Organic Evolution Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Xp
Phenotypic variance
H2=Vg/Vp
Broad sense heritability
What does inbreeding increase?
homozygosity
heterochrony Types
paedomorphosis and peramorphosis
Includes both mother and father
Ve
Adaptation
An attribute (structure, behavior, biochemical pathway, etc.) which evolved by natural selection and is useful to the organism for survival and reproductive success. e.g. bony processes in the back of egg-eating snakes throats which allow them to puncture the egg and digest the yolk e.g.2 woodpeckers stout, chisel-like beaks have a flexible cartilage between the bones and the beak which cushions the shock of each blow, AND toe arrangements two toes facing forward and two backward allowing it to cling to trees.
Population
a group of potentially interbreeding members of teh same species in a given area
Which family does man belong to?
Hominidae
classify organisms systematically, discrete groups, clusters, products of evolution, variety of organisms
biological species concept
quantitative traits
phenotypes that show continuous variation rather than simple Mendelian descrete variation the most phenotype variation we observe
Peramorphosis
development is accelerated or longer- juvenile of descendant resembles adult of ancestor
Experimental Approach
make a Hypothesis predicting adaptation and design experiments to test prediction e.g jumping spider
Developmental Amplification
heterchrony: genetic changes that affect the rate and timing of developmental events
Stabilizing Selection
selection against both extremes. Mean is unchanged.
Variance is reduced.
Other than science, what are other ways of KNOWING?
Art
Music
Experience
Which frequencies does natural selection change?
allelic and genotypic
R.A. Fisher theorized..
Continuous phenotypes are compatible with Mendelian inheritance.
Genetic variance associated with the average effects of substituting one allele for another
polygenic variation
Fossil Formation
1. Mineralization 2. Mummification 3. Entrapment in Organic Matrix 4. Freezing 5. Natural Preservatives 6. Imprints or Tracks
Earth is how old
4.5 Billion Years Old
Learned behavior
low genetic control, heavily modified by organism trying to adapt to environment e.g. viceroy butterfly looks very similar to monarch butterfly, monarch makes blue jay sick so blue jay learns not to eat any orange butterflies (including viceroy)
Comparative Adaptation
Differences in characters are observed and compared in related species that live in a different ecosystem, after observations an adaptive explanation of the differences is formulated
Peramorphosis Types
1. Acceleration 2. Hypermorphosis 3. Predisplacement
Gene Flow
Immigration into or emigration from a population of organisms. Ex: plants, pollen seeds caught in the wind. IS RANDOM. #3 mechanism of evolutionary change
Which subspecies does man belong to?
Homo sapiens sapiens
Homo erectus
appeared ~1.6 Myabefore 1 Mya, spread from Africa into Asia (to China and Java)
h2=0 --> Va=0
phenotype difference are entirely due to environmental differences
taxon/ taxa
the ends of the trees- species/ genes
Types of Paedomorphosis
1. Neoteny (slower rater of development) 2. Progenesis (rate is same, but end development early) 3. Postdisplacement (start development later but same rate)
Criticism of Comparative Approach
a correlation between morphological differences and ecological differences doesn't always proves a cause and effect relationship, needs modification
homology
1. similar in detail 2. similar in position 3. similar in development 4. similar in genetic control 5. agreement with other characters
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium depends on:
1) no mutations
2) no differential reproductive success (i.e. no natural selection occurred)
3) no immigration or emigration
4) no genetic drift (i.e., the population is infinitely large)
No evolution in HW equilibrium, because all 4 mechanisms of Evolution are not present.
A change in P values taken from different generations shows that evolution has occurred. But doesn't show which mechanism caused it.
What is the branching tree of life referred to as?
a phylogeny
Which two factors allow combinations of many genes to be tested?
genetic drift and selection
a species is the most inclusive population of individual biparental organisms that share common fertilization system
Cohesion species concept
in low populations why does amisogamous gametes still exist?
Due to Historical Constraints
Hox Genes Technically
multiple copies on a chromosome, 3'end (head), expressed first, middle (thorax) 5' (tail). contains a homeobox. regulate the fate of cells by specifying where they are in time and space.
Example of sampling error:
Ex: Parent population has alot of common alleles and some rare ones: 2 extremes:
Rare alleles could be lost.
Rare alleles in parent population may be hugely increased in frequency.
How long may a species survive?
5 to 10 million years
(Darwin Galton, The Biometrics)
1) Didn't know the mechanism of inheritance.
advantages of sexual reproduction
1. allows for DNA repair and rejuvenation of cells 2. Females that produce variable offspring in a changing environment may increase the chances of having some of them survive
simultaneous hermaphrodites
both male and female at the same time e.g. a lot of parasites
What are Gould's 3 arguments as to why organic evolution is a fact?
Transition Fossils
Direct Observational Evidence
Imperfections in Nature
What is the equation of the Handy-Weinberg Equilibrium theory and what do the variables stand for?
p^2+2pq+q^2=1p= frequency of dominant alleleq= frequency of recessive allelep^2= frequency of homozygous dominant individualsq^2= frequency of homozygous recessive individuals2pq= frequency of heterozygotes
when did the first mitochondrial dna appear? (according to records)
~140,000 years ago  “mitochondrial Eve”
38. If HardyWeinberg equilibrium is met, what is the net effect?
a. Evolution leading to a population better adapted to an unchanging environment
b. Evolution leading to a population better adapted to a changing environment
c. Very slow and continuous evolution with no increased adaptation
d. No evolution because the allele frequencies in the population remain the same from generation to generation
e. None of the choices are correct
What is inference 3 of natural selection?
natural selection, acting over many generations, gradually produces new adaptations and new species
Which of the following does not support the hypothesis that teosinte is the progenitor of maize?
More sequence polymorphism is observed in maize population than teosinte population.
41. Which statement is NOT true about nonrandom mating?
a. Inbreeding is mating between relatives more often than by chance
b. Inbreeding is a change in allele frequencies that increases the proportion of heterozygotes in the population
c. An example of positive assortative mating is when a tall man marries a tall woman
d. Assortative mating tends to cause subdivision into two phenotypic classes with reduced gene flow between them
e. All of the choices are correct
If two alleles are equally frequent, what will occur if breeding is random?
half of the population will be heterozygous and 1/4 will be homozygous for each allele
10. The evolution of the horse shows what evolutionary trend(s)?
a. The number of structures always increases; therefore complexity always increases
b. Extinctions are often accompanied by the development of new species
c. Animals always evolve from gentle grazers toward more vicious omnivores and carnivores
d. Variations randomly drift from large to small, toward and away from grinding teeth, and to more or fewer toes, proving that evolution is indeed random
e. All of the past genera were lost to extinction, leaving only the modern genus
What are the 5 assumptions of the Handy-Weinberg Equilibrium theory?
1) no mutations2) no genetic drift3) no migration4) no natural selection5) mating is random
43. In the early 1990s, the African honeybee migrated across the Mexican border into the United States. Our domesticated honey bee—originally from Europe—is slow to sting, requires abundant flower nectar, forages later in the morning, does not tolerat
a. Gene flow is not occurring and therefore these are two separate species
b. This is a natural consequence of the Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium
c. Obviously the African bee genes are dominant over the European honeybee alleles
d. Gene flow is occurring between these subspecies but the African bee is ecologically better suited for foraging and reproducing in the subtropics, but is not as successful as the European honeybee in temperate areas
e. Migration will counteract the problem and eventually cause the bee to revert back to the European traits
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