organic reactions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
CA+alcohol
ester+H2O
ketone+2mols alcohol
acetal
Glaser Coupling
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Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky Reaction
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Henry Reaction
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Friedel-Crafts Acylation
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Knoevenagel Condensation
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Mannich Reaction
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Itsuno-Corey Reduction
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Shi Epoxidation
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Staudinger Synthesis
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Bouveault-Blanc Reduction
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Appel Reaction
Cope Rearrangement
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Schmidt Reaction
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polymerization
formation of polymers
Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis
CA condensation w/ amine
amide
Addition Polymers of Alkenes
.
Criegee Mechanism for Ozonolysis
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cumbustion
hydrocarbon oxygen yields carbon dioxide water
fermentation
production of alcohols
enzymatic breakdown of organic molecules during anaerobic respiration (w/o oxygen)
products are CO2 and alchohol
R-CH=CH-R' Heat and Pressure
Addition Polymerisation
Carboxylic Acid + ROH
Ester + H2O
Preparation of Alcohols (Reaction of an Aldehyde or Ketone)
.
hydrogenation
special type of addition. turns oils into margarine.
acid chloride preparation r/r
carboxylic acid, socl2, pyridine
Acid anhydride + HCl
Acyl Cloride + Carboxylic Acid
R-OH + con H2SO4
Alcohol
R-C=C-R' Elimination reaction. Poor get Poorer
Alkene
Big Alkanes Heat + Catalysts
Smaller alkanes + Ethenes (Cracking)
Carbonyl Alpha Carbon Reactions nucleophilic addition
Reac: R-CH2-C=O-R Reag: Nu- Product: R-CH2-C-O-R-Nu
R- X + NaOH (aq)
Halogenoalkanes
R-OH + X- (NOTE AQUEOUS SOLN)
Alcohol
R-COH + excess KCN / HCN
Aldehyde
CN - C(R)H - OH (hydroxy nitrile)
Hydroboration
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Grubbs Reaction
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Hofmann's Rule
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Hay Coupling
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Dakin Reaction
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Darzens Condensation
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Negishi Coupling
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Mitsunobu Reaction
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Markovnikov's Rule
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Jacobsen Epoxidation
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Sonogashira Coupling
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Seebach Umpolung
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Suzuki Coupling
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Swern Oxidation
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Wohl-Ziegler Reaction
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Yamaguchi Esterification
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Corey-Kim Oxidation
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Brook Rearrangement
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Bestmann-Ohira Reagent
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Weinreb Ketone Synthesis
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Fischer Indole Synthesis
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Kulinkovich-de Meijere Reaction
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Acetoacetic Ester Condensation
amide+acid hydrolysis
carboxylic acid+amine salt
Reactions of benzene (Halogenation)
.
Barton-McCombie Reaction (Barton Desoxygenation)
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combustion
oxidation. produces CO2 and H2O
Oxidation Reactions (Oxidation of Tertiary Alcohol)
.
Nucleophilic Substitution (SN1 / SN2)
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addition polymerization
unsaturated hydrocarbons break bonds and attach together. no water is removed
What is the capital of Italy?
Rome
lindlar catalyst
syn addition, alkyne, reduction to alkene
incomplete combustion
not enough oxygen is present. products are CO and H2O
R-CH=CH-R' + X2 (X= Halogen)
Alkene
R-CHX-CHX- R' (Called Halogenation)
(Halogenalkane) Test For Alkene Decolourises Bromine Water
R-CH=CH-R' + H2 (Nickel Catalyst + Heat)
Alkene
R-CH2-CH2-R' (Hyrdogenation reaction)
Alkane
R-CH=CH-R' + H2O (conc H3PO4)
Alkene
R-CHOH - CH2 - R'
(Alcohol)
R-OH + Na (s)
R-O-Na+ + H2 (not as reactive as sodium and water)
Amide + Ammonium Carboxylate Salt
Acid Anhydride + 2NH3 (or 2 amines) in BASIC inviroment
Esterification
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Fukuyama Coupling
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Huisgen Cycloaddition
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Dess-Martin Oxidation
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Oxy-Cope Rearrangement
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Julia-Lythgoe Olefination
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Kindler Reaction
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Reformatsky Reaction
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Staudinger Cycloaddition
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Steglich Esterification
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Schotten-Baumann Reaction
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Williamson Synthesis
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Ugi Reaction
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Wacker-Tsuji Oxidation
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Corey-Bakshi-Shibata Reduction
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Bamford-Stevens Reaction
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Balz-Schiemann Reaction
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Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution
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Corey-Winter Olefin Synthesis
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nitrile hydrolysis yields:
carboxylic acid
Reactions of benzene (Nitration)
.
aldehyde or ketone+2 mol alcohol
acetal
ester hydrolysis reactants/reagents
ester, water, base
Addtion Reactions of Alkenes (Hydrogenation)
.
2 moles alcohol w/ acid catalyst
ether+H2O
use of diazomethane
formation of methyl esters
hydrolysis
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds
Hydrohalogenation
markovnikov's rule is followed H bonds to the less substituted carbon
sn2 esterification reactants/reagents
carboxylate, reactive alkyl halide, k2co3, acetone
amide/carboxylate rxn with RLi r/r
amide/carboxylate, RLi, H+ workup
substitution reaction
one atom in the halogen gas switches with one of the hydrogens in the hydrocarbon. creates a substituted hydrocarbon and an acid
R-OH + Cr2O72- or MnO4- (under reflux)
Primary Alcohol
R- COOH
Carboxylic Acid
Reactions of Enolate Species with Halogens Hell-Vollard-Zelinsky Reaction alpha halogenation of R-COOH
Reac: R-CH2-COOH Reag: PBr3, Br2, H+/H2O Product: R-C-Br-COOH
R-CH=CH-R' + KMnO4 (Oxidant)
Alkene
R - CHOH - CHOH - R' (diol)
Goes from Purple colour to clear - Test for Alkene
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