Organic Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Heptane
C7H16
>-/\/\
isooctyl
O-H
1.00 A
Mausoleum
a tomb
barrage
n. overwhelming quantity
smaller pkA
more acidic
Hydrocarbons are ______________ compounds since all carbon-carbon bonds and all carbon-hydrogen bonds are nonpolar.
nonpolar
name of fused rings
bicyclo[#.#.#]alkane
-aqueous
water is the solution
dysarthria
neuromuscular impairment resulting in speech disorder; speakers with dysarthria have difficulties with respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance and prosody. speech involvement is usually moderate to severe.
moratorium
suspension of an ongoing activity
Polymer
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
phosphate
potential to react w/ water
tremulous voice
irregular movement of vocal folds
carbenes
neutral molecules of general formula R2C; C has 2 sigma bonds and 2 electrons
Catalyst
A catalyst provides an alternative route for the reaction, which has lower activation energy, thus speed up reaction without being used up.
OH--> carbonyl group
What does H2Cr2O4 do?
Economic Perspective
- somewhat resembles scientific managment thoery- however, stresses the examination of numerous alternatives to achieve the same end - places difficulties for social workers who maintain professional values & ethics - Places primary emphasis on profit & productivity
Medium activating ortho para
-OR -SR NHC=OCH3 -OC=OCH3
dysphonia
result of change in mass, elasticity, or tension of the true vocal folds (example laryngitis)
Alkane
A straight chain carbon molecule with any number of carbons.
Allenes
Compounds having two C=C double bonds that meet at a single carbon atom C=C=C - mostly Chiral substituted
Hydrophobic effect
The exclusion of nonpolar molecules, such as alkanes, from water
ether
forms when a primary alcohol is dehydrated; functional group R-O-R; name is alkyl attachments + "ether"
When the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon on glucose is oriented in the opposite direction to the methyl group, what is the anomer labeled as?
alpha
What is an example of a polyhydroxyaldehyde?
Glucose
Hg(OAc)2 , H2O / NaBh4
Alkene to Mark. Alcohol
Z isomer
priority groups on same side of alkene
meso-
molecule w/ chiral center but is not chiral overall
Achiral
Mirror imagine is the same as the original objects imagine
Soap
A cleansing agent made from the salts of vegetable or animal fats. Made from saponification.
Structural Isomerism
preperty where two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but different structural arrangements
What is the order of acidity for alcohols?
Methyl>1>2>3
mesyl group
sulfur with single bonded methyl group and two double bonded oxygens
Secondary Carbon 2degree
bonded to two other carbons
sec -butyl
R2-CH
CH3CH2-CH-CH3
very low density lipoproteins
the bind triglycerides synthesized in the liver and carry them to adipose and other tissues for storage or use of energy source
Stability of cycloalkenes
Ring strain. By angle strain: the strain due to expansion or compression of bonding angles. The most prefreble is a five (108 degree) or 6 (120 degree) membered ring. There is no strain on larger cycloalkanes because they are not flat and take on kinks that allow bond angles that are nearly tetrahedral. As they go from cyclopropane to cyclohexane the tension is relived beause they can bend at angles and allow their neighboring C-H bond to become less eclipsed.
Bond dissociation enthalpy
The amount of energy required to dissociate a hydrogen molecule H2 to two separate hydrogen atoms.
What is distillation?
It is separation based upon vapor pressure.
What is the pKa of most fatty acids?
Around 4.5.
Alkene with 1) OsO4, NMO; 2) NaHSO3, H2O
Syndihydroxylation
SYN ADDITION
1,2 diol
Oxidation of Alkenes: Epoxidation
Alkenes are oxidized to give epoxides on treatment with a peroxyacid. Also can use halohydrins and a base.
What is hydroboration?
It is another mechanism to produce an alcohol from an alkene
What do ketones and hemiketals exist as when a ketone is dissolved in an alcohol?
They exist in equilibrium.
Bronsted lowry base
any species that can accept a proton - transformed into a conjugate acid
Stabiltiy of alkenes: Substitution
As a general rule, alkenes follow this stability order: Tetrasubstituted> Trisubstituted>Disubstituted>Monosubstituted. Stability is due to a combination of the following: 1.) Hyperconjugation: where there is stabalizing interactions between the C=C pi bond and the sigma C-H bonds. The more substituents the double bond has the more hyperconjugation, the more stable the alkene. 2.) Bond strengths. A bond between an Sp2 carbon and an sp3 carbon is stronger than a bond between two sp3 carbons.
Are carbon anions good or bad bases?
They are very strong bases.
How are organolithium reagents synthesized?
RBr + 2 LI -> RLi + LiBr
Will the other halides perform anti-markovnikov addition?
No, they still do Markovnikov, even in the presence of ROOR.
In the base-catalyzed reaction what occurs in the first step?
The base abstracts an alpha hydrogen leaving an enolate ion.
Determine sp3 hybridization of atom
the sum of single bonds and lone pairs equals 4
What types of things are usually electrophiles?
Things with a positive charge, even if it is only from a momentary dipole.
How are primary amides named?
They are named by replacing the -ic in the corresponding acid with amide.
What do electron donating groups do to the wring?
They active the ring and direct any new substituents to the ortho and para positions.
What happens second in the E1 reaction?
The hydrogen is removed in the second step via the weak power of our weak base.
Give the the approximate infrared stretching frequencies fo r the fo llowing functional groups: (a) O-H, (b) C=O, (e) C=N, (d) sp3 C-H
(a) O-H 3400 cm-1 , (b) C=O 1600 cm-1, (c) C=N 2200 cm-1, (d) sp3 C-H 3050 cm-1
Does it produce high or low yield with tertiary alcohols?
It produces poor yields with tertiary alcohols
What would be the point of converting an amine to a quaternary ammonium salt?
It is a much much better leaving group than -NH2.
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