can be broken down into monosaccharides by this reverse process of dehydration synthesis
cellulose
A polysaccharide that provides structural suppost for plants.
Nucleotide
Monomer of a nucleic acid
Reactant
Molecules that combine (react) together in a chemical reaction
Cycloalkanes
A closed-chain (cyclic) alkane substance and a series of compounds with two fewer hydrogen atoms that the open-chain alkanes
Lipid elements
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus
Categories of Bio-compounds (4)
CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleotides and Nucleic Acids
keytones
organic compounds in which the carboxyl group is attached to carbon atoms within the chain
Nucleic Acids
Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Potassium
monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides
nucleotides are sugar, phosphates group, nitrogenous base
ex. DNA and RNA
types of lipids
triglycerides, phospholipids, waxes, steroids
enzymes
controlling the rate of reactions [Protein]
steroid
carbon atoms arranged in four rings
2 times oxygen to every hydrogen
carbohydrate
polysacchride
many sugar monomers linked together, a.k.a. complex carbs
Polyethylene
A polymer formed when ethylene combines with itself repeatedly
Catalyst
Substance that activate a chemical reaction
cholesterol
a steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids
copolymers
a polymer made from two different monomers
Carbohydrate
The main organic compound used by mammals for energy. Carbohydrates are made from sugars, (Monosaccharides)
protein
complex polymers made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Carbs, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins are...
organic compounds
Product
What you get from the combined chemicals.
Element
Any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
hemoglobin
a protein polymer that carries oxygen in your blood, it contains four peptide chains coiled around each other; each chain has an atom of iron
Where are simple sugars found?
sweeteners, soda, syrup
Nucleic Acid
make up the genes,which provide instructions for to sustain life. made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and phosphorous atoms.
phosholipid
a lipid that contains phosphorous and that is a structural component in cell membranes
compound
the chemical combination of two or more elements
Biochemistry
study of the molecules that compose living organisms
hydroxyl group
OH (not the ion OH-) polar (hydrophilic) alcohols
glucose
give an example of a monomer of carbohydrates
Chemical Reaction
The combination of the reactants to create a product.
carbohydrates
used by cells as a quick energy source
enzymes "ase"
act as catalysts speeds up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy
RNA STRUCTURE
single nucleotide strand. Bases: A, T, G, U. SUGAR: RIBOSE. messenger, ribosomal, and transfer RNA.
Salt
Any ionic compound that can be made from the neutralization of an acid with a base
Nucleic Acid % of weight
1.5% of cell's weight
Peptide
any molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds
amine group and acid group
two groups of amino acids
what is the role of rna?
stores info from dna
unsaturated fat
no double bonds, easy to break down, appears bent
what is a carbohydrate?
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
elements that bond with carbon
hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. sulfur and phosphorous.
carboxyl group
a carbon atom with that has a double bond w/ an oxygen atom and a single bond with a hydroxyl group, -COOH
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A type of nucleic acid found in cells and store genetic information
hydrocarbon
-ane
Amino
Amines
Phthalic Acid
.
lipid polymer
none
monosaccharides
simple sugar
LDPE
low density polyethylene
Polymers
Chains of monomers
yne
1 triple bond
sucrose
Example of disaccharide (s)
Mercaptans
a.k.a. Thiols or Thioalcohols
Lipids
C, H, O
(sometimes P)
Example of Proteins
amino acid
Glucose, deoxyribose, ribose, fructose, galactose
Monosaccharides
Atom
3 subatomic particles, electron, proton, neutron
where are lipids found?
adipose cell
insulin, hemoglobin, keratin
examples of proteins
starch
stored glucose in plant cells
Organic Chemistry
Study of carbon compounds
catalysts
(apple dictionary) a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
glycogen
polysaccharide that stores glucose in animals
What is an organic compound?
carbon-based molecules
Pentose sugars
Monosaccharides that contain five carbons
sugars
carbohydrates that provide your body quick energy
ex. sucrose, fructose, glucose
nucleic acid examples
DNA, RNA, ATP, ADP
How many protein structures are there?
Four
monomers
Long chain molecules are made of smaller building blocks called what?
special info nucleic acid
AT CG (DNA)
AUCG (RNA)
peptide bond
covalent bond formed between amino acids
Polymerization
when monomers join together to form polymers
hydrolysis
reaction where an H molecule attaches to a water molecule;regulated by enzymes
organic compound
Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to Carbon
cellulose glycogen
a complex carbohydrate, that is composed of glucose unites, forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants
[http://ask.com]
Purpose of Proteins
an enzyme, speeds chemical reactions
Monomer
A molecule that can combine with others of the same kind to forma polymer
Protein is made from strings of
amino acids
Benzene
is the parent unit of all aromatic organic compounds, that is, this substance is the base unit for all cyclical compounds
unsaturated fats
hydrocarbon chain contains 1 or more double bonds and so can potentially hold more hydrogen atoms if the double bonds between the carbon atoms were disrupted
Non-polar
the tails of a phospholipid that do not have a charge
phosphate group, sugar, nitrogen base
parts of a nucleotide
inorganic compound
Does not contain both carbon and hydrogen
monosacchride
made up of one monomer; one sugar unit
Condensation Reaction
When monomers lose hydrogen and oxygen atoms, which makes water
unsaturated hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbons that contain at least one double or triple bond.
which macromolecule has 4 level organization? what are they?
proteins; primary, secondary, tertiary, fourth level
1) ALCOHOL |
R-OH -ol
can be...
monohydroxy ( 1 -OH group)
di hydroxy (2 -OH groups)
trihydroxy (3 -OH groups)
what determines the shape of a protein?
amino acid structure
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
helps during the process where amino acids are linked together to form proteins (for DNA)
amine group, central carbon, carboxyl group, single hydrogen, R-group
structure of amino acid
Secondary protein structure
the second level or protein structure. -when hydrogen bonding occurs between the amino hydrogen of one amino acid in the primary chain and carboxyl oxygen of another amino acid. 2 shapes (helix- most common and beta pleated sheet)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
formation triggered by hormone binding to cell surfacecAMP becomes \"second messenger\" within cellactivates metabolic effects inside cells
function of proteins
3rd source of energy, helps builds and repairs muscle tissue, makes hormones, enzymes, antibodies, and pigments
what is denaturation
when an enzyme is destroyed and the active site changes
what is activation energy?
the energy needed to start a chem. reaction
low quality proteins
do not contain all 8, maybe 7 or 1, (plants, grain, beans)
/ 115
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online