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Terms Definitions
propane 3
Poly many
C6H14 Hexane
healthy: oils unsaturated
Steroids Ex. cholesterol/hormones
Methanoic a.k.a. Formic Acid
phospholipid polymer of lipid
monosaccharide glucose hexose sugar
fatty acids and gycerol lipid
monomer of lipids fatty acids
Non Isomers Deoxyribose (lacks Oxygen)
carbohydrate elements C, H2, O
protein blank regulate cell processesses
Nucleic Acids ~monomer- nucleotide
~function- carry genetic information
Ex. DNA and RNA
Chitin Polysaccharide, makes up the exoskeleton of insects and cell walls of fungus
monomer unit of proteins? amino acids
oxygen to hydrogen 2 to 1
Proteins C, H, O, N
(Sometimes S)
organic compounds carbon containing compounds. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
uses of nucleic acids hereditary; protein production
Substitution reaction Saturated hydrocarbon + Halogen -->
Polymerization Large, the joining of smaller units
production of proteins, found in nucleus/cytoplasm RNA
RNA ribonucleic acid, helps in making proteins {Nucleic Acid]
Ribose the 5 carbon sugar of RNA
monomers smaller molecular units that join together to form polymers
organic compound Contains both carbon and hydrogen
Buffers solutions containing ions that react with additional acids or bases to minimize their effects on pH.
Saturated Hydrocarbons Only with single covalent bonds/Saturated with hydrogen
Protein Denaturation extreme conformational change that disrupts function- extreme heat of pH- usually irreversible
glycogen compound used by animals to store carbohydrates in the liver and skeletal muscles
aromatic compounds compound that contains a benzene structure having a ring with 6 carbons
Polysaccharides starch, made of glucose found in plants
Glycogen, made of glucose found in animals
cellulose, made of glucose found in plant cell walls
3 types of carbohydrates monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide.
Charbohydrates are made up of C, H, O
Photosystem II Step of photosynthesis that produces oxygen and ATP
Nucleic acid functions Store information for protein synthesis
Control cell activities
macromolecules a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer
Bases of Nucleotide Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
Triglyceride 3 fatty acids (chains of hydrocarbons) bonded to a glycerol, most fats are eaten and absorbed in this form, carbohydrate
Hydrolysis Reaction Chemical reaction that breaks apart polymers by adding water to break apart
Cholestrol the 'parent' steroid from which the other steroids are synthesizedEx. cortisol, progesterone, estrogens, testosterone and bile acids
hydrolysis a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water.
Lipid fats, oils, waxes, made of 3 fatty acids and glycerol
quarternary structure joining of more than one tertiary structure
Phosphate group, nitrogen containing base, sugar ring Components of a nucleotide
DNA and RNA the two types of nucleic acids
Glycerol, Fatty Acid Chain Needed to build a lipid
Lipids: triglycerides neutral fat. found in fat deposits; protect and insulate teh body organs; the major source of stored energy in the body. E shaped. 2 fatty acid chains, glycerol backbone, and phosphorous containing group
Polymer When the links of a "chained molecule" are hooked together it makes a new, extremely large molecule
Phospholipids similar to neutral fat except that one fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group- fatty acid \"tail\" is hydrophobic- phosphate \"head\" is hydrophilic
beta glucose hydroxyl on the same side as the CH2OH, forms a straight chain
what is a carbohydrate? biological compound containing C, H, and O in a ratio of 1:2:1 that is an important source of food and energy
fats used to store energy, made up of fatty acids [Lipid]
substituted hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by atoms of other elements
ribonucleic acid a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
Monomer of a lipid Two parts, fatty acid(unbranched with polar head and nonpolar tail), and glycerol
Sterols & Derivatives no fatty acids; rigid backbone of 4 fused-together C rings
Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation) a hydroxyl group is removed from one monomer, and a hydrogen from anotherthe water molecule is removed while both monomer bond together to form a polymer
Prefixes for carbon chains Located on table P Look there for more prefixes)
Meth- 1 carbon
Eth- 2 carbons
Prop- 3 carbons
But- 4 carbons
Pent - 5 carbons
butane 4
Oxygen "ate"
2-Phenylethanoic Acid .
carb polymer(3+) polysaccharides(3+)
Protein indicator Biurets
DNA constitutes genes
monosaccharide single sugar molecule
lactose glucose & galatose
elements of nucleic acid CHONP
catalyst speeds up a reaction
Nucleic acid examples RNA, DNA
nucleic acid DNA is an....
monomer small molecules in a chain
Carbohydrates Contain Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
hydrogen bond holds sugar-phosphate bonds together
Disaccharide (double sugar) Polymer of Carbohydrates
Lipid building blocks Fatty acids, glycerol
Building blocks of Nucleic acids nucleotides
Hydrophilic -attracted to water
-mono's and di's dissolve in water
-polys are too large to dissolve
Monohydroxy Alcohols Can be...
primary, seconday or tertiary alcohols
Molecule The smallest unit of most compounds.
Triglycerides neutral fats (neutral charge-charge of zero)
disaccharide a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
saturated fatty acid chains with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms
dehydration synthesis (google define) a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule.
Saponification reaction Fat + Base--> soap and glycerol
Carbohydrate compounds made of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio, respectivley
peptide bond what is the bonding of proteins?
amino acid basic building blocks of protein molecules
excess energy storage, insulation, padding and shape, storage of vitamins ADEK function of lipids
enzymes a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction
triglycerides/neutral fats made of fatty acids and glycerol
Glucose Simple sugar, main energy source of the body
Primary Structure protein's sequence of amino acids encoded in genes
primary amine one hydrogen atom of an ammonia molecule has been replaced by an alkyl group
functional group atoms that participate in a chemical reaction
amino acids the monomers that combine to form proteins' your body breaks protein into amino acids and then uses the amino acids to build the protein you need
what does a catalyst do? speeds up a reaction
Nucleotide building blocks of Nucleic Acid. 1) a nitrogen-containing base, 2) a pentose (5 carbon sugar) 3) phosphate group
Functional Groups small clusters of atoms attached to carbon backboneHydroxylMethylCarboxylAminoPhosphate
primary structure of a protein? straight line of amino acids
Structural Formula Shows the kinds of elements and the number of elements.
polypropylene polymer used in the making of glue and carpets
Primary protein structure first level of protein strucutre. -the order in which amino acids are bonded together to form the protein chain.
Putrescine and Cadaverine are examples of amines that are found in decomposing bodies
monomers of proteins, 20 different types amino acids, how many types
What is a chemical reaction? a process that shanges or transforms one set of chemicals into another
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds or Zephiran or Benzalkonium chloride though an amine is used in embalming fluid as a germicide
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